INTRODUCTION & OVERVIEW

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24 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 14 μέρες)

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INTRODUCTION &
OVERVIEW

AUG.
28, 2013


DAY
2

Brain & Language

LING
4110
-
4890
-
5110
-
7960

NSCI
4110
-
4891
-
6110

Fall 2013

Course organization


http://www.tulane.edu/~howard/LING4110
/

8/28/13

Brain & Language
-

Harry Howard
-

Tulane University

2

INTRODUCTION &
OVERVIEW

Ingram
§
1

8/28/13

Brain & Language
-

Harry Howard
-

Tulane University

3

What’s the book about?


“This book is about language processing in the human
brain and, more specifically, what happens to spoken
language when certain areas of the brain are damaged.”
(p.3)


Is this my idea?


Notice that processing is mentioned before damage
.

8/28/13

Brain & Language
-

Harry Howard
-

Tulane University

4

What is processing
?


Process

or
processing

typically
describes the action of taking
something through an
established and usually routine
set of procedures or steps to
convert it from one form to
another, such as processing
paperwork to grant a mortgage
loan, processing milk into
cheese, or converting computer
data from one form to another.


A
process involves steps and
decisions in the way work is
accomplished, and may involve
a sequence of events.

8/28/13

Brain & Language
-

Harry Howard
-

Tulane University

5

What is online processing
?

What is language processing?



Language processing is what takes place whenever we
understand or produce speech.” (p.3
)

8/28/13

Brain & Language
-

Harry Howard
-

Tulane University

6

Is there any other kind of language
besides speech
?

8/28/13

Brain & Language
-

Harry Howard
-

Tulane University

7

What does ‘modularity’ mean
?


Modularity

is designing a system that is
divided into a set of functional units (named
modules
) that can be composed into a
larger application. A module represents a
set of related concerns.
Modules
are
independent of one another but can
communicate with each other in a loosely
coupled fashion.


Imagine
an online banking program. The
user can access a variety of functions,
such as transferring money between
accounts, paying bills, and updating
personal information from a single user
interface.
However, behind the scenes,
each of these functions is a discrete
module. These modules communicate with
each other and with back
-
end systems
such as database servers. Application
services integrate components within the
different modules and handle the
communication with the user. The user
sees an integrated view that looks like a
single application.


8/28/13

Brain & Language
-

Harry Howard
-

Tulane University

8

Language and modularity


What does it mean to say that language is modular?


How can you tell?


What other cognitive ability might be modular?


8/28/13

Brain & Language
-

Harry Howard
-

Tulane University

9

What does
‘localization’ mean?

8/28/13

Brain & Language
-

Harry Howard
-

Tulane University

10

Brodmann

s areas, functions

What is aphasia
?

What is phrenology
?

8/28/13

Brain & Language
-

Harry Howard
-

Tulane University

11

What is this?

Signified

Signifier

dog

perro

Hund

kalb

txakur

gao

ofi

can

jagua

8/28/13

Brain & Language
-

Harry Howard
-

Tulane University

12

the relation is arbitrary

Representation


What is a symbol?


How many linguistic symbols do you know?


“language

involves a kind of doubling of our perceptual
universe” (p. 6)


This implies a doubling of the computational capacity of the brain.


What is representation?


What is first
-
order representation?


Ingram: the brain’s representation of objects (perception) and events
(episodic memory)


What is
second
-
order representation?


Ingram:
a language’s representation
of objects
(nouns)
and events
(clauses)


More standard in philosophy of language


First
-
order: That is a dog.


Second
-
order: Mary knows that that is a dog.

8/28/13

Brain & Language
-

Harry Howard
-

Tulane University

13

What is evolution?

Darwinian or natural selection

Sexual selection

8/28/13

Brain & Language
-

Harry Howard
-

Tulane University

14

How/why did language evolve?

Darwinian or natural selection

Sexual selection

8/28/13

Brain & Language
-

Harry Howard
-

Tulane University

15

Watch out for
the snake!

Story
-
tellers
are sexy!

What is co
-
evolution
?


What examples of co
-
evolution can you think
of, besides the brain
and language?


So, how could the
brain and language
have co
-
evolved?


Will we ever know?


Don’t answer! See
next slide.

8/28/13

Brain & Language
-

Harry Howard
-

Tulane University

16

What is falsifiability?


Are all swans white?


The
classical view of the philosophy
of science is that it is the goal of
science to
‘prove’ observational
data.


This
seems hardly possible, since it
would require us to infer a general
rule from a number of individual
cases, which is logically
inadmissible.


However
, if we find one single black
swan, logic allows us to conclude
that the statement that all swans are
white is false.


Falsificationism

thus strives for
questioning, for falsification, of
hypotheses instead of proving them.

8/28/13

Brain & Language
-

Harry Howard
-

Tulane University

17

F
alsifiability


Is it good or bad?


Is the theory of the co
-
evolution of the brain & language
falsifiable
?

8/28/13

Brain & Language
-

Harry Howard
-

Tulane University

18

NEXT TIME

Aspects of linguistic
competence, Ingram
§
2.

Read the study questions on the last page of the
chapter before you read the chapter.

8/28/13

Brain & Language
-

Harry Howard
-

Tulane University

19