University of Ljubljana Emission control measures (ECM) Emission ...

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5 Φεβ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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The ScorePP Approach to Predict Releases

of Priority Pollutants From Urban Sources

Hans
-
Christian Holten Lützhøft
1
, Erica Donner
2
, Veerle Gevaert
3
,
Webbey De Keyser
3
, Tonie Wickman
4
, Matej Cerk
5
, Eva Eriksson
1
,
André Lecloux
6
,
Primo
ž

Banovec
5

and Anna Ledin
1


1
DTU Environment, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark

2
Urban Pollution Research Centre, Middlesex University, London, UK

3
BIOMATH, Ghent University, Gent, Belgium

4
Environmental Monitoring, Stockholm Stad, Stockholm, Sweden

5
Faculty of civil and Geodetic Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

6
Envicat Consulting, Avenue Montesquieu 36, B
-
1300 Wavre, Belgium


ScorePP Dissemination Workshop

Wendake, Quebec

Monday 5 October 2009

Aim

The main project aim is to develop
Source Control Options

for
Reducing Emissions

of
Priority Pollutants

from urban areas


The specific aim of this task was to
identify potential sources

and to
quantify releases

of
priority pollutants


Aim

Approach

Substances

Results

Conclusions

Approach

Develop Source Classification Framework

Compile data on sources & releases

Classifying using the Emission String concept

Aim

Approach

Substances

Results

Conclusions

Establish releases based on the compiled data

Source Classification Framework

Requirements

Content should be structured and organised in a harmonised way

Ensure that the different sources could be distinguished from each other

To be valid EU wide

Dynamic and to be used after this project ends


Inspiration

US EPA SCC

TGD

Harmonised codes like CN, NACE and NOSE

EINECS, CAS#

Aim

Approach

Substances

Results

Conclusions

Source Classification Framework



the
Emission String

concept

CAS #: unique identification of each substance

NOSE: unique identification of emission processes


NACE: unique identification of economic activities related with the source

The ScorePP defined descriptors of

Urban Structure, comprising e.g.

Construction sites

Facilities; e.g. factories, dentists, slaughter houses (i.e. legal entities)

Households

Rivers

Roads

Waste sites/landfills

Release Pattern

Temporal releases on a daily, weekly and yearly basis

Release Factor


All data are stored in a database

Aim

Approach

Substances

Results

Conclusions

Compiling data

Risk Assessment Reports from EU

Hazardous Substance Data Bank and
Household Product Database

from
US NLM

Handbooks and electronic compilations, e.g. the Merck Index, Rippen, the
e
-
Pesticide Manual
, Kirk
-
Othmer’s Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology

Research articles

Aim

Approach

Substances

Results

Conclusions

Wear

& tear

Classifying sources using the ES concept

Aim

Approach

Substances

Results

Conclusions

RP/RF

RP/RF

CAS#

Disposal

Waste

RP/RF

RP/RF

RP/RF

RP/RF

RP/RF

NACE

NOSE

US

Waste

Waste

Waste

Waste

O
O
C
H
3
C
H
3
O
C
H
3
C
H
3
O
SCF tested on a selection of WFD substances



Substance

Major use/function

Representing

Anthracene

Intermediate (lower PAH)

Naphthalene; fluoranthene

Atrazine

Pesticide, triazine

Alachlor; simazine

Benzene

Intermediate

trichlorobenzenes

B(a)P

Combustion product (higher PAH)

Higher PAHs

Cl
-
alkane
s

Flame
-
retardant/metal working fluid


Cadmium

Metal. Wide variety of functions


Chlorpyrifos

Pesticide, organophosphate

Chlorfenvinphos

DEHP

Plasticizer


Diuron

Pesticide, urea

Isoproturon

Endosulfan

Pesticide, cyclodiene organochlorine

Alfa
-
endosulf
an; partly PeCP

Endrin

Pesticide, cyclodiene

Aldrin; dieldrin; isodrin

HCB

Impurity/by
-
product


HCBD

Impurity/by
-
product


HCH

Pesticide, cyclodiene organochlorine

Lindane; partly PeCP

Lead

Metal. Wide variety of functions


Mercury

Metal. Wide variety
of functions

Alkyl mercury

DCM

Solvent, chlorinated methane

Cl
-
methanes

Nickel

Metal. Wide variety of functions


NPs

Intermediate

Alkyl phenols

DDT

Pesticide

DDT derivatives

PBDE

Flame
-
retardant


PeCB

Impurity/by
-
product


TEL

Alkyllead anti knockin
g agent

Alkyl lead

TBTs

Pesticide/stabilizer in plastics

Alkyl tin

TCE

Solvent, chlorinated ethane

Cl
-
ethylenes

Trifluralin

Pesticide, selective soil herbicide

Partly isoproturon


Number of ESs for each PP

(ab 900 ESs in total)

Anthracene
Atrazine
Benzene
Benzo(a)pyrene
Chloroalkanes
Cadmium
Chlorpyrifos
DCM
DEHP
Diuron
Endosulfan
Endrin
HCB
HCBD
HCH
Lead
Mercury
Nickel
Trifluralin
NPs
PBDE
PeCB
TEL
TBTs
TCE
0
50
100
150
Loads
Various releases
No data
Release Factors
Substance
No of ESs
Aim

Approach

Substances

Results

Conclusions

Number of ESs in each urban structure

(ab 900 ESs in total)

Aim

Approach

Substances

Results

Conclusions

Agriculture
Air transport
Buildings
Construction sites
Diffuse sources
Waste disposal
Electricity
Facilities
Forestry
Gardens
Households
Mining
Other uses
Railroads
Rivers
Roads
Sea transport
Water supply
0
50
100
150
Loads
Various releases
No data
Release Factors
200
400
600
Urban Structure
No of ESs
Archetype sources

Agriculture

Construction sites and buildings

Facilities

Households

Roads

Waste disposal

Diffuse and other not immediately classifiable sources

Aim

Approach

Substances

Results

Conclusions

Fertilizers and pest control

Diuron: 7,5
-
25 mg/application

Cd: from fertilizers

Building materials

Ni: 0,3
-
0,8 mg/m2 stainless steel/yr

Cd: 0,01
-
10 kg/yr from Zn
-
materials

DEHP: 16 tonnes/yr

Clothes

DEHP: 950 kg/yr

Greywater

Hg: 17µg/PE/d

Cd: 5 kg/yr

TCE: 8
-
100 µg/L

Ni: jewellery, coins, washing etc.

Benzo(a)pyrene: 1,8 µg/PE/d

Painting and car wash

DEHP: 12 kg/yr

Environmental releases due to

households

Heating

Anthracene: 0,8
-
102 mg/kg wood

Benzo(a)pyrene: 2,7 mg/kg coal

Benzo(a)pyrene: 27 µg/kg wood

Smoking

Anthracene: 34 ng/cigaret

Benzene: 10
-
100 µg/cigaret

Benzo(a)pyrene: 5
-
1600 ng/cigaret

Clothes and building materials

DEHP:250 kg

DCM: 10
-
80 µg/m2/h

TCE: 3,6 µg/m2/h

Fertilizers

Cd: 500 g/yr

Building materials

DEHP:600 kg/yr

Plus releases of HCB, HCH, PeCB, TBTs,
chlorpyrifos, endrin, Pb, trifluralin and NPs

Aim

Approach

Substances

Results

Conclusions

Environmental releases due to

vehicular transport on
roads

Anthracene

Combustion: 5,2
-
28 µg/kg fuel burned, depending on vehicle and fuel type

Benzene

Combustion: 4
-
10 mg/km driven, depending on vehicle type

Benzo(a)pyrene

Combustion: 1
-
8 µg/km driven, without and with catalyst

Cadmium (from both break linings, tyres, fuel and asphalt)

7 kg/year is released in Stockholm with 780.000 inhabitants

DEHP (from undercoating)

200 kg/year is released in Stockholm with 780.000 inhabitants

Mercury

Tyres: 4
-
240 µg/km depending on vehicle type

Roads: 3
-
17 µg/km depending on vehicle type

Nickel

Combustion: 21
-
107 and 3,2
-
2310 ng/km driven, for gasoline and diesel,
respectively

Brake
-
linings, tyres and asphalt: 91
-
182 ng/km

Aim

Approach

Substances

Results

Conclusions

Statistics for Denmark year 2007

Data on driven km and use of fu
el (Danish Statistics, 2009)

Person cars (both diesel and gasoline)

35
∙10
9
km

Taxis (both diesel and gasoline)

51
∙10
7
km

Motorbikes

76
∙10
7
km

Mopeds

90
∙10
6
km

Total

36∙10
9
km



Vans

(both diesel and gasoline)

79
∙10
8
km

Lorries

14
∙10
8
km

Semi
-
trailers

92
∙10
7
km

Bus
s
es

62
∙1
0
7
km

Total

11∙10
9
km



Fuel used for vehicle engines

2,4∙10
9
kg


Aim

Approach

Substances

Results

Conclusions

Environmental releases due to

vehicular transport on
roads

Depending on fuel and
vehicle type:

Anthracene: 12
-
67 kg

Nickel: 4,4
-
117 kg


Benzene from

busses, lorries etc:
105 tonnes


Cadmium: 49 kg


Mercury:

0,3
-
12 tonnes


Plus releases of anthracene from wear & tear of tyres and asphalt and
release of anthracene, benzene, benzo(a)pyrene due to leakage & spillage






Benzene from cars:
154 tonnes



Benzo(a)pyrene:
360 kg


DEHP: 1,41 tonnes

Release of nickel from Danish
highways:
108 kg

Thomas Ruby Bentzen, PhD thesis (2008)

Aim

Approach

Substances

Results

Conclusions

Use of emission strings in a framework of
consistent approach towards the management

PP emissions

Aim

Approach

Substances

Results

Conclusions


As standardized framework for the exchange of information


Defined in different processess:

Monitoring

Permitting

Public participation

Non
-
compliance meausres

Green taxes

Benchmarking (national, sectorial)

Institutional analysis (shared responsibilities i.e. emergency response and
regular pollution flow)

Impact assessment (shared responsibilities for the impacts)

Other


University of Ljubljana

Further elaboration of the classification efforts


beyond emission strings (ES as a core definition)

Aim

Approach

Substances

Results

Conclusions


Definition of emission barriers

Definition of emission control measures

Definition of emission control strategies

Definition of substitution options

Adaptation matrix (adaptation of ES to city/watershed level)

Definition of economic dimensions of PP pollution (related benefits,
costs)

Definition of perception of the DPSIR concept by individuals


behaviour of households

Definition of the emissions from product use (not only activities)







University of Ljubljana

Process definitions applied:



ES + AM + EB = emissions = Localized emission load


Aim

Approach

Substances

Results

Conclusions





University of Ljubljana










Emission control measures (ECM)

Emission control strategie (ECS)


Conclusions

SCF established


based on literature knowledge about sources

About 900 ESs established for the 25 WFD substances

Overall 16% with concrete knowledge about release quantities

Overall 65% without any quantitative data on release into the technosphere

WFD substances occur in a wide variety of sources and activities in urban
settings and are released to all studied compartments

Most sources are related to production activities

Other large categories are households, waste disposal, agriculture, construction
and transport

Classifying the sources according to the Urban Structure descriptor
enables

Sources to be linked to GIS, thus enhancing visualisation

Definition of archetype sources and thus a better targeting of mitigation options
and Emission Control Strategies

Aim

Approach

Substances

Results

Conclusions

Acknowledgement

The presented results have been obtained within the framework of the project
ScorePP
-

“Source Control Options for Reducing Emissions of Priority Pollutants”,
contract no. 037036, a project coordinated by Department of Environmental
Engineering, Technical University of Denmark within the Energy, Environment and
Sustainable Development section of the
European Community’s Sixth
Framework Programme

for Research, Technological Development and
Demonstration.