Biotechnology

butterbeanscubaΒιοτεχνολογία

12 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

243 εμφανίσεις

Biotechnology

What Is Biotechnology?


Using scientific methods with organisms to
produce new products or new forms of
organisms


Any technique that uses living organisms
or substances from those organisms to
make or modify a product, to improve
plants or animals, or to develop
microorganisms for specific uses

What Are the Stages of
Biotechnology Development


Ancient biotechnology
-

early history as
related to food and shelter; Includes
domestication


Classical biotechnology
-

built on ancient
biotechnology; Fermentation promoted
food production, and medicine


Modern biotechnology
-

manipulates
genetic information in organism; Genetic
engineering


Biotechnology



using living organisms, or the
products of living organisms, for human benefit
to make a product or solve a problem


Historical Examples


Fermentation


Selective breeding


Use of antibiotics


Modern Examples


Gene cloning


Genetic engineering


Recombinant DNA technology


Human Genome Project

Biotechnology: involvement of organisms in
food or industrial processing


Fermentation

Food/industrial products

Microorganisms

Bread;
tape
; beer; wine

Yeast (
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
)

Cheese


Cammemberti cheese

Lactic acid bacteria

L. lactis, L. cremoris

Mold
Penicillium

Tempe; oncom

Mold
Rhizopus
; Mold
Neurospora
sitophila

Soy sauce

Mold
Aspergillus

Yoghurt

Lactic acid bacteria

L. bulgaricus, S. thermophilus

Antibiotics

Streptomyces

Enzymes

Mold/bacteria

What Is Biotechnology?


GMO
-

genetically modified organisms.


GEO
-

genetically enhanced organisms.


With both, the natural genetic material of
the organism has been altered.


Roots in bread making, wine brewing,
cheese and yogurt fermentation, and
classical plant and animal breeding

What Is Biotechnology?


Manipulation of genes is called genetic
engineering or recombinant DNA technology


Genetic engineering involves taking one or
more genes from a location in one organism
and either


Transferring them to another organism


Putting them back into the original organism in
different combinations

What Is Biotechnology

What Are the Areas of
Biotechnology?


Organismic biotechnology
-

uses intact
organisms; Does not alter genetic material


Molecular biotechnology
-

alters genetic
makeup to achieve specific goals


Transgenic organism
-

an organism with
artificially altered genetic material

What Are the Benefits of
Biotechnology?


Medicine


Human


Veterinary


Biopharming


Environment


Agriculture


Food products


Industry and manufacturing

What Is Molecular Biology?


Molecular biology
-

study of molecules in
cells


Metabolism
-

processes by which organisms
use nutrients


Anabolism
-

building tissues from smaller
materials


Catabolism
-

breaking down materials into
smaller components

What Are Genetic Engineering
Organisms?


Genetic engineering
-

artificially changing
the genetic information in the cells of
organisms


Transgenic
-

an organism that has been
genetically modified


GMO
-

a genetically modified organism


GEO
-

a genetically enhanced organism

Types of Biotechnology


Microbial Biotechnology


Agricultural Biotechnology


Animal Biotechnology


Forensic Biotechnology


Bioremediation


Aquatic Biotechnology


Medical Biotechnology


Regulatory Biotechnology



Microbial Biotechnology


manipulation of
microorganisms such as yeast and bacteria


Create better enzymes


More efficient decontamination processes for industrial
waste product removal


Used to clone and produce large amounts of important
proteins used in human medicine


Agricultural Biotechnology


Genetically engineered, pest
-
resistant plants


Foods with higher protein or vitamin content


Drugs developed and grown as plant products


Estimated to be a $7 billion market in 2008


Golden rice


gene insertion to improve nutrition contents


iron,
sulphur and
β
-
carotene (vitamin A precursor)

Bacillus thuringiensis

gene application in crops

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)

Insertion of biopesticide gene from
Bacillus thuringiensis


Producing insulin hormone by
Escherichia coli


Cloned in plant to acquire protection
of larvae / insects

Plant Tissue Culture

Plant (Explants)

Bud, root, or leaf

Sterilization by Chlorox

Growth :

1.
Organ : leaf, root

2.
Callus

3.
Suspension (secondary metabolite)

Solid or liquid media containing required
nutrition, hormone, etc.

Callus

Plantlet

Plantlet

Laboratory acclimation

Green house acclimation


Animal Biotechnology


Animals as a source of medically valuable proteins


Antibodies


Animals as important models in basic research


Gene “knockout” experiments


Design and testing of drugs and genetic therapies


Animal cloning


Source of transplant organs


Forensic Biotechnology


DNA fingerprinting


Inclusion or exclusion of a person from suspicion


Paternity cases


Identification of human remains


Endangered species


Tracking and confirmation of the spread of disease


Bioremediation


The use of biotechnology to process and degrade
a variety of natural and manmade substances


Particularly those that contribute to pollution


For example, bacteria that degrade components
in

crude oil


1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska


2010 Gulf oil spill



Aquatic Biotechnology


Aquaculture


raising finfish or shellfish in
controlled conditions for use as food sources


30% of all fish consumed by humans worldwide


Genetic engineering


Disease
-
resistant strains of oysters


Vaccines against viruses that infect salmon and

other finfish


Rich and valuable sources of new genes, proteins
and metabolic processes with important applications
for

human benefits


Marine plankton and snails found to be rich sources of
antitumor and anticancer molecules



Medical Biotechnology


Involved with the whole spectrum of human
medicine


Preventive medicine


Diagnosis of health and illness


Treatment of human diseases


New information from Human Genome Project


Gene therapy


Stem cell technologies


Technique in DNA Recombination
and Biotechnology Experiments

1.
Isolation of DNA containing gene of interest
and plasmid DNA (vectors)

2. Incision of gene
-
of
-
interest and plasmid DNA
(vectors) by restriction enzyme

3. Insertion of gene
-
of
-
interest fragment into
nicked plasmid DNA (vectors)

4. Introduce recombined plasmid (DNA) into
host cells, thus the cells are able to
synthesize the expected molecule

How Does Agrobacterium Gene
Transfer Work?

1.
Extract DNA from donor

2.
Cut DNA into fragments

3.
Sort DNA fragments

4.
Recombine DNA
fragments

5.
Transfer plasmids with
bonded DNA

6.
Grow transformed
(recipient) cells

What Are Methods of Classical
Biotechnology?


Plant breeding methods;


Line breeding
-

breeding successive
generations of plants among themselves


Crossbreeding
-

breeding plants of different
varieties or species


Hybridization
-

breeding individuals from
two distinctly different varieties


Selection

Why Are Plants Genetically
Engineered?


Resist pests


Resist herbicides


Improved product quality


Pharmaceuticals


Industrial products

What Is a Test Tube Baby?


In vitro fertilization
-

fertilization of
collected ova outside the reproductive
tract; Usually in a test tube


Semen is collected from males of
desired quality


Ova are removed from females


Sperm and ova are placed in a petri dish
or test tube

What Is Gender Preselection?


Gender preselection
-

choosing the sex
of offspring


Sperm sorted before conception


Sperm sorted on basis of chromosome
differences


X chromosomes produce female
offspring


Y chromosomes produce male offspring

What Is Embryo Transfer?


Embryo transfer
-

removing
fertilized ova (embryos) from
donor and implanting in a
recipient


Surgical and nonsurgical methods
are used to remove and implant


A quality donor female can
produce more offspring

What Is Multiple Ovulation?


Multiple ovulation
-

promoting
increased release of ova during estrus


Hormone injections administered prior
to estrus


Used with embryo transfer


AI may be used to fertilize ova


After fertilization, embryos are
removed and placed in recipients

What Is Cloning?


Clone
-

new organism that has been
produced asexually from a single
parent


Genotype is identical to parent


Cells or tissues are cultured

What Is Bioremediation?


Bioremediation
-

using biological
processes to solve environmental
problems


Biodegradation
-

natural processes
of microbes in breaking down
hydrocarbon materials


Biodegradable
-

capable of being
decomposed by microbes

How Can Bioremediation Be
Used?


Oil spills


Wastewater treatment


Heavy metal removal


Chemical degradation

What Is Phytoremediation?


Phytoremediation
-

process of
plants being used to solve
pollution problems


Plants absorb and break down
pollutants


Used with heavy metals, pesticides,
explosives, and leachate

What Is Composting?


Composting
-

a process that promotes
biological decomposition of organic
matter


Compost bin
-

a facility that contains
materials for composting


In
-
vessel composting
-

using enclosed
containers for composting