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14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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Practical

Nutrition

The Power of Protein

Provides the building blocks for tissues,

enzymes and hormones that control

metabolism and movement


Provides 10
-
15% of your energy during

exercise


Role in creating lipoproteins , muscle


tissue, connective tissue, red blood cells


and immune
-
system cells

Complete, Incomplete and Complimentary Proteins

Complete



foods that contain all of the essential amino acids
in amounts sufficient to meet your metabolic demands




Meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk, cheese and soy


Incomplete


foods that supply most but not all essential
amino acids




Plants, including legumes, grains and nuts



Complimentary


combinations of different incomplete
proteins when eaten together, make a complete protein




Rice & beans; cereal and milk; whole
-
grain bread &


cheese; noodle dish with peanuts; black beans & corn

Recommended Protein Intake

Adequate daily intake of protein =
0.36 gram per pound of body
weight

OR


10

35% of total daily calories


Practical Tips

Look for cuts of meat with the words “loin” and “round” in the name to
reduce fat intake


Buy ground beef that is at least 93% lean


Buy boneless, skinless chicken breasts
-

those with “rib meat” are higher
in fat


Use ground white turkey breast as a substitute for ground beef. Regular
ground turkey can actually be higher in fat than some ground beef.


“All White” or “Chunk White” Albacore canned tuna is the best and
healthiest to buy


Cottage cheese has the highest protein out of all dairy foods. Mix it with
some canned peaches for a yummy snack

Fat is NOT the Enemy!

Helps control hunger by lingering in our stomach and making us
feel full longer


Our most significant form of energy storage, containing twice
the energy of an equal amount of stored carbs


Insulates us from the cold and provides a cushion for our vital
organs


Transports vitamins A,D,E, and K through the body. Without
adequate fat in the diet, these vitamin levels can be low,
causing, among other things, night blindness, weak bones,
muscles problems and bleeding disorders.


Types and Sources of Fat

Saturated
: a fat with no carbon
-
carbon double bonds; usually
solid at room temperature.




Found primarily in animal fats and palm and coconut oils


Monounsaturated:
a fat with one carbon
-
carbon double bond;
usually liquid at room temperature




Found in certain vegetables, nuts and vegetable oils


Polyunsaturated:

a fat with two or more carbon
-
carbon double
bonds; usually liquid at room temperature




Found in certain vegetables, nuts and vegetables oils and


fatty fish



Fat and Health

Excessive intakes of dietary fat contribute to obesity, diabetes, cancer
and cardiovascular disease


Saturated

fat levels elevate blood cholesterol and are the main
dietary determination of blood cholesterol levels


Polyunsaturated

fats lower blood cholesterol


Monounsaturated

fats may lower blood cholesterol slightly or have a
neutral effect on it


Omega
-
3 fatty acids
appear to reduce blood cholesterol and may also
help to prevent certain cancers


Omega
-
6 fatty acids
play a large role in maintaining the immune
system and vision

Recommended Fat Intake



20
-
35% of total daily calories


Saturated fat should contribute less
than 10%.


Polyunsaturated should not exceed
10%

Trash the Trans Fats!

Industrially created by adding hydrogen atoms to unsaturated
fats, making them more saturated


Consumption of trans fats increases one’s risk for coronary heart
disease by raising levels “bad” LDL cholesterol and lowering
“good” levels of HDL cholesterol


Since 2006 the government has required companies to include
this artery
-
clogging fat on their Nutrition Fact labels



Trash the Trans Fats!

HOWEVER



Companies are only required to report trans fat levels over

.5 gram per serving


SO


even if a food package claims “No Trans Fat”


it still
contains trans fat if the ingredient label contains the words
“hydrogenated” or “partially hydrogenated” oils. It will
contain at most .5 grams per serving. If you eat two
servings, you’ve upped your intake to 1 gram of trans fat……


…and 1 gram of trans fat per day

increases your risk of cardiovascular

disease by 20%!


Practical Tips

Lowering Saturated Fat Intake



Eat a meatless meal or two daily



Drink fat free or 2% milk



Use fat
-
free yogurt or fat
-
free salad dressing instead of sour cream,


cheese mayo or other sauces on vegetables and in casseroles



Use wine, lemon juice or broth instead of butter or margarine when


cooking



Have fruit for dessert


Increasing Unsaturated Fat Intake



Use olive or canola oil to cook and bake



Have 1 oz of unsalted nuts or seeds as a snack or on cereals: 22


almonds; 28 peanuts; 20 pecans; 45 pistachios; 10 walnuts; ¼ cup


sunflower seeds



Include avocados, olives, peanut butter, salmon, whitefish, trout,


tuna and halibut in your diet



Have 1 T per day of olive oil or margarine made with olive or canola


oil on bread

Count on your Carbohydrates

The primary function is to supply energy to body cells


Some cells, such as those in the brain, nervous system,
and blood, use only carbohydrates for fuel


During high
-
intensity exercise, muscles get most of their
energy from carbohydrates


During digestion, carbohydrates are broken into single
sugar molecules such as glucose for absorption; the liver
and muscles take up glucose and store it in the form of
glycogen

Whole Grains


Before they are processed, all grains are
whole grains consisting of an inner layer
of germ, a middle layer called the
endosperm, and an outer layer of bran



During processing, the germ and bran
are often removed, leaving just the
starchy endosperm



Refined carbohydrates usually retain all
the calories of a whole grain but lose
many of the nutrients



Refined Carbohydrates vs. Whole Grains

Whole grains are higher than refined carbohydrates in fiber,
vitamins, minerals, and other beneficial compounds


Whole grains take longer to digest




Make people feel full sooner



Cause a slower rise in glucose levels


Choose foods that have a whole grain as the first item on the
ingredient list on the food label




Whole wheat, whole rye, whole oats, oatmeal, whole
-
grain


corn, brown rice, popcorn, barley, etc

Recommended Carbohydrate Intake

Adequate daily intake of carbohydrate = 130
grams


45

65% of total daily calories as carbohydrate


Limit on intake of added sugars


10
-
25% of total daily calories

Practical Tips

Healthy Whole Grain/Carb Choices




Fruits



the highest grams of carbs per serving are found in raisins,


bananas, pears, grapes, watermelon and blueberries



Vegetables



highest g/per serving in baked potatoes and sweet


potatoes (with skins), garbanzo beans, butternut squash and boiled


white/yellow corn and green beans



Breads



look for “100% whole wheat breads” that have one or more of


the following listed as one of the first ingredients: whole
-
wheat flour,


cracked wheat, rolled oats, barley and rye. Multi
-
grain breads with


sunflower, sesame and flaxseed also.



Rice


brown rice is best


the less it’s processed the more vitamins,


minerals, fatty acids and fiber are retained



Breakfast cereal



those made from whole
-
grain flour or meal, including


corn, wheat and brown rice. Look for whole grains that have been


cracked, split or puffed



Fiber

A Closer Look

Complex CHO that your body does not break down


Indigestible part of foods like whole grains, fruits and vegetables


Absorbs water in your stomach and expands, which helps you
feel full


Since your body can’t digest it, it passes through your body
without adding calories


You should aim to consume 25
-
35 grams of fiber every day


Americans currently consume about half that amount!

Types of Fiber

Soluble

can lower cholesterol levels, improve blood
sugar control in diabetics and delays stomach
emptying


Insoluble

helps remove carcinogens (potentially
cancer
-
causing substances found in food) from your
body


Dietary
present naturally in plants


Functional
isolated from natural sources or
synthesized in a lab and added to a food or
supplement


Total fiber = dietary + functional

Sources of Fiber

All plant foods contain fiber, but processing can remove it (such as
canned fruit)


Good sources of fiber:


Fruits (especially whole, unpeeled fruits)


Vegetables


Legumes


Oats (especially oat bran)


Whole grains and wheat bran


Psyllium (found in some cereals


and laxatives)

Water

Suppresses the appetite naturally and helps the body metabolize
stored fat


A decrease in water intake will cause fat deposits to increase in the
body


when the liver has to help the kidneys, it can’t do its main job
of metabolizing fat and that fat just stays in the body


Water helps to maintain proper muscle tone by giving muscles their
natural ability to contract and by preventing dehydration


Water

Should be consumed cold because it is absorbed into the system
more quickly. Some evidence even suggests that drinking cold
water can actually burn calories


The most common recommended daily intake is 8 glasses, or
approximately 2 quarts


Pale, yellow urine reflects proper water intake


Plain water is best, but milk, decaf tea and fruit juice can also
contribute to the day’s recommended intake

What is Nutrient Density?

Comparison of vitamin and mineral content to number of calories:


USDA Food Guide Pyramid Becomes
USDA’s
MyPlate

http://www.mypyramidtracker.gov/
planner/launchPage.aspx


Serving Sizes

Serving Sizes

Leading Sources of Calories in the
American Diet


1. Regular soft drinks (7.1% of total calories)


2. Cake, sweet rolls, doughnuts, pastries (3.6%)


3. Hamburgers, cheeseburgers, meat loaf (3.1%)


4. Pizza (3.1%)


5. Potato chips, corn chips, popcorn (2.9%)


6. Rice (2.7%)


7. Rolls, buns, English muffins, bagels (2.7%)


8. Cheese or cheese spread (2.6%)


9. Beer (2.6%)

10. French fries, fried potatoes (2.2%)


Source: Block, G. 2004. Foods contributing to energy intake in the U.S.: Data from NHANES III and NHANES 1999

2000.
Journal of Food
Composition and Analysis

17: 439

447.


Food Additives

Sodium nitrate



Commonly added to bacon, ham, hot dogs, lunch meats



Linked to various types of cancer


under certain high


temperature cooking conditions transforms into a reactive


compound



“Top of my list of additives to cut from my diet” (ADA)


Olestra



Synthetic fat found in some brands of potato chips



Prevents fat from getting absorbed into the digestion system



Inhibits healthy vitamin absorption from fat
-
soluble


carotenoids found in fruits and vegetables that reduce the risk


of cancer and heart disease



Additional icky side effects


Food Additives


High Fructose Corn Syrup

Heavy consumption has been linked to increased rates of obesity and
diabetes


Often appears in highly processed and high calorie foods


Fructose is very different from table sugar


Absorbed more quickly by the body and its conversion into cholesterol
and triglycerides is not controlled by insulin because it does not release
insulin or require insulin to be absorbed into the cells


By not releasing into the body, HFCS is prohibiting the appetite
-
suppressing hormone leptin


Makes our bodies unaware that we have eaten and making us want
more

Some Ways to Avoid Food Additives

It’s nearly impossible to completely avoid them


Start with snack foods and beverages


these are usually
ones that are consumed in higher quantities


Then concentrate on items that you may use several times
a week


like desserts, bread, pasta sauces, salad dressings
and ketchups


Look for snacks and processed foods that are “All Natural”
or “Organic”

Food Labels

Less is more


the less
ingredients listed the better!


If you can’t pronounce it,
don’t eat it


The higher the ingredient is
on the list, the more of it is
contained in the food


Organic Foods

Foods grown and produced according to strict guidelines
limiting the use of pesticides, nonorganic ingredients,
hormones, antibiotics, genetic engineering, irradiation, and
other practices


Organic foods from out of the country do not meet the
same standards as those from the USA


Crop and animal waste, crops are rotated,

botanical pesticides, no prohibited substances

3 years prior

Top 12 Foods to Buy Organic

(With % of sampled found to contain pesticides)

Nectarines



97.3%

Celery



94.5%

Pears



94.4%

Peaches



93.7%

Apples



91%

Cherries



91%

Strawberries



90%

Imported Grapes



86% of
imported

grapes (i.e. Chile)

Spinach



83.4%

Potatoes



79.3%

Bell Peppers



68%

Red Raspberries



59%

Least Contaminated Fruits and Vegetables

Asparagus

Avocados

Bananas

Broccoli

Cauliflower

Corn (However, almost all corn is genetically modified)

Kiwi

Mangoes

Onions

Papaya

Pineapples

Sweet Peas


Genetically
-
Modified Organisms (GMO)

Crop plants created for human or animal consumption using
the latest molecular biology techniques


These plants have been modified in the laboratory to enhance
desired traits such as increased resistance to herbicides or
improved nutritional content


Advantages: pest resistance, cold tolerance, drought tolerance,
nutrition


Disadvantages: food allergies, stomach, kidney

and liver issues in animal testing, gene

Transfer to non
-
target species


86% of corn, 93% soy, 93% of cotton grown

is GM


Organic Meats and Dairy

Must be fed 100% organic feed


Must have unlimited access to outdoors


Cannot be given growth hormones or antibiotics


If sick, may be given antibiotics but may not be sold as organic


May be given vaccines


May be given vitamins and mineral supplements


Pre
-
Workout Nutrition

Exercising on an empty stomach deprives you of the energy needed to
get the most out of your workout


Eat a small, 200
-
calorie snack 30
-
60 minutes before you exercise. It
should be high in carbs (70
-
80%), provide moderate amounts of protein
(10
-
12% of calories) and fiber, and be low in fat (less than 15%).


You should try to eat your last full meal at least 2.5 to 3 hours before
exercise


Fruit is ideal for exercise. If you’ll be working out less than 45 minutes,
choose an orange, peach or melon. These are low in fiber and will be
digested quickly.


For longer workouts, pick fiber
-
rich fruit like apples, berries or pears and
have them with some protein. Your body will digest them slower and
get what it needs for a workout: long lasting energy.





Post
-
Workout Nutrition


The 45
-
minute period after exercise is the best time for your body to
metabolize nutrients


Ideally you should eat within the first 20 minutes after exercising since
you’ll be able to regulate your blood sugar faster


Your metabolism is already elevated from your workout and you can
keep it going by refueling correctly


eat something with carbs to
restore glycogen, and protein to help build muscle.


You can also eat
1/3 of your daily calories

within 3 hours after exercising
because your body is in high
-
burn mode and will metabolize the calories
faster


Vitamin
-
C may reduce exercise induced soreness





Practical Tips


If you eat an energy bar for a meal replacement, try to eat some
unprocessed food with it, such as yogurt, an apple or raisins


Look for energy bars that have 10
-
15 grams of protein


Sports drinks have been shown to be more effective than plain water in
improving performance, hydration and recovery for athletes participating
in activities that last 60 minutes or longer


Energy drinks are ok for occasional consumption, but they should not
displace water, fruit, juice, tea and sports drinks that are more beneficial
and have few diuretic effects


Dietary Guidelines for Americans:

ABCs for Health

A
im for fitness




Aim for a healthy weight. If you are overweight, first


prevent further weight gain and then lose weight gradually


(1/2 to 2 pounds per week) to improve health.




Be physically active every day. Aim to accumulate 30


minutes (adults) or 60 minutes (children) on most days
-


more if your goal is weight loss or maintenance of weight


loss.

Dietary Guidelines for Americans:

ABCs for Health

B
uild a healthy base




Let the “MyPlate” guide your food choices




Eat a variety of grains daily, especially whole grains




Eat a variety of fruits and vegetables daily. Favor


dark
-
green leafy vegetables, bright orange fruits and


vegetables, and cooked dried peas and beans.




Keep food safe to eat

Dietary Guidelines for Americans:

ABCs for Health

C
hoose sensibly




Choose a diet low in saturated fat and


cholesterol and moderate in total fat. Focus on


keeping intake of saturated and trans fats as


low as possible.




Choose beverages and foods to moderate your


intake of sugars. Limit your consumption of


regular soda, candies, sweet desserts, and fruit


drinks.

Dietary Guidelines for Americans:

ABCs for Health

C
hoose sensibly
(continued)




Choose and prepare foods with less salt

-

DRI for sodium = 1500 mg/day (about 2/3


teaspoon of salt)

-

UL for sodium = 2300 mg/day

-

The majority of Americans exceed the UL.




If you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in


moderation

-

No more than 2 drinks/day for men

-

No more than 1 drink/day for women

A Personal Plan: Applying Nutritional
Principles

Assess your current diet


Set goals for change


Try additions and substitutions to bring your current
diet closer to your goals


Plan ahead for challenging situations