A Framework for ICT use in Teacher

businessunknownInternet και Εφαρμογές Web

12 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

193 εμφανίσεις



1


The United Republic of Tanzania

Ministry of Education and Vocational Training




A Framework for ICT use in Teacher
Professional Development in Tanzania









November 2009




2

T
able of Contents

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

................................
................................
................................
..............................

4

1.

Introduction

................................
................................
................................
................................
........

9

2.

Background

................................
................................
................................
................................
......

11

3.

ICT
-
TPD Framework for Tanzania

................................
................................
................................
...

13

3.2 Scope and Purpose of the Framework

................................
................................
................................
...................

13

3.3

Vision

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................

16

3.4

Goals

................................
................................
................................
...................

Error! Bookmark not defined.

3.5

Objectives

................................
................................
................................
................................
.........................

16

3.6

Guiding principles underpinning the ICT
-
TPD Framework

................................
................................
................

17

4.

ICT
-
TPD Matrix
................................
................................
................................
................................
..

17

4.1

Matrix Component Objectives

................................
................................
................................
...........................

20

4.1.1

Co
mponent
-

Policy and vision

................................
................................
................................
.....................

21

4.1.2

Component
-

Curriculum, Assessment and Content

................................
................................
....................

23

4.1.3

Component
-

Pedagogy

................................
................................
................................
...............................

25

4.1.4

Component
-

ICT Infrastructure

................................
................................
................................
....................

27

4.1.5

Component
-

Organization and Administration

................................
................................
.............................

31

4.1.6

Component


Professional Development

................................
................................
................................
.....

32

4.2

Resource requirements in the use of ICT in TPD

................................
................................
..............................

36

5.

Monitor
ing and Evaluation (M&E)

................................
................................
................................
...

37

Appendices

................................
................................
................................
................................
................

38

Appendix 1: List of Abbreviations

................................
................................
................................
................................

38

Appendix 2: Glossary of Terms

................................
................................
................................
................................
...

39

Appendix 3: ICT
-
TPD Roadmap

................................
................................
................................
................................
..

42

Appendix 4: Resource Requirements

................................
................................
................................
..........................

56

Appendix 5: Documents and Sources Consulted

................................
................................
................................
........

60




3


Acknowledgement

I acknowledge the development of a Framework for ICT use in Teacher Professional
Development for pre
-
servi
ce and in
-
service teacher training in Tanzania done through joint
consultative discussions and meetings between the Government of Tanzania and the Swedish
Government through the Swedish International Development Agency (Sida).

I appreciate the thoughtful c
ontributions and insightful input from experts and key players in the
field of ICT by the following:



Ministry of Education and Vocational Training and its agencies



Ministry of Communication, Science and Technology



Prime Minister’s Office



Ministry of Regio
nal Administration and Local Government



Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs



Development Partners (Sida, UNESCO, The World Bank, UNICEF)



Universities (UDSM, OUT, Aga Khan)



Commission for Science and Technology (COSTECH)



Teachers Colleges and secondary
and primary schools



Non Governmental Organisations and VSO



Telephone Company (TTCL).

Their active participation before and during the workshop and conference held in Dar es

Salaam contributed towards the successful completion of the ICT
-
TPD framework.

I w
ould like to thank all development partners for supporting ICT initiatives in the education
sector, and the Government of Sweden in particular, for financing the development of this
framework for ICT use in Teacher Professional Development in Tanzania.

My

sincere appreciation to the facilitators from GeSCI, whose advice, support, and
encouragement contributed immensely to realising this workable framework for ICT use in
Teacher Professional Development.

Moreover, I acknowledge the great efforts dedicated b
y all participants at their different levels and
capacities in the process of developing this Framework.

Prof. Hamisi O. Dihenga

Permanent Secretary Ministry of Education and Vocational Training



4

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Introduction and background

Remarkable ach
ievements with regard to access and equity to education have been realized in
Tanzania as a result of the Primary and Secondary Education Development Plans launched in
2001 and 2004 respectively. These achievements, however, posed challenges to the system

with regard to the quality of education and especially in the training of adequate and competent
teachers to meet the demands of an expanded and expanding system.

The Ministry of Education and Vocational Training (MoEVT) recognizes the potential and powe
r
of Information Communications Technology (ICT) to expand learning opportunities of teachers
through blended learning and e
-
learning programmes and to improving teacher and teaching
quality. As a result the Ministry embarked on a process to develop the I
nformation
Communication Technology

Teacher Professional Development (ICT
-
TPD) Framework for
Tanzania to address the challenges of teacher shortages in key subjects (Mathematics, Science
and English), teacher quality and teacher support using the existing

ICT infrastructure in the
Teacher Colleges (TCs) for pre
-
service and in
-
service programmes and on
-
going learning of
teachers. In this process the MoEVT was supported by the Swedish International Development
Agency (Sida) and the Global e
-
Schools and Comm
unities Initiative (GeSCI). A workshop
bringing key stakeholders together was conducted from 20
-
22 October 2009 to start off the
development process. On 18 November 2009 it was followed by a consultative conference with a
wider stakeholder group to share

and discuss the draft framework for ICT use in TPD after which
it was consolidated for approval by the relevant government structures.

The ICT
-
TPD framework

The ICT
-
TPD framework is situated within Vision 2025, the ICT Policy for Basic Education and
the e
ducation sector plans. The Framework and the embedded ICT
-
TPD development path is a
tool towards achieving the paradigm shift of ICT integration in education rather than merely
technology deployment and skills development.

The framework for ICT use in TPD

covers the period 2010


2025 and
provides a clear, coherent,
coordinated and integrated development path tow
ards addressing the challenges
faced by the
teacher education sector.
The purpose of the Framework is to provide a clear development path
for ICT
use in TPD in Tanzania to achieve the articulated vision for ICT use in TPD. The
development path will cover the period 2010


2025 broken down into short (2010


2015),
medium (2010



2020) a
nd long term (2010



2025)

planning periods with a view to see
k viable
solutions to addressing the challenges in a coherent and systemic manner in each of the terms.


5

The challenges over time will not remain the same, so the framework needs to be flexible and
responsive to the challenges as they change and arise along

the development path
. In this regard
robust monitoring and evaluation (M&E) mechanisms are needed to ensure that the framework
continues to respond to priorities and challenges as they arise.

In the short term (2010
-
2015) the focus of the framework will
be on addressing the challenges
related to
the inadequate number of teachers with appropriate qualifications and shortage of
teachers in Maths, Science and English, the shortage of instructional resources and limited
support for teachers who want to upgrad
e their knowledge base.

The framework approaches TPD as a continuum of pre
-
service and in
-
service training and on
-
going professional learning of teachers. The scope of the Framework therefore covers pre
-
service
teachers in the public TCs and in
-
service tra
ining and on
-
going learning for primary and
secondary school teachers and tutors at the TCs. It takes into account that the education system
in Tanzania is at the early stages of ICT development and integration and acknowledges that
access to ICT resources

initially may be limited.

The framework draws on the strengths of the teacher education system which include the existing
ICT infrastructure in the Teacher Colleges, tutors, teachers and technicians already trained and
literate in ICTs and political commi
tment for ICT integration. It recognizes the challenges and
constraints faced by the teacher education system and at the same the opportunities afforded by
existing and emerging technologies.

Vision, goals, objectives and guiding principles of the framewor
k

The vision for ICT use in TPD is aligned to the national vision 2025 which envisages Tanzanian
tutors, teachers and students able to participate in the global knowledge society and to contribute
to national, regional and international development. The g
oal is to provide a development path
for building national capacity in the effective use of the ICT infrastructure to address the
educational challenges of the day through appropriate pre
-
service and in
-
service programmes
and on
-
going professional developm
ent. The objectives are geared towards providing an overall
strategy and a coherent and integrated development path which will guide and enable
stakeholders to identify, develop and implement appropriate plans, programmes, models,
solutions and strategies

for quality, accessible and equitable ICT in TPD provision. As a “living
document” the framework would be responsive to the environment and needs as they change
over time. The framework
,

among other elements
,

has a future orientation, encourages
partnersh
ips and collaboration to solve educational challenges and will facilitate life long learning.




6

The UNESCO (2008)
1

ICT Competency Standards for Teacher’s (ICT
-
CST) framework was
developed on the basis of phased ICT adoption stages

linked to economic reform
. The core
stages in the ICT
-
CST framework are
technology literacy, knowledge deepening,
and
knowledge

creation.
The purpose of each stage is to develop increasing capacity for teacher empowerment
in the utilization of ICT as a tool to enhance the
ir own le
arning and the
quality of learning

of their
students
.
The stages represent a
conceptual framework

for moving educational institutions from
isolated, passive consumers of externally defined ICT programmes towards more open
communities that generate new know
ledge on the use of ICT to enhance their own learning and
educational practice.

With the existing ICT infrastructure and the training in basic ICT skills and ICT as a subject, the
Teacher Colleges in Tanzania are at the ‘emerging’ stage in the above contin
uum. The intention
is to move into the ‘applying’ (technology literacy) stage in the short term whereby the existing
infrastructure and capacities will be used to train more teachers particularly in core subjects,
upgrade licensed teachers and strengthen
the pedagogical skills of teachers to improve the
quality of learning. Over time the system is expected to move progressively in the medium and
longer terms through the ‘infusing’ (knowledge deepening) to the ‘transforming’ (knowledge
creation) stages.

The

ICT
-
TPD matrix

The UNESCO ICT
-
CST matrix presents a holistic framework for a continuum of ICT integration in
six key components of education systems: policy awareness; curriculum and content; pedagogy;
ICT infrastructure; teacher professional development
and organizational management. The
standards present a set of competencies in each component that tutors and teachers can
interpret and translate into practice based on their context, vision and development path for ICT
use.
The UNESCO ICT
-
CST matrix was u
sed as a basis for developing the ICT
-
TPD matrix for
Tanzania.

The ICT
-
TPD matrix offers a roadmap tool with standards for ICT integration. This planning matrix
is designed to provide teacher education organizations/ institutions/ national entities with th
e
rationale and tools to assist in the development of an ICT Teacher Professional Development
(TPD) planning strategy.





1

UNESCO 2008. ICT Competency Standards for Teachers: Competency Standard Modules [Onl
ine]. Available from
UNESCO at:
http://unesdoc.unesco.
org/images/0015/001562/156207e.pdf

[Accessed 11 April 2009]



7

The objectives covering the components of the matrix are to address the challenges of teacher
shortages, teacher quality and teacher su
pport in the short term, but also o
ver the medium and
long term to provide a well
-
equipped and effectively managed learning environment using ICTs
and to develop

competent tutors and teachers who will confidently integrate ICTs as pedagogical
tools and ed
ucational resources to implement the curriculum effectively and to facilitate active
student learning
.

Matrix components

Apart from adequate and reliable funding and adequate human resources, there are certain pre
-
conditions
required
to progressively move

the system
through the stages in the various matrix
components. Pre
-
conditions for the various components would include:

Policy and vision

A conducive policy environment, alignment to
the
national vision
, national
and education sector
plans and policies
and consensus on the broad parameters of the development path/roadmap for
ICT
-
TPD for
the
short, medium and long term
s
.

Curriculum assessment and content

Review and alignment of the curriculum for ICT integration and use across the curriculum for pre
-

and
in
-
service teacher education and on
-
going teacher learning
,

and engagement of key
institutions and partners, e.g. National Examinations Council of Tanzania (NECTA), Tanzania
Institute of Education (TIE), Teacher Education Department and School Inspectorate

Department,
for adjustment of assessment practices consonant with
the
revised curriculum.

Pedagogy

Technology infusion in teaching and learning processes requires
pedagogical
change where the
teacher’s role will be altered gradually
changing the focus of

classroom activities from an
emphasis on teaching to an emphasis on learning.

ICT infrastructure

Institutionalization of an organizational structure that accommodates the creation, use, evaluation
and budgetary allocation of e
-
resources,
and the r
equisit
e capacities to plan for future needs and
use available ICT infrastructure optimally
.



8

Organization and Administration

Technology can enable institutions to function in more efficient, cost
-
effective and user
-
friendly
ways and can be harnessed for better pl
anning, coordination and monitoring of programmes and
activities. Systems, structures and networks must be put in place to create and support new
practices, the production of knowledge and resources and the pursuit of life long learning. Sound
leadership,
change management s
kills and responsive structures are required.


Teacher professional development

A s
hift in focus from Professional Development for ICT use to the use of ICT for Professional
Development. Planning for long
-
term, ongoing, sequenced and cum
ulative programmes that
enable teachers to build new knowledge and skills in a development path continuum from
technology

literacy

to
knowledge deepening

to
knowledge creation

levels. access to suffici
ent ICT
i
nfrastructure

is required
.

Resource requiremen
ts

Preliminary capacity issues have been identified which include policy formulation, strategic
planning, leadership and vision, change management, partnerships and networks, incentive
schemes to rec
ruit and retain ICT expertise,
skilled human resources an
d adequate financial
resources.

During the development of the Implementation Plan a comprehensive institutional
capacity audit should be done.

Monitoring and evaluation (M&E)

A robust M&E system providing continuous feedback on progress and timely indicati
on of
problems arising during the implementation process is required. The M&E process must allow for
continuous feedback, the identification of emerging opportunities and unintended consequences
and the correction of problems in a timely manner.







9

1.

Intr
oduction


As an initial activity to launch the development of the Information Communication Technology

Teacher Professional Development (ICT
-
TPD) Framework for Tanzania, a workshop bringing
together key stakeholders was held from 20


22 October 2009. The

theme of the workshop was
“Development of a Framework for ICT use in Teacher Professional Development for Pre
-
service and In
-
Service Training in Tanzania”
.

The strategic objective of the workshop was to
examine parameters for ICT use in TPD in Tanzania in

order to develop a framework for
integrating the use of technology in Pre
-
service and In
-
service programmes. This framework
draws from and builds on the valuable contributions and insights provided by the participants
during that workshop.

It is universa
lly acknowledged that education is the driving force behind national development and
is one of the most important components in creating knowledge societies, economic growth and
prosperity. ICT skills are a key factor in both individuals’ success in the la
bour market and in
national economic growth and ICTs are the key enablers of the Knowledge Society (KS).
2

It is
generally accepted by policy makers that if citizens are to meet the challenges of the 21
st

century,
they must be able to communicate effective
ly, access information, think critically and creatively
and learn to use emerging technologies. The ability to understand and utilize the power of ICT
must therefore be an integral part of teaching and learning.
3

Tanzania Vision 2025 states that Tanzanians

will have graduated from a least developed country
to a middle income country by the year 2025 with a high level of human development and a well
-
educated and learning society, ingrained with a developmental mindset and competitive spirit. In
this regard e
ducation and knowledge are critical in enabling the nation to effectively utilize
knowledge in mobilizing domestic resources for assuring the provision of people's basic needs
and for attaining competitiveness in the regional and global economy. To achieve

this Tanzania
would therefore position itself to attain creativity, innovativeness and a high level of quality
education in order to respond to development challenges and effectively compete regionally and

internationally, cognizant of the reality that co
mpetitive leadership in the 21
st

century will hinge on
the level and quality of education and knowledge. The key elements identified for creating the
enabling environment for the realization of Vision 2025 include (among others): education and
continuous l
earning (learning society); education as a strategic change agent; investment in



2

SchoolNet Kit, Guidebook 1.
http://www2.unescobkk.org.elib/publications/SchoolNetKit/guidebook1/pdf


3

U
NESCO Bangkok (2003). Building Capacity of Teachers/Facilitators in Technology
-
Pedagogy Integration for Improved
Teaching and Learning. Final Report: Experts’ Meeting on Teachers/Facilitators Training in Technology
-
Pedagogy
Integration, 18
-
20 June 2003, B
angkok, Thailand.



10

infrastructure; promotion of science and technology education and the promotion of ICTs as a
major driving force central to competitive social and economic transformation.
4

Th
e ICT
-
TPD Framework for Tanzania is situated within Vision 2025,
Education and Training
Policy (ETP, 1995) which is
under review
,
the Education Sector Development Programme
(ESDP, 2001), the Primary Education Development Plan (PEDP, 2002
-
2006 and PEDP 2007
-
2011) the Secondary Education Development Plan (SEDP, 2004
-
2009) and the ICT Policy for
Basic Education (2007). The Framework and the embedded ICT
-
TPD development path is a tool
towards achieving the paradigm shift of ICT integration in education rather

than merely
technology deployment and skills development. The diagram below illustrates the conceptual
framework of ICT integration with the dynamic interplay between “ICT
-

the subject”(skills), “ICT
-

in subjects” and “ICT
-

a tool for teaching and lear
ning”:









Figure
1

Source: DfES (2004). Using ICT to Enhance Learning, Unit 15.







4

United Republic of Tanzania, Planning Commission: The Tanzania Development Vision 2025.
http://www.tanzania.go.tz/vision.htm


ICT


as a tool for teaching/learning

ICT capability

Application &
development of ICT
capability

ICT in Subjects

ICT the Subject



11

2.

Background


The launch of Primary Education Development Plan (PEDP) in 2001
and Secondary education
Development Plan (SEDP) in 2004
with one
of the objectives to expand enrolment has resulted in
a significant increase in the number of primary and secondary schools in Tanzania in the last five
years. This increase has been unmatched by the number of teachers that graduate from the
Teacher Colle
ges resulting in high student to teacher ratios. Remarkable achievements have
been realized in access and equity with a notable increase in the number of
Primary and
secondary schools
. The number of primary schools has increased from 12,152 to 15,301 whil
e in
secondary schools number of schools increased

from 1291 in 2002 to 4102 in 2009 (BEST,
2009). The enrollment in
primary schools within the same period increased from 3,041,080 to
8,313,080 in
Secondary education within the same period increased from
432,599 to 1,222,403
and GER improved from 9.4 to 26.1. However, improved access and equity in schools has posed
challenges in the quality of education and especially in the training of adequate and competent
teachers.

Teachers in Tanzania are trained in

several
education
institutions
, public and non government
teachers’ colleges and universities. Of the 34 public Teacher
s’

Colleges (TCs), 16 offer diplomas
in teacher education and the graduates are posted to teach in lower secondary

education and 18
offe
r certificates in education and those who graduate are posted to primary schools. The
language of instruction in the former colleges is English and Kiswahili in the latter. The
universities train graduate teachers who are posted to teach in senior second
ary schools and
TCs.
There are other teachers in the field who have graduated with non
-
education degrees and
are teaching in schools. These may include Bachelor of Science or Arts graduates in Agriculture,
Science, or Commerce. Ideally, these would be
required to take a post
-

graduate diploma in
Education course in order to be teachers. Without the post graduate training in education, they
are not recognized in the system as trained teachers. In an effort to fast
-
track the massive
shortage of teachers
, about 10,000 Form 6 school graduates have been trained and licensed to
teach

in secondary schools
. This

category of teachers is known as licensed teachers.

In 2005, the MoEVT with the support of Swedish International Development Agency (Sida
)

initiated
the computerization of the 34
TCs. The project
aimed at improving the quality of teacher
education by integrating ICTs in both pre
-
service and in
-
service teacher education. The
computerization project involved equipping all the
TCs

with thin client soluti
ons and VSAT
connectivity. Tutor technicians were trained in technical maintenance support and networking
essentials. The project was completed in 2008 and has since become a programme of the
MoEVT.



12

The in
-
servicing of teachers has so far not been regu
larized and is reported to be taking place in
an
ad hoc
, and uncoordinated manner (Komba and Nkumbi, 2008). There are no predefined
periods of time at which teachers are expected to attend certain courses for upgrading of skills
and competencies. The ski
lls upgrading that is currently taking place is based on individual
efforts but not geared towards addressing the identified needs of practicing teachers.

The MoEVT is currently focusing on teacher education in the following areas:



Addressing the scarcity

of teachers in Science, Maths and English



In
-
service training of teachers



Upgrading of licensed teachers



Upgrading non
-
education professionals to
qualified

teachers



Structuring the professional development of teachers.

In order to come to grips with the a
bove challenges, the Ministry of Education and Vocational
Training (MoEVT) conducted a workshop on Teacher Professional Development (TPD) in
collaboration with the Swedish International Development Agency (Sida) and the Global e
-
Schools and Communities Ini
tiative (GeSCI) from 20
th
-
22
nd

October 2009 to start the process to
develop an ICT TPD Framework which will serve as a roadmap to integrate ICT into the teacher
education system using the existing ICT infrastructure at TCs.


ICTs can greatly expand lear
ning opportunities of teachers through blended learning and e
-
learning programmes. They display a power
ful potential as tools for teachers in both teacher
learning and in improving teacher and teaching quality. In this regard the MoEVT would like to
use th
e existing ICT infrastructure

at the Teachers’
College
s as both a vehicle for the delivery of
TPD programmes to address the challenge of teacher shortages and inadequate qualifications,
and as a tool to address the challenge
of quality

of teaching

and lear
ning in the classroom.



13


3.

ICT
-
TPD Framework for Tanzania

3
.1 What is a framework?

A

framework is a “blue print for action” (UNESCO Bangkok, 2004) and brings together the key
elements of vision, br
oad goals
and objectives

with programmes, activities, str
ategies and
prerequisites (pre
-
conditions, resource requirements, M&E mechanisms) to provide a clear,
coherent, coordinated and integrated development path/roadmap towards addressing a particular
challenge.
A framework is

useful in portraying, usually in v
isual format, the different components
that are operating and the interrelationship between these components. A framework, then, is a
kind of scaffold that can be taken as a starting point in determining the roadmap towards a
particular
goal e.g.

ICT i
nteg
ration
.
Mapping a framework facilitates an understanding of what
skills, attributes and qualities are required now and in the future in a particular field, e.g. ICT
-
TPD.

3
.2 Scope and Purpose of the F
ramework

The ICT Policy for Basic Education states th
at “the integration of ICT in education will empower
learners, teachers, educators, managers and leaders to use ICT judiciously and effectively for the
expanding learning opportunities and ensuring educational quality and relevance.”
5

The ICT
-
TPD
Framework

is a step towards operationalizing this policy thrust by providing a coherent and
coordinated development path for
educators (i.e.
tutors and teachers
)

using the available ICT
infrastructure at the Teacher
s’

Colleges (
TCs
). The purpose of the Framework i
s to provide a

clear development path for ICT use in
TPD in Tanzania to achieve

the articulated vision for ICT
use in
TPD.

The development path will cover the period 2010


2025 broken down into short

(2010


2015)
, medium

(2015


2020)

and long term

(2020



2025)

planning periods with a view
to seek viable solutions to addressing the challenges in a coherent and systemic manner in each
of the terms. It is recognized that the challenges over time will not remain the same, so the
framework needs to be flex
ible and should remain a living document and a roadmap responsive
to the challenges as they change and arise along the development path. The framework therefore
must have robust monitoring and evaluation (M&E) mechanisms to ensure that it continues to
resp
ond to priorities and challenges as they arise.




5

MoEVT (2007). Information and Communication Technology

(ICT) Policy for Basic Education.



14

In the short term (2010
-
2015) the focus will be on addressing the following challenges identified
by the MoEVT
6

:



I
nadequate number of teachers with appropriate qualifications and shortage of teachers
in Ma
ths, Science and English



professional isolation of teachers due to geographical challenges



shortage of instructional resources/materials



ICT
-
based communication in colleges/schools and other learning institutions



limited support for teachers who want to up
grade their knowledge base

(i.e. licensed
teachers) and



D
ifficulties in accessing research
-
based information in teacher education.


Teacher professional development should be seen as a continuum of pre
-
service and in
-
service
training and on
-
going profes
sional learning of teachers. The scope of the Framework therefore
covers pre
-
service

teachers in the public TCs

and i
n
-
service training and on
-
going learning

for
primary and secondary school teachers and tutors at the
TCs
. It takes into account that the
ed
ucation system in Tanzania is at the early stages of ICT development and integration and
acknowledges that access to ICT resources initially may be limited. It contains the vision for ICT
-
TPD, the major goals and broad objectives, underpinning principles,
critical assumptions,
programmes, expected outcomes, resource requirements, M&E mechanisms and next steps and
recommendations. Embedded within the Framework is the ICT
-
TPD Matrix which contains the
key components of policy, curriculum and content, pedagogy
, ICT infrastructure, teacher
professional development and organi
zational management. The matrix
(see Appendix 3
)
elaborates on the
expected development path to attain the vision, goals, resource requirements
and expected outcomes with a particular focus o
n the challenges to be addressed over the short
term.

The ICT
-
TPD Framework for Tanzania draws on the strengths of the teacher education system
which include:



The existing ICT infrastructure in the Teacher
s’

College
s which has created an

enabling
environme
nt for further deve
lopment



Tutors, teachers and technicians already trained and literate in ICTs




6

MoEVT (2009). Opening remarks delivered by Hon. Celestine Gesimba Deputy Permanent Secretary at the workshop
on developing a framework for ICT use in Teacher Professional Development, Peacock Hotel, Dar Es Salaam, 20
O
ctober 2009.




15



Awareness and recognition of the potential power of ICTs as a tool for TPD

delivery and
improvement of quality



I
nnovative and experimental projects using eme
rging technologies (mobile technologies)
for TPD and teacher support



Political commitment towards integrating and using ICTs in education to address
challenges.


The framework


takes into account trends and developments in the TPD and ICT in Education
fie
lds internationally, regionally and nationally, and has drawn substantively on the Tanzania
Country Situational Analysis report on the state of ICTs in Education
(2009)
developed by the
Global e
-
Schools and Communities Initiative (GeSCI). It also recogniz
es the challenges and
constraints faced by educational institutions, tutors, teachers and students and the social, cultural
and educational contexts that have a bearing on ICT integration and use. At the same time, it
intends to identify and harness the ex
isting and emerging opportunities, such as the use of m
-
learning

(mobile learning)
, in

a dynamic ICT landscape.

Once stakeholders have agreed on the development path as envisioned by the framework, the
next step in operationalizing the framework would be
to develop an ICT
-
TPD Implementation Plan
for the short term
,
focusing on the immediate challenges with well
-
defined activities, definite
targets, timelines, resource allocations, M&E mechanisms, etc.


The following diagram provides an illustration of the
development path/roadmap process:


Proposed Roadmap for ICT
-
TPD Framework in
T
anzania


ICT
-
TPD Matrix

Implementation Plan

ICT
-
TPD Framework

2010
-

2025

201
0
-

2015



16

3.3

Vision

The vision for integrating ICT into Teacher Profession
al Development
is as follows:

Tanzania
n tutors and teachers

who

are able to use ICT to create enablin
g classroom
environments
,

facilitate
teaching and learning and
en
able
d

to

participate in the global knowledge
society and contribute to national, regional and global development.

3.4

Goals

The ICT
-
TPD Framework is to provide a development path for buildin
g national capacity in the
effective use of the ICT infrastructure in the TCs and other institutions
involved in teacher
development
to address

educational challenges related to access, equity, quality and relevance
through pre
-
service and in
-
service train
ing and on
-
going professional development
.

3.5

Objectives

The objectives of the ICT
-
TPD Framework are to:



Map
out a coherent and integrated development path for ICT
-
TPD in Tanzania (2010


2025) to address challenges and priorities identified in the shor
t (2010


2015), medium
(201
0


2020) and long (2010
-
2025) terms



Identify the essential components, activities, strategies
,

processes and resources
required for ICT
-
TPD development for the period 2010
-
2025, broken up into short,
medium and long terms.
7




Provide a roadmap which will enable stakeholders to identify, develop and implement
appropriate plans, programmes, models, solutions and strategies for quality, accessible
and equitable ICT
-
TPD provision.



Prioritize, develop and implement appropriate plans
, programmes, models, solutions and
strategies for quality, relevance, increased access and equity in the provision of TPD.





7

The requirements for the short term would be elaborated more fully while those for the medium
to long term would be more general providing for opportunities to review and re
-
direct as needs
and the environment change.




17

3.6

Guiding principles underpinning the ICT
-
TPD Framework

The ICT
-
TPD Fram
ework reflects the needs of the Tanzanian education syste
m, the national
vision, values and overarching educational goals, policies and challenges. It seeks to provide an
overall strategy for ICT
-

TPD as a continuum for pre
-
service and in
-
service teachers and for ICT
to be integrated/infused into the entire teac
her education programme while addressing the
challenges of the day. The Framework is a “living document”, i.e. responsive to the environment
and changing needs. The principles underpinning the Framework are that ICT use in TPD should



have a future orienta
tion



respond to existing and emerging needs



focus on quality, relevance, innovation and capacity building



be executed in a systemic, cumulative and phased approach



foster continuous (life
-
long) learning



encourage information and knowledge sharing among st
akeholders and partners



be based on sustainable models, solutions and programmes



use cost
-
sharing approaches



facilitate collaboration and pa
rtnerships and



make use of blended learning solutions.






4.

ICT
-
TPD Matrix

Education systems and institutions
gene
rally

proceed through broad stages of
Emerging,
Applying, Infusing
, and
Transforming

8

in order to
develop teacher capability in the use of ICT as
an
integrated everyday part of
provision.
The
UNESCO (2008)
9

ICT Competency Standards for
Teacher’s (ICT
-
CST)

framework was developed on the basis of phased ICT adoption stages

linked to economic reform. The core stages in
the
ICT
-
C
ST framework are

technology literacy,
knowledge deepening,
and
knowledge

creation
.
The purpose of each stage
is to
develop
increasing

capacity for teacher empowerment in the utilization of ICT as

a tool to enhance the



8

See Appendix 2, Glo
ssary of Terms, for explanation of stages.


9

UNESCO 2008. ICT Competency Standards for Teachers: Competency Standard Modules [Onl
ine]. Available from
UNESCO at:
http://unesdoc.unesco
.org/images/0015/001562/156207e.pdf

[Accessed 11 April 2009]



18

quality of learning.
The stages
, as shown in Figure 1 below,

represent a
conceptual framework

for moving educational institutions from isolated, passive consumers of exte
rnally defined ICT
programmes towards more open communities that generate new knowledge on the use of ICT to
enhance their own
learning and
educational practice
.

‘Transition’
‘Infusing’
‘Knowledge deepening’
Teacher professional development focus
on the use of ICT to guide students
through complex problems and manage
dynamic learning environment
‘Transformation’
‘Transforming’
‘Knowledge creation’
Teachers are themselves master learners
and knowledge producers who are
constantly engaged in educational
experimentation and innovation to
produce new knowledge about learning
and teaching practice
‘Traditional’
‘Emerging’
‘Technology add
-
on’
Teacher training focus the use of ICT as an
add
-
on to the traditional curricula and
standardized test systems
‘Transmission’
‘Applying’
‘Technology literacy’
Teacher training focus on the
development of digital literacy and the
use of ICT for professional improvement
ICT as a complementary
technology
Learning
how to
use
ICT
Learning
via ICT
ICT as a core technology
1
2
3
4
A consolidated continuum of approaches for ICT Integration in Teacher Professional
Development
Sources: Kennedy, 2005;
Olakulehin
, 2008; UNESCO, 2008b

With the existing ICT infrastructure and the training in bas
ic ICT skills and ICT as a subject, the
Teacher
s’

C
olleges in Tanzania are at the ‘emerging’ stage in the above continuum. The
intention is to move into the ‘applying’
(technology literacy)
stage in the short term whereby the
existing infrastructure and c
apacities will be used to train more teachers particularly in core
subjects, upgrade
licensed

teachers and strengthen the pedagogical skills of teachers to improve
the quality of learning. Over time the system is expected to move progressively in the mediu
m
and longer terms through the ‘infusing’
(knowledge deepening)
to the ‘transforming’
(knowledge
creation)
stages.

The UNESCO ICT
-
CST matrix presents a holistic framework for a continuum of ICT integration in
six key c
omponents of education systems:

policy

awareness; curriculum and content; pedagogy;
ICT infrastructure; teacher professional development and organizational management. The
standards present a set of competencies
in each component that
tutors and teachers

can


19

interpret and translate into practi
ce based on their
context,
vision and development pa
th for ICT
use (Table 1
).

Table 1: Three Approaches

-

Technology Literacy; Knowledge Deepening and Knowledge
Creation
-

for ICT Integration in Teacher Professional Development

Policy & Vision

Technology

literacy

Knowledge Deepening

Knowledge Creation

Curriculum &
Assessment

Basic Knowledge

Knowledge
Application

21
st

Century Skills

Pedagogy

Integrate
Technology

Complex Problem
Solving

Self Management

ICT

Basic Tools

Complex Tools

Pervasive Technology

Organization &
Administration

Standard Classroom

Collaborative Groups

Learning
Organizations

Teacher Professional
Development

Digital Literacy

Manage & Guide

Teacher as Model
Learner

Source: UNESCO 2008


In the
following sections a development path
is p
resented
for achieving
Knowledge Deepening

and
Knowledge Creation

levels of ICT use in TPD programmes in Tanzania by 2025.



20

4.1

Matrix Component Objectives

The objectives covering the components of the
Teacher Professional Development
matrix
for
Tanzania
are t
o

address the c
hallenges of teacher shortages,

teacher quality

and teacher support

in the short term, but also over the medium and long term by:



Equipping educators through pre
-
service and in
-
service training programmes with the
required competencies (know
ledge, skills and attitudes) to effectively use the available
ICT infrastructure in the TCs to address the educational challenges related to access,
quality, equity and relevance

over the longer term



Using the existing ICT infrastructure and capacities to

address teacher shortages
particularly in core subjects and to upgrade the qualifications of
licensed te
achers



Develop
ing competent
tutors and teachers

who will confidently integrate ICTs as
pedagogical tools and educational resources to implement the c
urriculum effectively and
to facilitate active student learning



Develop
ing

the required e
-
resources to be used through both online and offline networks



Develop
ing
tutors, teachers and trainee teachers wh
o are committed to life long learning
using the oppor
tunities afforded by ICTs to grow professionally



Provid
ing

a well
-
equipped and effectively managed environment for teaching and
learning using ICTs.



Developing networks for learning ( Communities of practice)


The components of the matrix are discussed in
more detail
in the following sections.
4.1.1

Component
-

Policy and vision


For any TPD programme to be successful, it needs to be
owned at
national level by the
Government as a whole and led by the relevant Ministry of Education (Unwin, 2004)
10

and
anchored in t
he national vision and national and education sector development plans and
policies. The use of ICTs is not a cheap solution for teacher development, but according to Unwin
(2004) “by facilitating the creation of new types of learning environments, by supp
orting distance
based models for teacher training, and by opening up a wealth of new educational resources, it
has a very significant role to play”. In the absence of a strong policy framework ICT is seen more
as an infrastructure and not as a tool for str
engthening and achieving educational goals and
objectives (COL, 2009).
11


In order to attain the

goals of Tanzania Vision 2025 the TPD system should adopt a phased
approach and strive to progress from the current phases of
emerging
and
applying
through
in
fusing
(medium term) to
transforming

(long term). The Tanzanian ICT Policy for Basic
Education (2007)
, Teacher Development and Management Strategy (TDMS) and PEDP (2007


2011)

are

already in place
,
and
SEDP (is in the process of review) provide

opp
ortunit
ies to
strengthen the ICT components related to TPD drawing on the Framework.

Pre
-
Conditions (Before we begin)



䍯湤畣iv攠e潬icy 敮viro湭敮t



Ali杮m敮琠瑯 湡ti潮慬 visionⰠ,慴i潮慬 ⁡ 搠dd畣慴a潮⁳ec瑯爠灬a湳⁡ 搠dp潬ici敳



啰摡t攠ef⁥ is瑩湧 灯lici敳Ⱐ灬a湳

瑯tr敳p潮搠瑯tc桡湧i湧⁥湶ir潮m敮t



䍯湳敮s畳渠nh攠ero慤 p慲慭整ers ⁴ 攠e敶敬潰m敮琠t慴a⽲o慤m慰⁦潲⁉䍔
-
TP䐠D潲o
s桯r琬敤i畭⁡ 搠do湧⁴敲e



䍵Cr敮琠t瑡湤i湧 潲摥os⁡ 搠dui摥li湥s⁴ ⁲散潧niz攠e䍔⽣om灵瑥爠t灥ci慬i瑩敳


††††††††††††††††††††
††††††

10

Unwin, T. (2004). Towards a framework for the use of ICT in Teacher Training in Africa.

11

COL (2009). ICTs for Higher Education. Background paper from COL for the UNESCO World Conference on Hi
gher
Education, Paris, France, 5
-
8 July 2009.



22


Policy and vision

Activit
ies

Strategies

Short term

1.

Develop framework for ICT
-
TPD for short,
medium and long term to attain goals and
objectives set

-

ICT
-
TPD workshop and ICT
-
TPD conference to
involve stakeholders, raise awareness and reach
consensus

2.

Ensure ICT
-
TPD framework is

aligned to national
plans, policies, sector plans

-

Review current standing orders and guidelines to
ensure alignment to framework


-

Review of policies and plans and adjust as
required

-

Research on good practice in similar contexts

3.

Develop an ICT
-
TPD Impleme
ntation Plan for the
short term (2010


O〱㔩


-

Task Team led by MoEVT and composed of
relevant stakeholders supported by experts

4.

Create conducive policy environment by:



灯licy⁦潲⁡o煵isiti潮Ⱐ,e灬oyme湴na湤
m慩湴n湡湣e



r数l慣敭敮琠tolicy



s瑡t摡r摳⁦潲⁡
cc敳sⰠ,灥r慴ao渠n湤⁢敨avi潲



s灥cific慴ao港ns瑡t摡r摳⁦潲⁨慲ow慲a⁡ 搠
s潦瑷慲a



i湳瑩t畴u潮al⁰la湳⁦潲⁰o潶isi潮 潦⁡ 敱畡t攠e
慣c敳s⁦潲⁳瑡晦⁡ 搠d瑵t敮ts⁡ 搠d慰慣ity
扵ildi湧 †



c慰慣ity⁡畤i琠tf⁴ 瑯爯t敡ch敲⁳kills⁴
i摥湴nfy⁣a灡city⁡湤⁳kills 条
灳⁡湤⁴漠oak攠
敦f散瑩v攠es攠ef⁣慰慣i瑩敳⽳kills⁡ r敡dy in
灬慣e

-

Working groups for each of activities assisted by
experts/partners

-

Use Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) for cost
-
benefit analysis

-

Develop MIS to support effective use and
sustainability

-

Carry

out capacity audit using capacity audit tool

5.

Disseminate policies and plans to stakeholders

-

Include policy issues in curriculum, websites

-

Workshops with stakeholders

Medium

to l
ong term


1.

Develop leadership and management capacity
required to lead sys
tem through to infusing and
transforming stages

-

On
-
going needs analyses, awareness raising and
upgrading of skills

-

Develop incentive packages to retain/recruit
expertise

2.

Enhance teacher commitment and motivation for
professional stability

-

Research and dev
elop incentive packages

-

On
-
going professional development and upskilling

3.

Review policies

and develop new policies as circumstances
require

-

Stakeholder meetings, workshops

-

workshops,

-

surveys, etc.





23

4.1.2

Component
-

Curriculum, Assessment and Content

Accordin
g to the UNESCO ICT Competency Standards for Teachers (2008) successful ICT
integration depends on the ability to structure the learning environment in new ways, and to
merge new technology with new pedagogy which imply significant changes in the curriculu
m as
the curriculum has to go beyond teaching ICT as a subject (skills) to teaching ICT in subjects
(integration
)
and

using ICT as a tool for teaching and learning.

Pre
-
Conditions (Before we begin)



䍵Cric畬畭⁲敶iew⁴ ⁩湴n杲慴a⁉䍔⁡ r潳s⁴ 攠e畲uiculum

f潲⁰oe
-

慮搠dn
-
s敲vic攠ee慣桥r
敤畣慴i潮⁡ 搠dn
-
杯i湧⁴敡c桥r敡r湩ng



䍵Cric畬畭⁥ 灥r瑩s攠i渠nubj散瑳⁡ 搠d渠n䍔



A摥煵慴攠e畮di湧⁴ 數散畴攠牥eiew



A渠n
-
r敳o畲u敳⁥ 慬u慴i潮⁦r慭敷潲o⁡ 搠ds瑡tlis桭敮琠tf⁳瑡td慲摳⁦潲⁡摯灴ion ⁥
-
r敳潵rc敳⁩渠n慮z慮




䍵Cric畬畭⁡ i杮e搠do⁳異p潲琠瑨o 畳攠ef⁉䍔⁡ ⁡ 瑯潬 f潲⁴敡o桩湧⁡ 搠d敡rni湧



䥮I瑩瑵瑩o湡liz慴i潮 ⁡ 潲o慮iz慴io湡l⁳瑲畣瑵牥⁴t慴a慣comm潤慴as⁴ 攠er敡瑩o測n畳攬e
敶alu慴a潮⁡湤 扵d来t慲y⁡ll潣a瑩o渠nf⁥
-
r敳潵rc敳



Identification of “hard to teac
栠h潰ics
⽳畢j散瑳
” in which teachers would need support



䥤I湴ific慴a潮 ⁡ 灲潰pi慴a⁰ r瑮trshi灳⁦潲⁣r敡瑩o渠n湤⁤敬iv敲y 潦⁥
-
r敳潵rc敳



E湧慧敭敮琠tf⁴ 攠乡Ni潮al⁅x慭i湡ti潮s⁃潵湣il 潦⁔慮z慮i愬aT慮z慮i愠a湳瑩t畴u 潦
E摵c慴io測nT敡c桥r⁅摵c慴i潮 䑥Da
r瑭敮琠
慮搠Sc桯ol⁉ s灥c瑯牡t攠䑥灡r瑭敮琠
i渠牥nie睩n朠
c畲u敮琠tss敳sm敮琠tr慣瑩c敳




24


Curriculum, assessment and content

Activities

Strategies

In the Short T
erm

1.

Review pre
-
service teacher education
curriculum to focus on Maths, Science and
English int
akes, strengthening of content
and pedagogy, and to use existing
infrastructure to integrate ICT across the
curriculum as a tool for learning

-

Identify priority areas through needs assessment

-

Establish subject ICT working groups/panels

-

Identify scope of
integration, i.e. ICT opportunities
in each subject

-

Identify suitable modalities for delivery (e.g.
blended learning/e
-
learning/m
-
learning)

2.

Develop and deliver in
-
service training
programme to address identified needs

-

Research in
-
service training progr
ammes, delivery
modalities, good practice, etc.

-

Identify needs of in
-
service teachers, in particular
in Maths, Science and English

-

Identify most appropriate solutions and delivery
modes to address identified needs, e.g. blended
learning, e
-
learning.

3.

Dev
elop and support optimal learning
environments supported by ICT

-

Institutional support through access to ICT tools,
opportunity to become familiar with and experiment
with tools, and capacity building

-

Research on best practice

-

Policies for access, maintena
nce and support,
capacity building

4.

Design/create and deploy content that
supports and engages tutors/teachers to
upgrade their knowledge base and
become
self
-
driven master learners


-

Develop e
-
resources suitable for use in Tanzania
classroom context

-

Cre
ate central source for e
-
content and e
-
resources in collaboration with ICT specialists/
subject specialists / teacher practitioners

-

Establish peer support mechanisms for subject
teachers

-

Training in the development of Learning
management Systems (LMS) and

Content
Management Systems (CMS)

5.

Evaluate available e
-
resources for
suitability of such resources to address
the shortage of teaching and learning
materials

-

Develop standards and guidelines for the
evaluation and use of online and offline e
-
resources

-

Pr
ovide training as and when required

In the
medium to long t
erm

6.

Use ICT to support the acquisition of 21
st

century skills

-

-
Engage in research activities and share
experiences

-

Analyse most appropriate deployment of
infrastructure against educational objec
tives

7.

Develop appropriate assessment criteria
and practices that cater for the
assessment of skills and application of
knowledge to support ICT integration

-

Working groups supported by assessment and ICT
experts

-

Collaboration with Examination Council

-

Rese
arch to identify best practice



25

4.1.3

Component
-

Pedagogy

Technology infusion in teaching and learning processes requires
pedagogical
change where the
teacher’s role will be altered gradually.
As they begin to incorporate ICT in their teaching,
teachers develo
p new ways of doing things, gradually changing the focus of classroom activities
from an emphasis on teaching to an emphasis on learning. Knowledge is developed through
social interaction and collaboration as learners use ICT tools to communicate and criti
cally
evaluate their work.

Pedagogy includes theoretical knowledge in general (Bruner 1996)
12

and knowledge on
technology enhanced learning in particular (UNESCO 2002)
13

-

it includes, for instance,
knowledge of learning theories and instructional process an
d design, it includes assessment and
evaluation strategies, and it includes planning and designing lesson plans.
To these might be
added selection and presentation
skills. Computers and the internet can be used in a wealth of
ways to enhance teacher profes
sional development as part of a blended programme for the use
of ICT across the pre
-
service and in
-
service curriculum.

Pre
-
Conditions (Before we begin)



SWOT⁡ 慬ysis ⁳瑡瑵tf⁉䍔 k湯wl敤来 慮d⁳kills



T畴urs⁡ 搠d敡ch敲e⁣慰慢l攠ef⁵ i湧⁡ 搠d潤敬i湧 l
敡r湥r
-
c敮瑲敤⁴敡c桩湧⁴散桮i煵敳
i渠nP䐠灲D杲慭m敳



乥Nw潲os⁡ 搠d慲a湥rs桩灳⁢ twe敮⁔e
慣桥r
s’

C潬le来sⰠ啮Iv敲eiti敳⁡湤瑨tr
䥮f瑩瑵瑩o湳⁦潲敶敲慧in朠gx灥r瑩se



䍯Cl慢潲慴o潮
扥t睥敮 䵯EVTⰠ久䍔A⁡湤⁔䥅⁦潲

pri潲楴iz

i潮 ⁴ 敭慴ac⁡牥慳⁦潲o
瑲慩
ni湧


††††††††††††††††††††
††††††

12

Bruner, J. S. 1996.
The Culture of Education.

2
nd

Edition. New York: Harvard University Press

13
UNESCO 2002. Information and Communication Teachnolgies in Teacher Education: a planning guide [Online].
Availab
le from UNESCO at:
http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001295/129533e.pdf

[Accessed 1 November 2009]



26


Pedagogy

Activities

Strategies

In the
short t
erm

1.

Develop planning capacity for
Technology
-
Pedagogy integration in
TPD pre/in
-
service programmes


-

Audit of tutor and teacher skills and existing teaching
and learning packs, i.e. software & e
-
res
ource
materials, to identify technology
-
pedagogy status of
ICT use in TPD pre and in
-
service programmes

-

Partnerships between Training Colleges,
Universities, or other Institutions and Agencies to
leverage expertise for training tutors and teachers in
lear
ner centred / constructivist instructional methods
and approaches

2.

Develop capacity in pedagogical
knowledge and skills (methods,
approaches) relevant to the use of
ICT in subject areas across TPD
curriculum

-

Training for curriculum specific and cross cu
rricular
applications of ICT use in project oriented learning,
problem based learning, inquiry
-
based learning and
collaborative learning in TPD programmes

-

Co
-
teaching, demonstration lessons by more expert
tutors/ teachers using face
-
to
-
face and online
prof
essional conduits

-

Produce data base of exemplary practice in ICT
across the curriculum for use in teacher education
programmes

In the medium to long term

3.

Conduct needs assessment for in
-
service teachers in difficult to teach
subjects

-

Needs assessment on
a regular basis

-

On
-
going needs assessment for difficult topics to
teach

-

Curriculum review

-

Collaboration of MoEVT, NECTA and TIE for
analyzing difficult topics for prioritization in training
pogrammes


4.

Build capacity for life long learning,
communities of

collaborative practice
and inquiry

-

On
-
going professional development of teachers in
active learning, collaboration, problem solving and
technology upskilling

-

Coordinating regional/district/school cluster
technology support teams and structures for
prov
iding training and mentoring to teachers at all
levels

-

Teacher College/University/ school linkages in
collaborative inquiry to address challenges of
technology
-
pedagogy implementation

-

Building of blended communities (face to face and
online) for teacher r
eflection on teaching episodes as
teachers transition from conventional to inquiry
based learning





27

4.1.4

Component
-

ICT Infrastructure

The objective under this component is to identify appropriate and effective approaches to
optimize the existing ICT infras
tructure in the
TCs

during pre
-
service and in
-
service trainin
g of
teachers. These approaches are focused on the challenges of inadequate number of teacher
s
,
quality of teachers, isolation of teachers, shortage of instructional materials, and access of
rese
arch
-
based information in teacher education. In the medium to long
-
term, the focus is on how

to move the teacher from the emerging stage through to the transforming stage in accordance
with Tanzanian Vision 2025.


Blurton (1999)
14

defines ICTs as
“diverse s
et of technological tools and resources used to
communicate, to create, disseminate, store, and manage information.” Information and
communication are at the heart of the education process playing an educational role in both
formal and non
-
formal settings.


ICTs in this context will include computers, the internet,
software including software development tools, e
-
resources, and delivery channels which include
the mobile telephony, online and offline modes of delivery.


There are several distinct advantag
es and disadvantages of designing, developing, and delivering
electronic educational resources. The advantages include increased access, quicker and
cheaper turn around time of the finished product, collaborative and exploratory learning
environments whic
h impacts on the quality of training in accordance with 21
st

Century learning,
e
asy and affordable training delivery
, i
nexpensive worldwide distribution
, e
ase of content update
,
t
ravel cost and time savings
, enabling student
-
centered teaching approaches, a
nd continual
access to instructional materials.


Disadvantages include: b
andwidth/browser limitations may restrict instructional methodologies
,
administration of users for web access and control of usage, student assessment and feedback,
initial cost for
setting up and development of the required resources, multiple delivery channels in
a case of limited internet connectivity.




14

http://www.unesco.org/education/educprog/lwf/dl/edict.pdf




28


T
h
e effective development, delivery and use of e
-
resources in the Tanzanian context would
require:

-

Ease and flexibility of acces
s in term
s

of ICT infrastructure

-

Variety of e
-
resources from different sources (practicing teachers, student teachers,
teacher educators, curriculum developers
, industry,
partners etc) which translates to
all those in the teaching profession being knowledg
e cr
eators and not just
consumers.
This would also reduce monotony in only having a few e
-
content
modules that are constantly being
re
-
used without being improved upon
.

-

Interactivity, user
-
friendliness, wide coverage in terms of subject scope, and wide
a
vailability through different delivery channels

-

Evaluation and standardization of ICT infrastructure for purposes of delivery and
upgrading in order to align the infrastructural requirements with the education
objectives and philosophy of Tanzania.

-

Diver
sity to cater for different learning needs especially when applied to e
-
resources

-

Flexibility to accommodate different learning styles.

-

Updated knowledge and skills in the development of e
-
resources, installation and
technical maintenance of the
Hardware
infrastructure.


Since the hardware has already been installed in the
TCs

the focus in this section will shift slightly
towards the soft skills as opposed to hardware/technical skills which have been
the main area of
focus in the T
Cs during the MoEVT/S
id
a

project implementation period.
However the status of
this hardware infrastructure will be analyzed in the “establishment of gaps section”
.

Pre
-
Conditions



P潬ici敳⁧ i摩湧慮慧敭敮琬⁡cq畩sitio測nd数loyme湴n⁲数l慣敭敮琬慩湴n湡湣e⁡ 搠瑥t桮ic慬
s異p
潲琠Ⱐ畳敲⁴e慩湩湧 慮搠畳敲⁡ec敳s



剥煵isi瑥⁣慰慣i瑩敳⁴ ⁰lan⁦潲⁦畴ur攠e敥摳⁡湤 畳攠evaila扬攠e䍔⁩湦r慳瑲畣瑵牥灴pm慬ly



P潬icy 瑨tt⁡ l⁣o畲u敳 f敲敤⁩渠nh攠e䍳⁳桯畬d⁢ 慣c敳si扬攠潮line



䥮I瑩瑵瑩o湡liz慴i潮 ⁡ 潲o慮iz慴io湡l⁳瑲畣瑵牥⁴t慴

慣comm潤慴as⁴ 攠er敡瑩o測n畳攬eeval畡tio渠nn搠
扵摧整ery⁡ll潣慴a潮 ⁥
-
res潵rc敳



䑥Dcri灴p潮 ⁲潬敳⁡ 搠牥d灯湳i扩liti敳 ⁴ e⁤ 灡r瑭敮琠t湤⁴桥 i湤ivid畡ls⁡ ig湥搠睩瑨⁴ is
摥灡r瑭敮琠wo畬d⁢ 灡ram潵湴



Adequate and reliable funding




29

ICT Infras
tructure

Activities

Strategies

In the Short T
erm

1.

Increase access to teacher education
with a goal of addressing the shortage
of teachers

-

Identify needs of various groups

-

Explore modes and delivery systems to address
identified needs

-

Using different app
roaches in the training of teachers
(online, f2f, blended)


2.

Develop proficiency in the use of ICT
to improve on the quality of training


-

Create increased awareness on the use of ICTs for
enriching subject knowledge, student administration, and
creation of

lesson plans

-

Develop programme for the use of ICTs in subjects

3.

Identification/development of
appropriate e
-
Learning
implementation models, required
hardware, software and platforms

-

Teachers Education stakeholders consultation backed by
research and exp
erts on what is appropriate for the
Tanzanian context

-

Improve on the infrastructure in the TCs to accommodate
ICT Integration and delivery of online courses

-

Improve the ICT infrastructure


4.

Establish the human resource
capacity requirements for the
impl
ementation of the different
delivery models/approaches

-

Capacity audit backed by

ICT experts

-

questionnaires, interviews, ex amination of documents
and field visits where necessary to establish gaps

-

Prioritize which gaps

(in terms of skills and knowledge)

to
address first


5.

Establish the ICT infrastructural
capacity needs to support different
delivery models and approaches for
TPD

-

Obtain baseline data on the existing infrastructure

-

Analysis of what additional infrastructure would be
required based on deli
very models, approaches

-

Improve infrastructure at the receiving end for the
intended audience

-

Review cost of infrastructure at the at the receiving end
for the intended audience

-

Improve availability and reliability of power sources eg.
Hydro Electric Powe
r/ Solar energy /Wind energy

-

Increase availability of affordable ICT infrastructure at the
remote receiving end

-

Connecting all TCs to national backbone

6.

Develop skills of tutors for the
implementation of different
models/approaches (e.g. e
-
Learning,
blend
ed learning)

-

Establish existing skill sets and gaps

-

Analyse most appropriate ways to address challenges

-

Identify
situable

programmes, e.g.

-

online training for tutors so that they can experience e
-
Learning through blended (or other identified)
approaches



In the m
ediu
m t
erm



30

ICT Infras
tructure

Activities

Strategies

7.

Ensure increased access of e
-
resources
to address the shortage of teaching and
learning materials


-

Put in place adequate infrastructure

-

Develop standards and guidelines for the evaluation and use of
online and offline e
-
resources

-

Ado
pt existing materials with modifications as required

8.

Adapt instructional materials with a
goal of improving on quality of
educators and increasing resource
materials

-

Identify and train resource material developers

-

Identify suitable partners and networks

to work with

-

Evaluate content and adapt

-

in partnership with the content providers so that it meets
context specificities

In the long t
erm

9.

Creation of a web
-
portal hosted by
the TCs onto which all e
-
learning
materials that are evaluated, created,
and
adopted at TC level are uploaded
and shared among all TCs and
teacher educators to increase support
for teachers who want to upgrade
their knowledge base

-

Training of tutors/teachers on how to evaluate and
develop instructional materials to be included in t
he
curriculum of TPD

-

Training on effective use of web resources

-

Create LMS/CMS

10.

Develop own educational resources
to be uploaded to a central portal

-

Training in online materials/course development

-

TC tutors to avail all the courses online (institutional
po
licy required)



31

4.1.5


Component
-

Organization and Administration

New innovation and practice require
s

effective organization and administration
, s
ystems,
structures and networks to create and support new practices, the production of knowledge and
resources an
d the pursuit of life long learning. Technology can enable institutions to function in
more efficient, cost
-
effective and user
-
friendly ways and can be harnessed for

better planning,
coordination and monitoring of programmes and activities.

Pre
-
Conditions
(Before we begin)



E䵉S⁳ys瑥t⁴ 慴asu灰潲瑳 敦f散瑩v攠es攠e湤⁳畳瑡in慢ility



S潵湤 l敡摥rs桩瀬pc桡湧e m慮慧敭敮琠tkills⁡ d⁲敳灯湳iv攠e瑲畣t畲敳



F畮摩湧⁦潲⁡o灲潰pi慴a⁨ rdw慲攠a湤⁳潦tw慲a



副扵s琠䴦E散桡湩sms



剥Rr畩琠t湤⁲e瑡t渠n䥃I⁥ p敲瑳


Organiz
ation and Administration

Activities

Strategies

In short term

1.

Review institutional structures,
systems, capacities, operations
and networks with view to align to
what challenges need to be
addressed over short, medium
and long term



Ex灥r琠t摶ic攠



䥮I瑩t
u瑩o湡l⁡ 摩t † 瑲畣瑵r敳Ⱐ,yst敭sⰠ
潰敲慴io湳Ⱐ,整睯wksⰠ,湦r慳瑲畣瑵牥



䑥D敬o灭敮琠tf⁡ 灲潰pi慴攠e瑲畣瑵牥tⰠ,ys瑥tsⰠ
整e⸠瑯†慤摲敳s⁣桡ll敮g敳



Ex灡n搠d湤⁲数l慣e⁥ 畩pm敮琠ts⁲敱畩r敤⁦潲o
syst敭sⰠ,灥r慴a潮sⰠ湥w ac瑩vi瑩敳



䥤I湴ify† 数loym敮琠
m潤敬s⽯/瑩潮s
r慴a敲⁴桡n⁵ 攠ef
l慢s)



Ex灥r琠t摶ice



T䍏⁴ 潬⁦潲⁤数loyin朠giffer敮琠t潤敬s⁦潲o
摩ff敲敮琠e摵ca瑩o湡l⁧ 慬s



P畴ui渠灬慣e⁴ 慣桥r⁥ 畣慴i潮
䵉M⁳yst敭⁴ ⁳異灯r琠灬an湩n本g
摥cisio渠naki湧⁡ 搠d慮慧敭敮琠



䥤I湴ify敥摳



䥤I湴ifyⰠ,畲u桡se

a湤 摥ploy⁳ui瑡扬e⁨ rd睡w攠
慮搠d潦tw慲攠⁦潲⁍oS



Pil潴ot漠or潮畴ub畧s⁡湤⁧li瑣桥s



B畩l搠da灡city 潦⁡ mi渠n湤 桥r⁳瑡tf



䍯Cl散琠t慴aⰠ慮alyze⁡湤⁵s攠e漠oak攠e散isio湳Ⱐ
i湦潲o⁰ 慮湩ng



䑥D敬o瀠牥p灯湳iv攠e湤⁲o扵s琠
䴦E散桡湩sms⁴ ⁴牡 k
灲潧p敳
s⁡ d⁩m灬敭敮瑡ti潮⁡湤
i湦潲o⁡ j畳tm敮瑳



剥R敡rc栠h湤 i摥湴nfic慴i潮 ⁧ 潤 灲慣瑩c攠
m潤敬s



Worki湧⁧牯異⁳異灯r瑥搠dy 數p敲瑳



F潭慴av攠e湤⁳畭m慴av攠e敶iews

In the medium to long term

5.

Build the capacity of management,
teaching and administrative sta
ff
to use networks and systems



䑥D敬o瀠p敡d敲e桩p⁡ 搠d慮慧敭敮琠tkills



Adv潣慣y 慮搠d睡w敮敳s⁲慩sin朠gf⁰ 睥w⁡ 搠
灯瑥湴n慬 潦⁉䍔⁴ ⁦慣ili瑡t攠潰敲慴io湳



P桡se搠dm灬敭敮瑡ti潮



乥敤s⁡ s敳sm敮瑳⁡ ⁲敧畬慲ai湴nrvals



O湧潩湧 摥v敬潰m敮琠tf⁳瑡tf



32

4.1.6

Compo
nent


Professional Development

Teacher Professional Development can be defined as a process embracing all activities that
enhance professional career growth (Rogan & Grayson 2004; Tecle 2006; cited in Komba and
Nkumbi 2008)
15

or as formal and informal expe
riences throughout the teacher’s career
(Hargr
e
aves & Fullan 1992; Arends et al. 1998; cited in ibid.). This is a definition that replaces the
prevailing assumption of one
-
time initial or specialized teacher training with a concept of a
lifelong
learning a
pproach for professional preparedness and development of teachers

along a continuum
of a) initial preparation, b) structured opportunities for retraining, upgrading and acquisition of new
knowledge and skills and c) continuous support
(Haddad 2007).
16


Teac
her professional development in the use of ICT can be defined as ‘a coherent system of
initial and continuous training of teachers in the use of ICT, which also includes training in
adaptation to the evolution of the profession of teachers and managers of
education systems
through distance training’ (SchoolNet Africa 2004 p13).
17

In this context ICT use in Teacher
Professional Development can be understood in terms of two sets of activities or roles:

One is training teachers to learn about ICT and its use i
n teaching as computers are
introduced to schools.… The other role of ICT is as a means of providing teacher
education, either as a core or main component of a programme, or playing a
supplementary role within it. (Perraton et al. 2002, pp. 33
-
34)
18


In Tan
zania all Teacher
s’

Colleges have been equipped with 1,250 networked thin
-
client
computers with open source software, tutors have been trained, an ICT curriculum has been
developed and is in use. Most universities have dedicated computer centres. The Minis
try of
Communication Science and Technology is implementing the National Research and Education
Network (NREN) to create an electronic network that will connect all higher education institutions,
research facilities and TCs in
knowledge sharing forums to d
ebate and analyze research, good
practice and experiences of
peers.




15

Komba, W.L. a
nd Nkumbi, E. 2008. Teacher Professional Development in Tanzania: Perceptions and Practices.
Journal of International Cooperation in Education,
11 (3), pp67
-

83

16

Haddad, W. 2007. ICTs For Education: A Reference Handbook [Online]. Available from UNESCO O
pen Training
Platform at:

http://opentraining.unesco
-
ci.org/cgi
-
bin/page.cgi?g=Detailed%2F643.html;d=1

[Accessed 1 November 2009]

17

SchoolNet Africa 2004. Towards

a Strategy on Developing African Teacher Capabilities in the Use of Information and
Communication Technology (ICT) [Online]. Available from:

http://www.comminit.com/en/node/220192/36

[Accessed 9
A
pril 2009]

18

Perraton, H, Creed, C and Robinson, B. 2002. Teacher Education Guidelines: Using Open and Distance Learning:
Technology, Curriculum, Cost , Evaluation [Online]. Available from ERIC at:

http://eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/1a/66/99.pdf

[Accessed 1 November
2009]



33

The short to medium term focus will be to leverage the pre
-
service infrastructure (computers,
internet access, research and development networks) as a part of a blended programme to
addre
ss challenges of teacher scarcity in Science, Maths and English, in
-
service training of
teachers, upgrading licensed teachers and upgrading non
-
education professional to
trained

teachers and structuring the professional development of teachers. The longer
term focus will be
to use ICT to enhance the quality of education in teachers


colleges and schools.

Pre
-
Conditions (Before we begin)



S桩f琠t渠n潣畳⁦rom⁐r潦敳si潮al⁄ vel潰m敮琠t潲⁉䍔⁵ 攠e漠oh攠es攠潦⁉䍔⁦潲⁐牯o敳si潮慬
䑥D敬o灭敮t



Pla湮i湧⁦潲潮g
-
t敲eⰠ,湧潩n本gs敱略湣e搠d湤⁣畭畬慴av攠灲潧p慭m敳⁴ 慴a敮a扬攠瑥tch敲e⁴
扵il搠湥w湯wl敤g攠e湤⁳kills⁩渠n⁤ vel潰m敮琠t慴a c潮瑩n畵m⁦rom
technology

literacy

to
knowledge deepening

to
knowledge creation

levels



P潬icy⁦潲⁡ll 灲潧p慭m攠er潶i摥rs⁴ 慤
桥r攠e漠o䍔
-
TP䐠D敶敬潰m敮琠t慴a⁴牡 ec瑯ty



乡瑩潮al⁉ sti瑵tio渠n潳i瑩潮敤⁴ ⁰ 慮 慮搠do潲摩湡t攠ell level⁰牯 敳si潮慬 摥vel潰m敮琠
灲潧p慭mi湧⁡ i杮敤⁴漠oCT
-
TP䐠摥vel潰m敮琠t慴a



T敡c桥rs⁨ v攠慣c敳s⁴ ⁳畦fici敮琠䥃t⁉ fr慳瑲畣瑵牥
桡rdw慲aⰠ,潦瑷慲t
Ⱐi湴nrne琬⁥l散瑲icity)Ⱐ
E摵c慴io湡l⁉ fr慳瑲畣瑵牥
k湯wle摧e⁲敳潵rc敳Ⱐ,畲uic畬愬a慮搠慳s敳sm敮琩⁡ 搠瑥t桮ical⁡湤
i湳瑲畣瑩o湡l⁳異灯r琠t瑡tf



T敡c桥r
s’

䍯Cl敧敳Ⱐ䙡I畬瑩敳 ⁅摵c慴io渠n渠n畢lic⁡湤⁐riv慴a 啮rv敲ei瑩敳ⰠI敡c桥r⁒敳潵rc攠
䍥湴r敳⁡湤
ais瑲ic琠tffic敳⁰ siti潮敤⁴漠o灲潶i摥⁰牯 敳si潮al⁢慣k⁵ ⁴ ⁉䍔⁩渠qm䐠
灲潧p慭m敳
i湩瑩alⰠIis瑡tc攠en搠dc桯ol⁢ se搩⁡琠慬l敶els ⁴ 攠eys瑥t



䥤I湴ific慴a潮 ⁡ 灲潰pi慴a⁰ r瑮trshi灳⁦潲⁦i湡湣i慬Ⱐ,敳潵rc攠en搠d湳瑲畣瑩o湡l⁳異灯rt






34


Profes
sional Development

Activities

Strategies

In the short term

1.

Develop teaching/training programme
/modular packages for Pre
-
service/In
-
service in Maths/ Science/ English

2.

Review and revise curriculum where
necessary

3.

Develop materials where necessary (see
a
lso Curriculum, Assessment & Content)

-

Upgrading teachers to required competency levels in
Maths/ Science and Language

-

Conduct training needs analysis /performance gap
analysis in Maths/Science and English Language to
identify where teachers lack proficien
cy/ require further
training to attain nationally defined competency
standards

-

Prioritize needs and draw up short/medium
-
term plans
for pre/in
-
service programmes to ensure that teachers
meet required competency levels in Maths/Science/
English

-

Research an
d evaluate existing digital training
programmes and modular packages and resources in
Maths/Science/ English that are available nationally/
regionally/ internationally

-

Coordinate pilot programmes and modular resource
provision in digital format in Teacher

Colleges,
Faculties of Education, Teacher Resources Centres

-

Build capacity of ICT and Maths, Science and
Language specialist tutors and teachers in national
and district educational institutions


4.

Develop teaching/training programme
/modular packages in d
igitized format for
upgrading under
-
qualified/ non
-
education professional

5.

Review and revise curriculum where
necessary

6.

Develop materials where necessary (see
also Curriculum, Assessment & Content)

-

Upgrading under
-
qualified and non
-
education
professionals t
o required competency levels for
licensed teachers

-

Conduct training needs/ performance gap analysis

-

Prioritize needs and draw up short/medium
-
term plans
for in
-
service programmes to upgrade under
-
qualified
teachers and non
-
education professional to meet
r
equired competency levels for licensed teachers

-

Develop digital modular packages and resources

-

Coordinate pilot distance programmes and modular
resource provision in digital format in Teacher
Colleges, Teacher Resource Centres and via mobile
telephony net
works


In the medium to long term

7.

Introduce ICT in subject teaching in Pre
-
service and In
-
service TPD programmes


-

Research to identify digital content for subject areas
for initial, distance and school based models of
provision

-

Build capacity in the dev
elopment of Learning
Management Systems and Content management
systems

-

Introduce modular programs for ICT use in support of
learners with disabilities in the classroom

-

Establish conditions (podcasting/ video
-
conferencing)
for online communities group devel
opment of learning
resources for collective sharing via



35

Profes
sional Development

Activities

Strategies

8.