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calendargrumpyΒιοτεχνολογία

14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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If 15% of a DNA sample is made up of
thymine, T, what percentage of the
sample is made up of cytosine, C?




(1) 15%



(3) 70%


(2) 35%



(4) 85%

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The diagram below represents a
technique used in some molecular
biology laboratories.

This technique is a
type of

(1) chromatography

(2) gel electrophoresis

(3) direct harvesting

(4) genetic engineering


(1) results from isolation of the organism from
the rest of the population

(2) is due to a genetic code that is present in
the gametes of the organism

(3) decreases the number of genes in the body
cells of the organism

(4) causes a change in the environment
surrounding the organism

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A characteristic that an organism
exhibits during its lifetime will only be
passed on in species if the
characteristic

Stem Cells

If skin is cut, the wound closes within days. If a leg is broken, the
fracture will usually mend if the bone is set correctly. Almost all human
tissue can repair itself to some extent.

Much of this repair is due to the activity of stem cells. These cells
resemble those of a developing embryo in their ability to reproduce
repeatedly, forming exact copies of themselves. They may also form many
other different kinds of cells. Stem cells in bone marrow offer a dramatic
example. They can give rise to all of the structures in the blood: red blood
cells, platelets, and various types of white blood cells. Other stem cells may
produce the various components of the skin, liver, or intestinal lining.

The brain of an adult human can sometimes compensate for damage by
making new connections among surviving nerve cells (neurons). For many
years, most biologists believed that the brain could not repair itself because
it lacked stem cells that would produce new neurons.

A recent discovery, however, indicates that a mature human brain does
produce neurons routinely at one site, the hippocampus, an area important
to memory and learning. This discovery raises the prospect that stem cells
that make new neurons in one part of the brain might be found in other
areas. If investigators can learn how to cause existing stem cells to produce
useful numbers of functional nerve cells, it might be possible to correct a
number of disorders involving damage to neurons such as Alzheimer’s
disease, Parkinson’s disease, stroke, and brain injuries.

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What is the process by which stem
cells produce exact copies of
themselves?


(1) cell division by mitosis

(2) cell division by meiosis

(3) sexual reproduction

(4) glucose synthesis

“Dolly” is a sheep developed from an egg
cell of her mother that had its nucleus
replaced by a nucleus from a body cell
of her mother. As a result of this
technique, Dolly is


(1) no longer able to reproduce

(2) genetically identical to her mother

(3) able to have a longer lifespan

(4) unable to mate

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Cells in the body of a fruit fly contain
eight chromosomes. How many of these
chromosomes were contributed by
each parent of the fruit fly?


(1) 8


(3) 16


(2) 2


(4) 4

(1) base sequence of the father determines
the base sequence of the offspring

(2) DNA of parents and their offspring is
more similar than the DNA of nonfamily
members

(3) position of the genes on each
chromosome is unique to each family

(4) mutation rate is the same in closely
related Individuals

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To determine the identity of their biological
parents, adopted children sometimes request DNA
tests. These tests involve comparing DNA samples
from the child to DNA samples taken from the
likely parents. Possible relationships may be
determined from these tests because the

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The diagrams below represent portions of the genes that
code for wing structure in two organisms of the same
species. Gene 1 was taken from the cells of a female with
normal wings, and gene 2 was taken from the cells of a
female with abnormal wings.

The abnormal wing
structure was most
likely due to

(1)
an insertion

(2)

a deletion

(3) a substitution

(4) Normal replication

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In the United States, there has been relatively little
experimentation involving the insertion of genes from
other species into human DNA. One reason for the lack of
these experiments is that

(1) the subunits of human DNA are different from
the DNA subunits of other species

(2) there are many ethical questions to be
answered before inserting foreign genes into
human DNA

(3) inserting foreign DNA into human DNA would
require using techniques completely different from
those used to insert foreign DNA into the DNA of
other mammals

(4) human DNA always promotes human survival, so
there is no need to alter it

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The diagram below represents the cloning of
a carrot plant.

Compared to each cell of the original carrot plant,
each cell of the new plant will have

(1) the same number of chromosomes and the
same types of genes

(2) the same number of chromosomes, but
different types of genes

(3) half the number of chromosomes and the same
types of genes

(4) half the number of chromosomes, but
different types of genes

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For centuries, certain animals have been crossed
to produce offspring that have desirable qualities.

Dogs have been mated to produce Labradors,
beagles, and poodles. All of these dogs look and
behave very differently from one another. This
technique of producing organisms with specific
qualities is known as


(1)
gene replication


(3) random mutation


(2) natural selection


(4) selective breeding

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At warm temperatures, a certain bread mold can
often be seen growing on bread as a dark
-
colored

mass. The same bread mold growing on bread in a
cooler environment is red in color. Which

statement most accurately describes why this
change in the color of the bread mold occurs?

(1) Gene expression can be modified by
interactions with the environment.

(2) Every organism has a different set of
coded instructions.

(3) The DNA was altered in response to an
environmental condition.

(4) There is no replication of genetic
material in the cooler environment.

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A pattern of reproduction and growth in a one
celled organism is shown below. Which statement
best describes this pattern of reproduction?

(1) All genetic material comes from
one parent.

(2) Only some of the genetic
material comes from one parent.

(3) The size of the parent
determines the amount of genetic
material.

(4) The size of the parent
determines the source of the
genetic material.

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The DNA of a human cell can be cut and
rearranged by using


(1) a scalpel



(3) hormones

(2) electrophoresis


(4) enzymes

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Which statement best describes a population
of organisms if cloning is the only method
used to reproduce this population?


(1) The population would be more likely to
adapt to a changing environment.

(2) There would be little chance for variation
within the population.

(3) The population would evolve rapidly.

(4) The mutation rate in the population would
be rapid.

In all organisms, the coded instructions for
specifying the characteristics of the
organism are directly determined by the
arrangement of the

(1) twenty kinds of amino acids in each
protein

(2) twenty
-
three pairs of genes on each
chromosome

(3) strands of simple sugars in certain
carbohydrate molecules

(4) four types of molecular bases in the
genes

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Which process usually results in
offspring that exhibit new genetic
variations?

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Even though identical twins have the same
genetic material, they may develop slightly

different characteristics because

(1) each twin receives different
chromosomes from the egg

(2) one twin may only have genes
from the father

(3) gene expression may be
influenced by factors that switch
genes on and off

(4) a gene mutation may have
occurred before the zygote divided

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The diagram below illustrates asexual
reproduction in yeast.

Yeast produce offspring that usually have

(1) genes that are different from those of the
parent

(2) genes that are identical to those of the parent

(3) half of the genetic information of the parent

(4) organelles that are not found in the parent

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The molecule represented below is
found in living things.

Which statement describes one
characteristic of this molecule?

(1) It is the template for the
replication of genetic information.

(2) Organic catalysts are made up of
these molecules.

(3) It is different in each cell of an
organism.

(4) Cell membranes contain many of
these molecules.

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If a chemical that interrupts cell
division is added to a culture of human
liver tissue, which process would stop?

(1) meiosis

(2) mitosis

(3) breakdown of glucose

(4) diffusion of nutrients

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Researchers have found that formaldehyde
and asbestos can alter DNA base
sequences. Based on this research, the use
of these chemicals has been greatly
reduced because they

(1) may act as fertilizers, increasing
the growth of algae in ponds

(2) have been replaced by more toxic
compounds

(3) are capable of causing mutations
in humans

(4) interfere with the production of
antibiotics by white blood cells

The shape of a protein is most
directly determined by the

(1) amount of energy available for
synthesis of the protein

(2) kind and sequence of amino acids
in the protein

(3) type and number of DNA
molecules in a cell

(4) mistakes made when the DNA is
copied

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If a gene is inserted into the DNA of
a bacterial cell, every cell produced by
that cell will have


(1) DNA that is different from that
of the other cells produced

(2) a 50% chance of having a copy of
the inserted gene

(3) a copy of the inserted gene

(4) a new type of DNA base

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A boy inherits genes for tallness, but
his growth is limited as a result of poor
nutrition. This is an example of


(1) an inherited disorder

(2) environmental influence on gene
expression

(3) expression of a hidden trait

(4) a characteristic controlled by more
than one pair of genes

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The sickle
-
cell trait is an inherited condition
resulting from the presence of abnormal

molecules of the protein hemoglobin in red
blood cells. A person with the sickle
-
cell
trait may have a child with the same
condition because the child receives from
the parent


(1) abnormal red blood cells

(2) abnormal hemoglobin molecules

(3) a code for the production of
abnormal hemoglobin

(4) a code for the production of
abnormal amino Acids

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The sorting and recombining of genes during
meiosis and fertilization usually leads to the
production of


(1) gametes with many copies of the same
chromosome

(2) embryos with traits identical to those of
all other members of the species

(3) zygotes with the genetic information to
produce only females

(4) offspring with some traits that did not
appear in their parents

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Which situation would most likely
produce a gene mutation in a squirrel?


(1) The squirrel stops using its claws
for digging.

(2) The squirrel is exposed to radiation
for several days.

(3) Oak trees gradually become less
common.

(4) The weather becomes wetter for a
short period of time.

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In some cases, humans have chosen to mate
certain individual farm animals within a
species. For example, by allowing only the
largest cattle to reproduce over many
generations, strains of very large cattle
have been produced. This

process is known as


(1) natural selection

(2) direct harvesting

(3) selective breeding

(4) dynamic equilibrium

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The diagram below represents
a technique currently used by
scientists in the field of
biotechnology.

Which statement describes a possible
outcome of this technique?

(1) The bacterium is able to produce a human
hormone.

(2) It allows the bacterium to grow in
humans, since it contains a human gene.

(3) It allows humans to become immune to an
infection from this type of bacteria.

(4) The bacterium can now produce human
cells identical to cells of the DNA donor.


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In some people, the lack of a particular enzyme causes a disease.
Scientists are attempting to use bacteria to produce this enzyme
for the treatment of people with the disease. Which row in the
chart below best describes the sequence of steps the scientists
would most likely follow?

Row

Step A

Step B

Step C

Step D

(1)

identify the
gene

insert the
gene into

a bacterium

remove the
gene

extract the
enzyme

(2)

insert the
gene into

a bacterium

identify the
gene

remove the
gene

extract the
enzyme

(3)

identify the
gene

remove the
gene

insert the
gene into

a bacterium

extract the
enzyme

(4)

remove the
gene

extract the
enzyme

identify the
gene

insert the gene
into

a
bacterium

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The diagram below represents the
process used in 1996 to clone the
first mammal, a sheep named Dolly.
Which statement concerning Dolly
is correct?

Which statement concerning Dolly is
correct?

(1) Gametes from sheep A and sheep
B were united to produce Dolly.

(2) The chromosome makeup of Dolly
is identical to that of sheep A.

(3) Both Dolly and sheep C have
identical DNA.

(4) Dolly contains genes from sheep
B and sheep C.

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