Are genetically modified foods
bad? Be ready to defend your
Unit 8 Part 2
For thousands of years new varieties of cultivated plants and domestic
animals have resulted from
for particular traits.
In Selective Breeding, only organisms with ____________________ ____________________ are bred
The purpose is to increase ________________upgrade _________________, __________________ disease
Selective breeding is also called
because humans artificially select the plant or animals
that are going to breed and flourish,
according to what we want from them
Select the plants/animals with the best characteristics
Breed them with each other
Select the best of the offspring, breed again
Selective Breeding is used in many areas of modern farming to obtains:
breed milking cows to increase yield and resistance to disease
improve eggs size and number of eggs
better yields and disease
Bigger, better and more colorful flowers
is used to :
Farmers use ____________________ _____________________
to produce more of the same type of a desired crop
The main draw back is a reduction in the gene pool
this can cause serious problems if a new disease appears, as all the plants or animals could be wiped out.
Selective Breeding in Pedigree Dogs causes bad health
Can be accelerated by using
artificial insemination of livestock
increased genetic disorders
Plant tissue cultures
Obtain a new (better)
MAINTAIN desired characteristics
Loss of immune function
An attempt to improve the organism
Despite their remarkable dissimilarity to each other,
broccoli, kohlrabi, black mustard, brussel sprouts,
and swedish turnips were all bred from the same
wild ancestral species,
the course of mere
thousands of years
Human beings have similarly produced all sorts of genetic
through artificial selection
cows with udders bulging with gallons of surplus milk,
dogs that can fit inside designer purses,
bananas with easily transplantable parts,
seedless watermelons, 300
kg pumpkins, purple carrots,
and much, much more.
Carrot Purple Haze (100 seeds approx) 70 days.
Here is the first
ever hybrid purple Carrot
return to when wild carrots were naturally
purple. Very vigorous and easy to grow, this
delicious vegetable will be the centerpiece of
your garden and the talk of the neighborhood!
Purple Haze is a Nantes
type carrot, with strong
growth and a delectable...
If a single day represented the time the earth has been around ( 4.5
billion years) each second would be more than 52,000 years
The loss of genetic seed diversity facing us today may lead
to a catastrophe far beyond our imagining. The Irish potato
famine, which led to the death or displacement of two and
a half million people in the 1840s, is an example of what
can happen when farmers rely on only a few plant species
as crop cornerstones.
One blight wiped out the single potato type that came from
deep in the Andes mountains; it did not have the necessary
resistance. If the Irish had planted different varieties of
potatoes, one type would have most likely resisted the
Types of stem cells
Embryonic stem cells
(Pluripotent) isolated from blastocysts.
Embryonic stem cells can differentiate into more than 200 cell types of the adult
body when given necessary stimulation.
specific stem cells
Can only form a limited number of cells types .
Act as a repair system for the body by replenishing specialized cells.
Maintain the normal turnover of regenerative organs such as blood, skin or intestinal tissue
The UMBILICAL CORD
of a newborn baby is also a source of blood stem cells
3. Replacing diseased cells with healthy cells, a process called cell
therapy, is a promising use of stem cells in the treatment of disease.
Spinal Cord Injuries
Muscle cells to treat
are undifferentiated or blank cells that have not yet fully specialized.
They are like a blank microchip that can be programmed to perform particular tasks
They have the ability to undergo mitotic cell division and differentiate into
a wide range of specialized cell types
Plant tissue cultures
Advantages / Disadvantages
Warm up (4/23)
Why are people interested in
10. CLONING CREATES A COPY OF LIVING MATTER
The clones, or copies have ____________________________________
Practical applications in:
Obtain an ___________________________, remove the ________________________
Remove the __________________ from a cell of the ____________________________
Put the _____________________ in to the ___________________________________
All the _________________________________________________________________
Implant in to a _______________________________ who carries to term and delivers
STEPS TO PRODUCE A CLONE:
(thing getting cloned)
DNA is from the donor
Electric shock fuses cells
Agricultural uses, future
Dna PROFILING USING GEL ELCTROPHOREISIS
Use of ___________________________ to separate segments of DNA based on _____________
DNA is cut in to fragments using ________________________ ___________________________
The segments are placed in to wells that have been cut in to a large gel
3. Turn on the electricity
4. The segments migrate through the gel from the
side to the + side.
The smallest molecules move the farthest
5. Produces a fingerprint
In your groups
try to identify the
criminal using gel electrophoresis
(cut in the appropriate spots for
each DNA, and run the gel
Warm up 4/26
What biotechnology tool could
we use in a Criminal
Also, did you hand in your warm
ups from last week???
Warm up 4/27
What is one positive and one
negative thing about Genetically
4. Genetic engineering
is the alteration of genetic code by artificial means,
and is therefore different from traditional selective breeding.
Transferring new genes in to organisms
Insertion of human genes into sheep so that they secrete alpha
antitrypsin in their milk
a substance used to treat lung disease
Genetic engineering has created a goat with spider genes that
creates "silk" in its milk
Insertion of human genes into bacteria to produce insulin
Genetic engineering works because there is one
language of life:
human genes work in bacteria, monkey genes work in
mice and earthworms.
Tree genes work in bananas and
frog genes work in rice.
There is no limit in theory
to the potential of genetic engineering.
Molecular biologists have discovered many enzymes which change the
structure of DNA in living organisms. Some of these enzymes can cut and join
strands of DNA. Using such enzymes, scientists learned to cut specific genes
from DNA and to build customized DNA using these genes.
Tomatoes are sensitive to frost. This shortens their growing season. Fish, on the
other hand, survive in very cold water. Scientists identified a particular gene which
enables a flounder to resist cold and used the technology of genetic engineering to
insert this 'anti
freeze' gene into a tomato. This makes it possible to extend the
growing season of the tomato.
Taking the gene that programs poison in the tail of a scorpion, and combining it with a
These genetically modified cabbages kill caterpillars because they have learned to grow
scorpion poison (insecticide) in their sap
contain genetic material
from another organism
5. Recombinant DNA
can turn bacterial cells in to a protein factory!
Restriction enzymes are used to cut DNA.
The gene of interest can be “cut out” of a human cell.
Bacterial cells contain special rings of DNA called plasmids.
The same restriction enzyme is used to cut open the plasmid.
The gene of interest is inserted in to the plasmid
CONTAINS GENETIC MATERIAL FROM
2 DIFFERENT SOURCES
The plasmid is inserted in to another bacterial cell.
The bacterial cell is allowed to reproduce
The new bacterial cells will produce the proteins
THESE BACTERIAL PLASMIDS ARE KNOWN AS
THEY CAN CARRY DNA FROM ONE SPECIES TO ANOTHER
become protein factories!
Used to produce:
______________________ for diabetics
Factors for hemophilia
DNA from an outside
part of a cell
, commonly known as Bt, is a bacterium found in soil.
Some strains produce proteins that kill insects.
Today, genetically engineered plants produce their own Bt “killer” protein.
This has been effective against the European corn borer, a major pest of North American corn.
This has eliminated the need to spray pesticides.
6. TRANSGENIC PLANTS
possess ________________________________that has been
transferred from a different ______________. Although DNA of another species
can be integrated in a plant genome by natural processes, the term "transgenic
plants" refers to plants created in a laboratory using
technology. The aim is to design plants with specific characteristics by artificial
insertion of genes from other species or sometimes entirely different kingdoms
7. PRODUCTION OF A TRANSGENIC PLANT
Constant exposure to a toxin
pests resistant to that toxin.
population is known to have
acquired resistance to Bt in spray
form (i.e., not engineered) when
used in organic agriculture.
Spores and crystalline insecticidal
have been used to control insect pests
since the 1920s
was the first
company (in 1985) to develop
) plants with insect
tolerance by expressing
+ Insecticide use on
cotton and corn is less,
better for the
+ The toxin expression is
contained within the
plant system so only
those insects that feed on
the crop perish
There is clear evidence from laboratory
settings that Bt toxins can affect non
organisms are closely related to intended
and Schmidt 2006].
Typically, exposure occurs through the
consumption of plant parts such as pollen or
plant debris, or through Bt ingested by their
predatory food choices.
Nevertheless, due to significant data gaps,
world consequences of Bt
A 2007 Study by
possibility of a slight
liver damage in rats
What Are Genetically Engineered Foods?
Genetically engineered foods are produced from crops whose genetic makeup has been altered,
to give the plant a desirable trait.
Genetically engineered foods are also known as biotech, bioengineered, and genetically modified.
The first genetically engineered whole product
went on the market in 1994.
The FDA determined that the new tomato, which could be shipped vine
without rotting rapidly, was as safe as other commercial tomatoes
Other GE food products include: canola oil, corn, potatoes, soybeans, squash, sugar beets, corn
our objectives in crop plant genetic engineering research.
To improve biological protection of crops against insects, weeds and fungi by inserting genes for the natural
production of an insecticide (Feder, 1996) or for resistance to fungi or an herbicide (Hinchee et al, 1988).
. To elevate levels of important nutrients so as to make crops more nutritious.
3. To obtain better control of ripening and post
harvest storage life to assure that produce are in peak
condition when taken to market (Maryanski, 1995).
4. To specifically modify genomes to produce a specific product (edible vaccines in potatoes
That new products will cause allergic reactions in people
To boost the methionine levels in soybeans, a gene from Brazil nuts was introduced into a soybean.
(Sometimes the introduction of a new gene leads to the production of a new protein.)
In this case the new protein caused a “life
threatening allergic reaction in people”
2. That the Bt insecticide produced in plant tissue
will poison people eating the plant.
3. That crops, especially fruits, produced using genetic engineering
will taste bad.
4. That GMOs will have an adverse effect on wild plants and animals.
5. That genetically engineered crops will have an
adverse effect on natural ecosystems.
6. That the viral and bacterial vector and activator genes used
may be recombined in the wild and form some deadly new pathogens.
9. There may be problems associated with
Genetically modified foods
GENETICALLY ENGINEERED FOODS
ARE ON THE SHELVES TODAY
Step wise procedure:
Used to produce:
A tomato plant that produces a
fish protein so it can grow in the
cold is an example of a(n):
B) Transgenic organism
D) DNA profiling