Genetic Engineering: Manipulating genes for practical purposes

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12 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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Genetic Engineering: Manipulating
genes for practical purposes

Recombinant DNA
-

DNA made from 2 or
more different organisms


Vector
-
an agent that is used to carry the
gene of interest into another cell


Plasmids
-

circular DNA molecules that can
replicate independently of the main
chromosomes of bacteria


Restriction enzymes
-

bacterial enzymes
that recognize and bind to specific short
sequences of DNA and then cut the DNA at
specific nucleotides within the sequence


Steps in Genetic Engineering
Experiment


1.
Cutting DNA
-

DNA from the organism
containing the gene of interest and the DNA
from the vector are cut.


2.
Making Recombinant DNA
-
DNA
fragments from the organism containing the
gene of interest are combined with the vector


3.
Cloning
-
many copies of the gene of
interest are made


4.
Screening
-

cells that have received the
particular gene of interest are distinguished
from those that did not take up the vector


Genetic Engineering of Insulin


Genetic Engineering of Insulin


1. Human insulin gene is cut from DNA and
the plasmid from the bacteria is cut using
restriction enzymes.


2. Human insulin gene is inserted into the
bacterial plasmid and then inserted into
bacteria.


3. Gene is cloned when bacteria reproduce
by binary fission.


4. Bacteria with the insulin gene are isolated.

Electrophoresis


A technique that uses an electrical field within
a gel to separate molecules by their size and
charge.


DNA is negatively
charges so move toward
positive pole.The DNA
fragments move through
the gel with the smallest
DNA fragments moving
the fastest forming a
pattern of bands.

Vaccine


A solution containing all or part of a harmless
version of a pathogen ( a disease causing
microorganism


Making a Genetically Engineered Vaccine


Isolate the gene that codes for the herpes surface
protein


Insert the gene into a harmless cowpox virus to
make the cowpox make the herpes surface protein


Use this modified virus as a vaccine


Gene Therapy


A technique that involves putting a
healthy copy of a gene into the cells of
a person whose copy of the gene is
defective

DNA fingerprinting


A pattern of dark bands on photographic film
that is made when an individual’s DNA
fragments are separated by gel
electrophoresis. Probed and then exposed to
x
-
ray film.


Each individual has a unique pattern of
banding based on how the DNA restriction
enzymes cut in different lengths.


Banding patterns can be used for paternity
cases, crime investigations, and identifying
genes that cause Huntington’s Disease of
sickle
-
cell anemia.

Genetic Engineering in
Agriculture


Crop plants can be genetically engineered to
add favorable characteristics including
resistance to herbicides and destructive pests


Genetically engineered growth hormone
increases milk production in dairy cows and
weight gain in cattle and hogs


Cloning of farm animals


Transgenic animals can be cloned and used
to make proteins that are useful in medicine.


Transgenic animal
-
has foreign DNA in
their cells