Genetic Engineering: Manipulating genes for practical purposes


12 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 5 χρόνια και 4 μήνες)

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Genetic Engineering: Manipulating
genes for practical purposes

Recombinant DNA

DNA made from 2 or
more different organisms

an agent that is used to carry the
gene of interest into another cell


circular DNA molecules that can
replicate independently of the main
chromosomes of bacteria

Restriction enzymes

bacterial enzymes
that recognize and bind to specific short
sequences of DNA and then cut the DNA at
specific nucleotides within the sequence

Steps in Genetic Engineering

Cutting DNA

DNA from the organism
containing the gene of interest and the DNA
from the vector are cut.

Making Recombinant DNA
fragments from the organism containing the
gene of interest are combined with the vector

many copies of the gene of
interest are made


cells that have received the
particular gene of interest are distinguished
from those that did not take up the vector

Genetic Engineering of Insulin

Genetic Engineering of Insulin

1. Human insulin gene is cut from DNA and
the plasmid from the bacteria is cut using
restriction enzymes.

2. Human insulin gene is inserted into the
bacterial plasmid and then inserted into

3. Gene is cloned when bacteria reproduce
by binary fission.

4. Bacteria with the insulin gene are isolated.


A technique that uses an electrical field within
a gel to separate molecules by their size and

DNA is negatively
charges so move toward
positive pole.The DNA
fragments move through
the gel with the smallest
DNA fragments moving
the fastest forming a
pattern of bands.


A solution containing all or part of a harmless
version of a pathogen ( a disease causing

Making a Genetically Engineered Vaccine

Isolate the gene that codes for the herpes surface

Insert the gene into a harmless cowpox virus to
make the cowpox make the herpes surface protein

Use this modified virus as a vaccine

Gene Therapy

A technique that involves putting a
healthy copy of a gene into the cells of
a person whose copy of the gene is

DNA fingerprinting

A pattern of dark bands on photographic film
that is made when an individual’s DNA
fragments are separated by gel
electrophoresis. Probed and then exposed to
ray film.

Each individual has a unique pattern of
banding based on how the DNA restriction
enzymes cut in different lengths.

Banding patterns can be used for paternity
cases, crime investigations, and identifying
genes that cause Huntington’s Disease of
cell anemia.

Genetic Engineering in

Crop plants can be genetically engineered to
add favorable characteristics including
resistance to herbicides and destructive pests

Genetically engineered growth hormone
increases milk production in dairy cows and
weight gain in cattle and hogs

Cloning of farm animals

Transgenic animals can be cloned and used
to make proteins that are useful in medicine.

Transgenic animal
has foreign DNA in
their cells