Genetic Engineering & Cloning - Palatine High School

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12 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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BI OLOGY 137

Genetic Engineering

CLONING


Have you ever wished you could have a clone of
yourself to do homework while you hit the skate park
or went out with your friends?


Clone

You

What is CLONING?


Cloning:


Creation of an organism
that is an exact genetic
copy of another.


This means that every
single bit of DNA is the
same between the two!


DOLLY:

1
st

cloned mammal

How is CLONING done?


Common Misconception


Clone
magically
appears and is the same age and has
the same personality as the original.




Clone develops from embryo

different ages




Different environment


causes clone to grow and develop
differently



Humans have not been cloned,
but animals/plants have

Why Clone?


Reviving endangered or extinct species


Reproducing a deceased Pet


Medical purposes


Cloning animal models of disease



Cloning stem cells for research



"Pharming" for drug production



STOP and THINK…Do you think cloning should
be allowed? WHY or WHY NOT?

What is GENE THERAPY?


Gene Therapy:


Experimental technique that uses genes to treat or prevent
disease


Why Gene Therapy?


Researchers are testing several approaches to gene
therapy, including:


Replacing a mutated gene that causes disease with a healthy
copy of the gene.


Inactivating, or “knocking out,” a mutated gene that is
functioning improperly.


Introducing a new gene into the body to help fight a disease.


What is GENETIC ENHANCEMENT?


Genetic Enhancement:


Refers to the transfer of genetic material intended to change
non
-
life threatening human traits






How is genetic enhancement different
then gene therapy?

Genetic enhancement seeks to
change humans cosmetically
while gene therapy is used to
treat disease.

Examples of Genetic Enhancements


Using growth hormone to increase muscle mass or
height


Using hormones to delay the ageing process


Introduce genetic mutations that increase an
athlete's capacity for aerobic exercise


Improve one’s brain to make you smarter


Improve memory


What is SEX SELECTION?


Sex Selection:


Methods used to predetermine or diagnose the sex of an
embryo for the purpose of selecting only those embryos of a
particular sex for transplanting to the uterus of a woman.


In high school terms:


Selecting if your child is a boy or girl!

Medical Reasons for Sex Selection


Several 100 known genetic diseases that affect only
males:


i.e. Duchene Muscular Dystrophy


Parents who know that they carry specific diseases
may choose to have a female

Non
-
Medical Reasons for Sex
-
Selection


Family balancing


to have a family that includes
children of both sexes


Rebuild a family after the death of a child, therefore
strong desire to have a child of the same sex


To fulfill a general preference for one sex over
another due to social, economic or cultural reasons


Ethical
,
Legal

&
Social

Issues to Consider


What are the benefits?


What are the risks?


Whom will the technology help? Does it have the
potential to hurt anyone?


What does this mean for me? For my family? For
others around me?


Why might others not share my view?


Step Into Someone Else's Shoes!


Would your views be the same if you were a different person or
had a unique situation?