How adults think.pptx - cinole - home

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14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 7 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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How adults think

Jesus Sesma
Ψ

Nicole Garcia

In the book…

c
Karen Kitchener and Patricia King
(1994)

c
genetic engineering

c
food additives

c
news reports


c
Reflective judgment

c
“critical thinking”


Critical thinking:

$
“the ability to
question

assumptions,
evaluate
evidence
,
relate
that evidence to a theory or
opinion,
consider alternative
interpretations,
and
reach conclusions

that can be
defend
ed as
reasonable or plausible, while standing ready to
reassess
those conclusions in the face of new
information”


$

Question

$

Assumptions

$

Evidence

$

Relate

findings to a theory or opinion

$

Consider
alternative interpretations

$

Reach
conclusions

$

Defend
able

$

Alter
able

In the book…again…

/
Study:

/
Statements

/
Questions

/
About statements

/
Personal point of view (on statements)

/
Personal position (basis)

/
Correct(position)

/
Disagreement


Seven cognitive stages to
reflective thought

^
Occur in throughout lifetime


^
Different assumptions with differing
means of justification @ each stage


^
Cumulative


Results:

Stages
-

outline

M
Prereflective stages (2)


M
Quasi
-
reflective stage (3)


M
Reflective
judgement

capable (2)

Prereflective stages (2)

6
Correct answer always exists

6
It can be obtained directly from senses or
authorities

6
Can also base A’s on what feels right in
absence of authoritative info

6
No distinction b/w:

6
Knowledge vs. belief

6
Belief vs. evidence







**No need for justification**


Quasi
-
reflective stages (3)

1
Some things cannot be known

1
Uncertainty in situations with
unknowable elements

1
Judgments should be supported by reasons

1
Limit: only focus on supportive judgment

1
Aware of alternative viewpoints

1
Based on uncertainty, any judgment is



subjunctive

Nazi
-

Tok

Reflective stages (2)

O
Judgment inequality

O
Validity based on coherence, support,
usefulness, etc.


O
Willing to consider evidence from Multi
sources and reason dialectically


O
Defend position w/compelling reason &
evidence

Stages
-
overview

1
Reflective judgment: ~mid
-
late
20’s

1
College fresh’s: ~only @ stage 3

1
Development can be driven by
opportunities and support for reflective
thinking (Kitchener et al., 1993) *
CTQ
*




College Seniors: ~stage 4




Grad’s: ~stages 4 and 5




Doctoral students: ~stage 6
¤
§


¤
King & Kitchener 1994

§
Not due to drop outs

Last thoughts….

[
Barry Kroll (1992)

[
Abandonment of “ignorant certainty” for
“intelligent confusion”


(
tok
)

[
Book:

[
Emphasis on thinking and evaluating
different perspectives

[
Not just memorizing their findings

(
286.L.L
)

General questions

[
What other method of skill development did
we previously discuss that is similar to the
seven stages to reflective thinking?

[
Which of the TOK essay topics does Kroll’s
quote on the development of thinking skills
bring to mind?


[
Are you ready to start critically thinking?

Critical thinking questions

[
How often are you required to think
critically on a daily basis?
(perhaps in terms of classes)

[
How would you define critical thinking?

[
How have classes such as
Tok

and
Psychology helped develop your critical
thinking skills?

[
Which other classes have also helped?



How?


More critical
thinking questions

[
Which stage would you rather be at?

[
How does this relate to
Neo’s

decision to pick
the red pill or the blue pill in the Matrix?

[
Which pill would you pick?

[
How can we promote reflective thinking in
our classes? Among our peers? At home?
Among strangers?

[
Is it okay to judge people on their ability to


think reflectively? Why or why not?