ARGUMENTATION

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12 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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ARGUMENTATION

PROPOSING AND
SUPPORTING CLAIMS

Intellectual traditions

Classical humanism

Social reconstructivism

Progressivism

Hungarian and North American
writers

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60%
70%
Thesis
in 1st
third
Thesis
in last
third
Hungarian
North
American
According

to

other

opinions,

however,

there

is

„no

place”

in

society

for

those

who

cannot

live

a

full

life
.

Those

who

are

unable

to

work

and

live

on

state

benefits

only

hinder

social

progress
.

In

fact,

they

promote

the

spiritual

development

of

society
.

From

them,

we

can

learn

to

accept

differences,

and

help

those

in

need
.

Of

course,

it

would

be

better

for

them

as

well

if

it

wasn’t

necessary
.

Maybe

we

could

rather

help

them

by

reprogramming

their

genetic

material
.

We

cannot

be

sure

if

it

will

ever

be

possible
.


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2%
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10%
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14%
16%
18%
Alternating
paragraphs
Hungarian
North
American
Requirements of Anglo
-
American
argumentative rhetoric

L
istener/reader
-
friendly style

a
confident opinion

statement,

a primary focus on justifying this claim,

strongly linked evidence/reasoning
,

clear connections, linking
,

reservations and alternative opinions are
e
valuated in the light of the author’s
opinion
,

conclusions drawn for the audience.

Structural features of
argumentation: Aristotelian rhetoric

1. Introduction


-

obtaining the good
-
will and sympathy of the audience


-

naming the main theme or proposition


-

naming the subthemes


-

narration aiming to establish a positive atmosphere

2. Body


-

elaboration of the theme


-

argumentation




1. proving





refutation




2. proving





refutation


-

summary

3. Conclusion


Ethos

Pathos

Logos

A variety of genres

Discourse organisation

Through Argumentation


Thesis:

Genetic engineering will
benefit people.


Support 1:

Genetic engineering helps
prevent diseases.


Support 2:

Genetic engineering
enables parents to choose the sex of
their children.



Counter Argumentation


Antithesis:

Some say that we won’t
be able to enjoy the advantages, as
people will not respect the limits of
this technology.


Evaluation:

I believe that with
appropriate legal measures and
awareness raising it can be kept
under control, and


Thesis:

genetic engineering will


benefit the human kind.

Argument schemata

reasoning:

the combination of ideas
according to a certain logic

evidence:

opinions, facts, figures,
common beliefs to support a
viewpoint

appeal to the audience:

involving the
audience through addressing,
questions, appealing to common
knowledge

Reasoning

Comparison/contrast


“If all the people are the same
,
than we are more
likely to be wiped out by a disease or virus.
It was
the same in the case of the Irish potato famine
: it
happened because almost all of the potatoes in
Ireland were genetically the same and were
infected.”

Cf. dramatic contrast


“Ten years ago we had a reputation of excellence.


Today we are in danger of losing reputation.”

Cause
-
effect


“I saw on a Discovery Magazine Billboard
a picture of a baby with the number 120
next to it implying the child's life
expectancy, now that is a little scary. As
we start making a healthier race and they
keep living longer, we will way
overpopulate and starve everyone out.”


Phenomenon
-

symptom



“In addition to medicine, genetic
engineering could also be useful in plant
biology. Imagine growing huge foods, big
enough to feed entire families.”


Evidence

Other’s words, quotes


“… many people are worried that GE
will be carried beyond healthy limits.”



“According to Shakespeare, an orator
always performs two speeches
simultaneously: one that the audience
can see and another that they can
hear.


Personal evidence


“I have worked summers on organic
farms and have felt the financial pain
of small
-
scale farming.”


Real
-
life examples


“Genetic engineering fulfils what the
Nazis wanted in World War ll


to
enable certain human beings to be
perfect.”

Facts and figures


“30% of the interviewees said that
they had not had any systematic
training in essay writing previously.”


Fiction


“Genetic engineering can easily lead
to the human selection described in
the film ‘Gattaca’.”


Communal knowledge/experience


“ As we all know
,

we are already
overpopulated, but we would be
jamming people into the tightest
places because there would be no
room.”


Appeal to the audience

I
nitiat
ing involvement

through


finding
common ground
,

addressing the audience

directly
with “we” and “you”,

using rhetorical
questions
,

initiating real
interaction

through
questions.

Conclusion

Capture audience through different
channels:




-

justify yourself




-

appeal to logic




-

appeal to emotions




-

involve them