Knowledge Management Systems

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24 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Knowledge Management
Systems

Data, Information, Knowledge


Data


raw facts; numbers


Information


data in context; readily captured
in documents and databases


Knowledge


information plus experience to
act upon


Knowledge


Data = collection of facts, measurements, statistics


Information = organized data


Knowledge = contextual, relevant, actionable
information


Strong experiential and reflective elements


Good leverage and increasing returns


Dynamic


Branches and fragments with growth


Difficult to estimate impact of investment


Uncertain value in sharing


Evolves over time with experience

What is Knowledge?


Knowledge is the ability to take effective
action It is the Know
-
how, born of experience,
that allows correct decisions to be made, and
effective processes to be developed and
applied

What is Knowledge Management?


A managed system for ensuring that
the
right
knowledge Reaches the right people
at
the
right time
to
help them make the right
decisions


The knowledge management
landscape


Sales of enterprise content management software for knowledge
management expected to grow 35 percent annually through 2006


We live in an information economy in which major source of
wealth and prosperity is production and distribution of information
and knowledge


About 55 percent of U.S. labor force consists of knowledge and
information workers


60 percent of U.S. gross domestic product comes from knowledge
and information sectors, such as finance and publishing


Substantial part of a firm’s stock market value is related to
intangible assets: knowledge, brands, reputations, and unique
business processes


Dimensions of knowledge


Knowledge is a firm asset


Intangible


Creation of knowledge from data, information, requires
organizational resources


As it is shared, experiences network effects


Knowledge has different forms


May be explicit (documented) or tacit (residing in minds)


Know
-
how, craft, skill


How to follow procedure


Knowing why things happen (causality)


Dimensions of
knowledge (2)


Knowledge has a location


Cognitive event


Both social and individual


“Sticky” (hard to move), situated (enmeshed in firm’s culture),
contextual (works only in certain situations)


Knowledge is situational


Conditional: Knowing when to apply procedure


Contextual: Knowing circumstances to use certain tool


Organisational

learning



Learning organization


Ability to learn from past


To improve, organization must learn


Issues


Meaning, management, measurement


Activities


Problem
-
solving, experimentation, learning from past, learning from acknowledged
best practices, transfer of knowledge within organization


Must have organizational memory, way to save and share it


Organizational learning


Develop new knowledge


Corporate memory critical


Organizational culture


Pattern of shared basic assumptions


What is Knowledge Management?


Knowledge

management

is

an

integrated

systematic

approach

to

identifying,

managing

and

sharing

all

of

an

enterprise’s

information

assets,

including

databases,

documents,

policies

and

procedures,

as

well

as

previously

unarticulated

expertise

and

experience

held

by

individual

workers
.

Fundamentally

it

is

about

making

the

collective

information

and

experience

of

an

enterprise

available

to

individual

worker
.

Knowledge Management


Process to help organization identify, select,
organize, disseminate, transfer information


Structuring enables problem
-
solving, dynamic
learning, strategic planning, decision
-
making


Leverage value of intellectual capital through
reuse


Knowledge management


Systematic and active management of ideas,
information, and knowledge residing within
organization’s employees


Knowledge management systems


Use of technologies to manage knowledge


Used with turnover, change, downsizing


Provide consistent levels of service


Knowledge


Explicit knowledge


Objective, rational, technical


Policies, goals, strategies, papers, reports


Codified


Leaky knowledge


Tacit knowledge


Subjective, cognitive, experiential learning


Highly personalized


Difficult to formalize


Sticky knowledge


Knowledge management value chain
:


Knowledge acquisition


Knowledge storage


Knowledge dissemination


Knowledge application



Each stage adds value to raw data and information as
they are transformed into usable knowledge



Knowledge acquisition



Document tacit and explicit knowledge


Creating knowledge


Tracking data from TPS and external
sources


Knowledge Storage


Management must:


Support development of planned
knowledge storage systems


Encourage development of corporate
-
wide schemas for indexing documents


Reward employees for taking time to
update and store documents properly


Knowledge Dissemination


Training programs, informal networks,
and shared management experience help
managers focus attention on important
knowledge and information


Knowledge Application


To provide return on investment,
organizational knowledge must become
systematic part of management decision
making and become situated in decision
-
support systems


Knowledge management value chain

Intellectual assets


Social
capital


relationships with customers,
employees, business partners and external
experts


Structural
capital


patents; brand names;
systems and processes; management
philosophy


Human
capital


education; experience; skills;
attitudes

Dynamic cycle of knowledge


Firms recognize the need to integrate both
explicit and tacit knowledge into a formal
information systems
-

Knowledge Management
System (KMS)


Phases of knowledge

1.
Create knowledge.

2.
Capture knowledge.

3.
Refine knowledge.

4.
Store knowledge.

5.
Manage knowledge.

6.
Disseminate knowledge.


Knowledge Management System Cycle


Creates knowledge through new ways of doing
things


Identifies and captures new knowledge


Places knowledge into context so it is usable


Stores knowledge in repository


Reviews for accuracy and relevance


Makes knowledge available at all times to
anyone


Knowledge Management System Cycle

Knowledge Management Initiatives


Aims


Make knowledge visible


Develop knowledge intensive culture


Build knowledge infrastructure


Surrounding processes


Creation of knowledge


Sharing of knowledge


Seeking out knowledge


Using knowledge


Knowledge Management Initiatives


Knowledge creation


Generating new ideas, routines, insights


Modes


Socialization, externalization, internalization, combination


Knowledge sharing


Willing explanation to another directly or through an
intermediary


Knowledge seeking


Knowledge sourcing


Approaches to Knowledge
Management


Process Approach


Codifies knowledge


Formalized controls, approaches, technologies


Fails to capture most tacit knowledge


Practice Approach


Assumes that most knowledge is tacit


Informal systems


Social events, communities of practice, person
-
to
-
person contacts


Challenge to make tacit knowledge explicit, capture it, add to it,
transfer it


KM and technology


Ideology more important than technology


Technologies


Communication technologies allow users to access
needed knowledge and to communicate with each
other.


Collaboration technologies provide the means to
perform group work.


Storage and retrieval technologies (database
management systems) to store and manage
knowledge.


Approaches to Knowledge
Management


Hybrid Approach


Practice approach initially used to store explicit knowledge


Tacit knowledge primarily stored as contact information


Best practices captured and managed


Best practices


Methods that effective organizations use to operate and manage
functions


Knowledge repository


Place for capture and storage of knowledge


Different storage mechanisms depending upon data captured


Components of Knowledge
Management Systems


Technologies


Communication


Access knowledge


Communicates with others


Collaboration


Perform
groupwork


Synchronous or asynchronous


Same place/different place


Storage and retrieval


Capture, storing, retrieval, and management of both explicit and
tacit knowledge through collaborative systems


Components of Knowledge
Management Systems


Supporting technologies


Artificial intelligence


Expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy logic, intelligent agents


Intelligent agents


Systems that learn how users work and provide assistance


Knowledge discovery in databases


Process used to search for and extract information


Internal = data and document mining


External = model marts and model warehouses


XML


Extensible Markup Language


Enables standardized representations of data


Better collaboration and communication through portals

Knowledge Management System
Implementation


Challenge to identify and integrate components


Early systems developed with networks, groupware, databases


Knowware


Technology tools that support knowledge management


Collaborative computing tools


Groupware


Knowledge servers


Enterprise knowledge portals


Document management systems


Content management systems


Knowledge harvesting tools


Search engines


Knowledge management suites


Complete out
-
of
-
the
-
box solutions


Knowledge Management System
Implementation


Implementation


Software packages available


Include one or more tools


Consulting firms


Outsourcing


Application Service Providers



Knowledge Management System
Integration


Integration with enterprise and information
systems


DSS/BI


Integrates models and activates them for specific problem


Artificial Intelligence


Expert system = if
-
then
-
else rules


Natural language processing = understanding searches


Artificial neural networks = understanding text


Artificial intelligence based tools = identify and classify
expertise


Knowledge Management System
Integration


Database


Knowledge discovery in databases


CRM


Provide tacit knowledge to users


Supply chain management systems


Can access combined tacit and explicit knowledge


Corporate intranets and extranets


Knowledge flows more freely in both directions


Capture knowledge directly with little user involvement


Deliver knowledge when system thinks it is needed


Human Resources


Chief knowledge officer


Senior level


Sets strategic priorities


Defines area of knowledge based on organization mission and goals


Creates infrastructure


Identifies knowledge champions


Manages content produced by groups


Adds to knowledge base


CEO


Champion knowledge management


Upper management


Ensures availability of resources to CKO


Communities of practice


Knowledge management system developers


Team members that develop system


Knowledge management system staff


Catalog and manage knowledge


Knowledge Management Valuation


Asset
-
based approaches


Identifies intellectual assets


Focuses on increasing value


Knowledge linked to applications and business
benefits approaches


Balanced scorecard


Economic value added


Inclusive valuation methodology


Return on management ratio


Knowledge capital measure


Estimated sale price approach


Metrics


Financial


ROI


Perceptual, rather than absolute


Intellectual capital not considered an asset


Non
-
financial


Value of intangibles


External relationship linkages capital


Structural capital


Human capital


Social capital


Environmental capital


Factors Leading to Success and Failure
of Systems


Success


Companies must assess need


System needs technical and organizational infrastructure to build on


System must have economic value to organization


Senior management support


Organization needs multiple channels for knowledge transfer


Appropriate organizational culture


Failure


System does not meet organization’s needs


Lack of commitment


No incentive to use system


Lack of integration


Advantages of knowledge
management systems (1)


Produce and conserve New Value
-

such as Intellectual Property Assets


Generate new Wealth and increasing returns


Increase Revenue


Open New Markets


Enable Sustainable, Organic Growth


Improve Decision
-
Making


Mitigate Risk


Develop and implement New Business Models


Build More Profound relationships and
ongoing

Mind
-
Share with
Customers
-

penetrate the mind of the customer


Lift Productivity and Efficiency


Speed Innovation


Unleash new Ideas and Creativity


Help create a more Adaptive, responsive, dynamic, flexible, organization

Advantages of knowledge
management systems
(2)


Facilitate the evolution of a more Intelligent Enterprise and produce smart
engaging products


Use knowledge To Build Virtual Networked Businesses


Better prepare for and anticipate The Future


Improve and accelerate Learning


Gather superior Business and Competitive Intelligence


Enhance Team Collaboration & Coordination


Maximize the organization's use of available collective wisdom, experience, and
the Brain
-
Power of human capital assets


Improve the Flow of knowledge


Improve the Service and Support of Customers


Shift employees from balance
-
sheet expense items to Knowledge Investors in the
enterprise


Improve the ability of the organization to Manage Change


Attract, and retain motivated, loyal, and committed Talent


Introduce a more relevant measurement "Dashboard" and instrument panel, with
knowledge
-
based metrics versus mere industrial age measures

Advantages of knowledge
management systems
(3)


Avoid Waste and Duplication by encouraging Knowledge Reuse


Create a more knowledge aware, knowledge friendly culture, and
Community of Practice(s) better suited to the emerging knowledge
-
based
economy context


Allow more leveraging of knowledge assets through Knowledge Arbitrage
strategies


Have better Knowledge Transfer occur in the execution of projects


Extend the global Reach, Richness, and Scope of the enterprise


it can be a tremendous Enabler allowing the organization and knowledge
workers to share ideas and collaborate in ways that would not have been
possible previously.


Bring a new level of sophistication to managing the brand, reputation, and
Intangibles that customers value


In general, be better able to Create, Capture, Share, Protect, Disseminate,
Package and Exploit knowledge, intellectual capital, and intangibles

Key features of a KMS


Open and
distributed


Measurable


Customisable


Secure

Open and distributed



By definition, a knowledge management system unifies
existing knowledge silos. Standard protocols and
application programming
interfaces (APIs) enable
integration among systems such as groupware, e
-
mail,
document management
and directory
services.


In
implementing a unifying system, organizations must
ensure that the information architecture is
flexible enough
to meet the evolving needs of individual organizations.


Knowledge
management systems must also be able to
be
distributed
over various host computers and physical
locations. The system should allow system administration
from
any location
by using HTML, Java applets or ActiveX
controls that are accessible through any compatible web
browser

Measurable


Measurement is a critical aspect of any knowledge
management effort to strike the right balance between
organizational
and technological
changes.


Only
by quantifying and processing the results can
organizations determine if the systems are
having the
desired effect.


A
knowledge management system includes tools that
allow managers to measure and verify usage to get
a
clear
picture of how the system is being used, locate
performance bottlenecks and, most importantly, use
the data to
improve organizational
knowledge transfer
processes.

Customisable


All organizations
— and
large organizations in
particular

require an
extremely customizable knowledge
management system
. The
system should supply user interfaces in the form of templates so
users can easily customize them using tools
such as
HTML and
JavaScript.


A robust knowledge management system should allow easy
integration of existing and new applications. It must
include
documented
application programming interfaces (APIs) and
software developer toolkits (SDKs) that allow the
organization to
link systems to each other.


For
example, if the system administrator links a monitoring system
to a technical
documentation repository
, he or she can push the
appropriate technical documentation directly to a repair technician
when the
monitoring system
senses that a system is
malfunctioning.

Secure


While traditional applications usually require the
administrator to grant access to those who need particular
information, knowledge
management applications focus on
maximizing access to knowledge.


Therefore
they are more likely to require
the administrator
to prohibit access to specific content areas to those
workers who should not have access to them.


However
,
this does
not mean that knowledge management
systems do not have security. A knowledge management
system needs to
provide secure
repositories and preserve
security models present in existing knowledge silos where
appropriate, while allowing
access across
the organization
to those who need it.