POJMOVI KOJE JE POTREBNO ZNATI ZA POLAGANJE MODULA INFORMACIJE I KOMUNIKACIJE. WWW.ANSWERS.COM ODGOVORI POD TECHNOLOGY. 1.FTP

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5 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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POJMOVI KOJE JE POTREBNO ZNATI ZA POLAGANJE
MODULA


IN
FORMACIJE

I
KOMUNIKACIJE.

ODGOVORE PRONAĆI PRETRAŽIVANJEM INTERNETA.
PREPORUČUJEMO SAJT
WWW.ANSWERS.COM



ODGOVORI POD
TECHNOLOGY
.


1.

FTP

(
F
ile
T
ransfer
P
rotocol)
A protocol used to transfer files over a TCP/IP network (Internet, Unix,
etc.). For example, after developing the HTML pages for a Web site on a local machine, they are
typically uploaded to the Web server using FTP.

FTP includes functions to log onto the

network, list directories and copy files. It can also convert
between the ASCII and EBCDIC character codes. FTP operations can be performed by typing
commands at a command prompt or via an FTP utility running under a graphical interface such as
Windows. F
TP transfers can also be initiated from within a Web browser by entering the URL
preceded with
ftp://

2.

Search Engine

Software that searches for data based on some criteria. Although search engines have been around
for decades, they were brought to the foref
ront after the Web exploded onto the scene. Every Web
search engine site uses a search engine that it has either developed itself or has purchased from a
third party. Search engines can differ dramatically in the way they find and index the material on
the

Web, and the way they search the indexes from the user's query.

Although a search engine is technically the software and algorithms used to perform a search, the
term has become synonymous with the Web site itself. For example, Google is a major search s
ite
on the Web, but rather than being called the "Google search site," it is commonly known as the
"Google search engine." See
Web search engines
.

3.

digi
tal
certificate

The digital equivalent
of an ID card used in conjunction with a public key encryption system.
Also called "digital IDs," digital certificates are issued by a trusted third party known as a
"certification authority" (CA) such as VeriSign (www.verisign.com) and Thawte
(www.thawte.
com). The CA verifies that a public key belongs to a specific company or
individual (the "subject"), and the validation process it goes through to determine if the subject is
who it claims to be depends on the level of certification and the CA itself.

4.

book
mark

A stored location for quick retrieval at a later date. Web browsers provide bookmarks that contain
the addresses (URLs) of favorite sites. Most electronic references, large text databases and help
systems provide bookmarks that mark a location users
want to revisit in the future. See
Favorites
,
bookmark portal

and
bookmarklet
.

5.

digital signature

A digital guarantee that information has not been modified, as if it were protected by a tamper
-
proof seal that is broken if the content were altered. The two major applications of digital
signatures are for sett
ing up a secure connection to a Web site and verifying the integrity of files
transmitted (more below).


6.

firewall

The primary method for keeping a computer secure from intruders. A firewall allows or blocks
traffic into and out of a private network or the

user's computer. Firewalls are widely used to give
users secure access to the Internet as well as to separate a company's public Web server from its
internal network. Firewalls are also used to keep internal network segments secure; for example,
the accou
nting network might be vulnerable to snooping from within the enterprise.

In the home, a personal firewall typically comes with or is installed in the user's computer (see
Windows Fire
wall
). Personal firewalls may also detect outbound traffic to guard against spyware,
which could be sending your surfing habits to a Web site. They alert you when software makes an
outbound request for the first time (see
spyware
).

In the organization, a firewall can be a stand
-
alone machine (see
firewall appliance
) or software
in a router or server. It can be as simple
as a single router that filters out unwanted packets, or it
may comprise a combination of routers and servers each performing some type of firewall
processing.

7.

encryption

The reversible transformation of data from the original (the plaintext) to a difficul
t
-
to
-
interpret
format (the ciphertext) as a mechanism for protecting its confidentiality, integrity and sometimes
its authenticity. Encryption uses an encryption algorithm and one or more encryption keys. See
encryption algorithm

and
cryptography
.

8.

I
nternet

(Upper case "I"nternet) The largest network in the world. It is made up of more than 350 million
computers in m
ore than 100 countries covering commercial, academic and government
endeavors. Originally developed for the U.S. military, the Internet became widely used for
academic and commercial research. Users had access to unpublished data and journals on a
variety
of subjects. Today, the "Net" has become commercialized into a worldwide information
highway, providing data and commentary on every subject and product on earth.

9.

World Wide Web

A major service on the Internet. To understand exactly how the Web relates to
the Internet, see
Web vs. Internet
. The World Wide Web is made up of "Web servers" that store and disseminate
"Web pages," which are "rich" documents that contain text, graphics, animat
ions and videos to
anyone with an Internet connection.

The heart of the Web technology is the hyperlink, which connects each document to each other
by its "URL" address, whether locally or in another country. "Click here" caused the Web to
explode in the
mid
-
1990s, turning the Internet into the largest shopping mall and information
source in the world. It also enabled the concept of a "global server" that provides a source for all
applications and data (see
Web 2.0
).

10.

Web vs. Internet

Content vs. transport. Many people use the terms Web and Internet synonymously. In casual
conversation such as "I was on the Internet" or "I was on the Web," there is no difference.
However, in fact, the Web is just

one of the services deployed on the Internet. Just as cargo is
transported by a truck on a highway, a Web page is transported by packets on the Internet. When
information is sent over the Internet, it is broken apart and packaged inside Internet Protocol
packets or "IP packets." See
packet switching

and
TCP/IP
.

11.

cache

Pronounced "cash." A cache is used to speed up data transf
er and may be either temporary or
permanent. Memory and disk caches are in every computer to speed up instruction execution and
data retrieval and updating. These temporary caches serve as staging areas, and their contents are
constantly changing.

Browser

caches and Internet caches store copies of Web pages retrieved by the user for some
period of time in order to speed up retrieval the next time the same page is requested (see
Web
cache

and
browser cache
). See also
router cache
.

Following are descriptions of the traditional memory and disk caches that are c
ommon in all
computers.


12.

ISP

(
I
nternet
S
ervice
P
rovider) An organization that provides access to the Internet. Small ISPs
provide service via modem and ISDN while the larger ones also offer private line hookups (T1,
fractional T1, etc.). Customers are gene
rally billed a fixed rate per month, but other charges may
apply. For a fee, a Web site can be created and maintained on the ISP's server, allowing the
smaller organization to have a presence on the Web with its own domain name.

Large ISPs, such as Americ
a Online (AOL) and Microsoft Network (MSN), also provide
proprietary databases, forums and services in addition to Internet access. For more information on
this industry, visit www.nextgenerationservices.com. See
backbone
.

13.

Home Page

The main page of a World Wide Web site or the page where an individual Web browser is set, as
the first viewed page when the browser starts up.

14.

cookie

(
Computer

science
) A data file written to a hard drive by some W
eb sites, contains
information the site can use to track such things as passwords, login, registration or
identification, user preferences, online shopping cart information, and lists of pages
visited.

15.

Web browser

The program that serves as your front end
to the Web on the Internet. In order to view a
site, you type its address (URL) into the browser's Location field; for example,
www.computerlanguage.com, and the home page of that site is downloaded to you. The
home page is an index to other pages on that
site that you can jump to by clicking an
underlined hyperlink or an icon. Links on that site may take you to other related sites.

16.

URL


(Uniform Resource Locator) The address that defines the route to a file on an Internet
server (Web server, FTP server, ma
il server, etc.). URLs are typed into a Web browser to
access Web pages and files, and URLs are embedded within the pages themselves as
hypertext links. The

URL contains the protocol prefix, port number, domain name, subdirectory
names and file name. If a
port number is not stated in the address, port 80 is used as the default
for HTTP traffic.

17.

netiquette (
NET
work


et
IQUETTE
)

(
NET
work et
IQUETTE
) Proper manners when conferencing between two or more users on an
online service or the Internet. Emily Post may n
ot have told you to curtail your cussing via
modem, but netiquette has been established to remind you that profanity is not in good form over
the
network
.

Using UPPER CASE TO MAKE A POINT all the time and interjecting emoticons throughout a
message is als
o not good netiquette. See
flame
.

18.

HTTP

(
H
yper
T
ext
T
ransfer
P
rotocol) The communications protocol used to connect to servers on the
Web. Its primary function is to establish a connection with a We
b server and transmit HTML
pages to the client browser or any other files required by an HTTP application. Addresses of Web
sites begin with an
http://

prefix; however, Web browsers typically default to the HTTP protocol.
For example, typing
www.yahoo.com

is the same as typing
http://www.yahoo.com
.

HTTP is a "stateless" request/response system. The connection is maintained between client and
server only for the immediate request, and the connection is closed. After the HTTP client
establishes a TCP connect
ion with the server and sends it a request command, the server sends
back its response and closes the connection (see
cookie
).

Version 1.0 of HTTP caused considerable overhead to a W
eb download. Each time a graphic on
the same page or another page on the same site was requested, a new protocol connection was
established between the browser and the server. In HTTP Version 1.1, a persistent connection
allowed multiple downloads with les
s overhead. It also improved caching and made it easier to
create virtual hosts (multiple Web sites on the same server). See
HTTP
-
NG

and
HTTP header
.

19.

Hyperlink

A predefined linkage between one object and another. On Web pages, a hyperlink can be either
text (hypertext) or a graphic element (hypergraphic). See
hyperte
xt

for more details.