PART III WHAT SIMULATIONS ARE AVAILABLE NOW? Chapter 7 The Family of Simulations (FAMSIM)

burpfancyΗλεκτρονική - Συσκευές

8 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

159 εμφανίσεις



55

PART III


WHAT SIMULATIONS ARE AVAILABLE NOW?


Chapter 7


The Family of Simulations (FAMSIM)



This chapter discusses the C2 training simulations approved by the Army for
development, funding, and fielding. The NSC is the Army's executive agent for FAMSIM
and provides the functions listed above plus first use assistance and exercise support to
user
s. An overview of these simulations is presented in Section 7.2, FAMSIM Overview,
followed by a more detailed perspective of each FAMSIM model.


Section 7.1

Standardization of C2 Training Simulations



Previous sections of this handbook discussed the proliferation of models used in the Army for C2
training and the need for standardization. This standardization is under the auspices of the FAMSIM which
includes both software and hardware standardization
. Uniformity and cost savings are offered to the Army
with the standardization of C2 training simulations as are interoperability, exchangeability, and training
continuity.


Section 7.2

FAMSIM Overview



*

Background
. The Army FAMSIM consists of a propone
nt
-
approved group of simulations for
training unit commanders, battle staffs, CPs and HQs in CPXs, as well as leader development training
simulations. The overall objectives for FAMSIM are to continue evolutionary enhancements to FAMSIM to
ensure that the

simulations remain relevant. Robust PDSS and contractor logistic support programs will
ensure that the simulations remain reliable. The current objectives are to give commanders the ability to
train subordinate commanders and staffs from platoon throu
gh corps in synchronizing all the BOSs under
conditions that closely replicate the battlefield. Each corps and division will be able to conduct home station
CPXs for a variety of theaters and scenarios to include the integration of heavy, light, aviation,
and

SOFs.



*

Current Simulations
. There are six fielded simulations in FAMSIM: Janus, SPECTRUM,
BBS, CBS, TACSIM, and CSSTSS.



56




*


Future Developments
. The major development efforts for FAMSIM is WARSIM 2000. WARSIM 2000 is
addressed briefly below and in
-
depth in Chapter 15.



WARSIM 2000 will exploit new technology to enable CPs at all echelons to train in a realistic, DIS
compliant, simulation envir
onment. The increased realism of WARSIM 2000 over existing models will allow
units to synchronize across each operating system in depth. WARSIM 2000's design will allow warfighting
CPs to interact with the simulation using their TO&E equipment so that th
ey can train in the field, not in
simulation centers. WARSIM 2000 will also be capable of depicting a joint and combined environment
across the operational continuum.



*

Battle Simulation Centers (BSCs) with mainframes
.




**

I Corps




Fort Lewis, WA




Commercial (COMM) (206) 967
-
4138

DSN 357
-
4138




**

III Corps




Fort Hood, TX




COMM (817) 287
-
6875

DSN 737
-
6875




**

V Corps




Frankfurt, GE




COMM 011
-
49
-
69
-
151
-
7711

DSN 320
-
7711




**

XVIII ABN Corps




JANUS





SPECTRUM






BBS







CBS








TACSIM









CSSTSS



Figure 7.2
-

Members of the FAMSIM



57




Fort Bragg, NC




COMM (919) 396
-
2700/2603

DSN 236
-
2700




**

Korea BSC




COMM 011
-
82
-
27
-
915
-
8020




**

NSC




Fort Leavenworth, KS




COMM (913) 684
-
8435

DSN 552
-
8435


Section 7.3

Janus



JANUS is a low
-
cost, flexible, interactive, event
-
driven wargaming simulation used for training
platoon and
company
-
level commanders, as well as battalion and brigade staffs.



When used for training at the platoon and company level, players must consider all aspects of
employing their forces just as they would in combat. JANUS accurately models both friendly a
nd enemy
weapons systems with resolution down to the individual platform (i.e., T
-
80, M2, or individual soldier
weapons). These systems have distinct properties, such as dimension, weight, carrying capacity,
weapons, and weapons capabilities. All the abo
ve can be effected by terrain and weather.



As a staff trainer, JANUS provides a detailed environment requiring detailed Commander
-
S2/S3
interaction as they develop and execute the tactical plan. Commanders must apply sound warfighting
principles and ach
ieve full synchronization of the BOS tofight a successful JAUS battle.



Recent changes to JANUS include increased modeling of supply classes III and V (including
tracking of ammunition by rounds and caliber, and bulk refueling operations); multiple kill
categories;
building rubbleing; and modeling of maintenance operations and personnel replacement operations.



At the battalion and brigade level, Janus serves as an excellent training simulation requiring
detailed Commander
-
S2/S3 interaction as they deve
lop and execute the ground tactical plan.
Commanders must apply sound warfighting principles and achieve full synchronization of the BOS to fight a
successful Janus battle. Normal training time for workstation interactors and warfighters is projected to
be
8
-
12 hours.



Janus offers fully automated AAR capability. The Janus Analyst Workstation (JAWS) provides the
capability to track and replay the battle exactly as it ran during the simulation, with selecti
ve retrieval and
graphic display of combat operations and activities information, such as time and location of direct fire kills.



Janus uses digitized high resolution terrain, displaying it in a format similar to standard military map
representation
-

co
ntour lines, roads, rivers, vegetation, and urban areas are all represented. System
capabilities will allow up to a 100 km x 100 km playbox during game play.



Janus is hosted on Hewlett Packard (HP) 700 series hardware operating in the UNIX environment.
A suite will normally include 16 workstations and a host computer. Each workstation is capable of receiving
input from two separate input/output (I/O) devices providing the capability for up to 32 independent activities
being planned and/or executed simul
taneously. TRADOC schools are fielded with two eight workstation
suites and two host computers. USAR Battle Projection Centers (BPCS) also received two of these eight
workstation suite configurations. Units from FORSCOM, USAPACOM, and USFK will be field
ed with one
16 workstation suite per division. Activities such as JFKSWC, JRTC, NTC, and TCDC have tailored suites.



58





*

ECHELON
.

JANUS provides effective leader development training for brigade down
through individual crew and squad elements. The pr
imary focus at company and below is on tactics. At
battalion and above JANUS provides leader development and battle staff training. Current versions of
JANUS do not provide full staff training due to the limited modeling of CS/CSS functions.




*

FUNCTIO
NALITY
. Provides synchronization training for BOSs primarily those in the S2
and S3 areas. Major functionalities include the following.



Move and Deploy

Obstacles

LOS Display


Helo Pop
-
up positions

Suppression

Direct Fire (DF)


Artillery Msns/PGMs

Statu
s Reports

Unit and TF Options


Class III/V Consump/Resupply

Zoom Capability

Kill Report


Enhanced Counter Battery Radar

Symbology

Duel Graph Tablets


Artillery Impact Recording

AVLB Play

Replay Function in JAWS


Minimum SSKP for DF Weapon

MOUT

Minefield Br
eaching


"SEE ALL" Workstation

Engineer Play

Terrain Effects


Dead Vehicles as Obstacles

Enhanced AAR

DF Fratricide


Expanded Artillery Mission Types

Rubbling Buildings

Friend
-
See
-
Friend (LOS)


Heterogeneous Aggregates

Mount and Dismount Ops


Multiple Kill

Types (Mobility, Firepower, Total) with evac/repair


MILES category personnel casualties




NETWORK CAPABILITY
. Janus operates on a thin wire LAN Ethernet using TCP/IP
network protocol.

Work is on
-
going by TRAC and other agencies to give JANUS DIS li
nkages to other
simulations and C4I systems
.




HARDWARE
. JANUS is currently available i
n two configurations. The older configuration
consists of Hewlett
-
Packard 715
-
series mini
-
computers running the HP
-
UX Unix operating system. These
HP Unix suites were fielded to the Army in 1994. Each suite also includes an Electrohome 4100 system
proje
ctor for use in the AAR.

Beginning in 1998, JANUS was being fielded to the ARNG separate brigades and divisions on personal
computers running the Linux operating system. These suites also include a Boxlight projector for AAR
support.




*

BASIS OF ISSUE (
BOI)
.

TRADOC schools have two each eight
-
workstation suites.
FORSCOM/USARPAC/USFK units have one 16
-
workstaton suite per division. Activities such as JFKSWC,
JRTC, NTC, and NSC received tailored suites. ARNG enhanced Separate Brigades are currently bei
ng
fielded three to five 16
-
workstation suites per brigade. ARNG combat divisions are being fielded one
16
-
workstation suite per ground maneuver brigade.




*

UNITS PLAYED
. Resolution is to individual weapons systems. A scenario editor provides
access t
o system and weapon characteristics, battlefield descriptive parameters, and scenario force
structures. Up to 400 different systems can be defined and used to create up to 1200 combat, CS, or CSS
units. Each icon can model up to 15 elements of the same s
ystem(s); i.e. one "tank" symbol may represent
and play up to 15 separate tanks within the unit modeled.



59



*

PLAYBOX USED
. Up to 100 km x 100 km.



*

PERSONNEL REQUIRED
. Minimum to operate/support the system, Janus requires one
system manager and one tra
ining manager. The NSC additionally recommends two military: one OIC and
one Threats controller. The system manager and the training manager may be either GS employees or
contractor supported. Additionally, there must be one operator/interactor per I/O

device. The interactor is
provided by the unit to be trained. The train
-
up requirement for a new interactor is estimated to be 8
-
12
hours.



*

FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS
.

The current version fielded to the AC is JANUS 7.0, released
in August 1997. This versio
n runs only on the HP
-
UX operating system. The current version fielded to
ARNG units is JANUS 6.3.3. This version runs on the Linux operating system and can run on either
personal computers or the HP 715 minicomputers. JANUS 7.1, to be released April 19
99 and will be
available in both a HP
-
UX and a Linux configuration so that it can also run on personal computers.


was released to the training community in August 97.




Section 7.4

SPECTRUM



Spectrum was designed by the National Simulation Center, as a

command and control training
simulation, to address a deficiency in command and control training in military operations other than war
(MOOTW). All other military simulations model force on force combat operations. The complex nature of
MOOTW is not new
to our government nor its military. Recent examples include operations in Haiti, Desert
Shield, Somalia, Bosnia, and Hurricane Andrew. Since the end of the Cold War, the United States (US) and
others have found a growing need to
train and prepare

its gov
ernmental agencies and military forces to
respond to national and international crises

in MOOTW.



Spectrum is fielded to users after their attendance at a New Equipment Training (NET) course. A
Spectrum NET is normally conducted once each quarter at the
National Simulation Center located in Fort
Leavenworth, Kansas. Instruction is presented in a “train
-
the
-
trainer” format for the general user, system
administrators, and the database manager.



Spectrum operates in the Windows


environment on IBM compatible personal computers. The
decision to build Spectrum on this operating
platform was based on two significant factors. First, networked
personal computers are much cheaper to procure, maintain, and operate. Second, most workstation
operators are familiar with the Windows


operating system, as s
uch the train
-
up time decreased
dramatically.. Additionally, the developmental time frame was compressed significantly by using
off
-
the
-
shelf commercial software applications. Originally, Spectrum was to be used on IBM compatible
486 33 MHz operating equ
ipment. The simulation will operate on this equipment but at slower speeds
deemed unacceptable by most users. Listed below is the recommended hardware and software required to
operate the Spectrum simulation.


COMPUTER HARDWARE



IBM Pentium processor, 133 MHz

4x CD ROM



60


64 MB RAM

1 GB hard drive



17" SVGA monitor, keyboard, mouse

1.44 MB disk drive


IBM compatible laser printers

(one per three workstations)



(HP Laserjet 4L or equivalent)


Network Cards
--
SMC 8000 or equivalent



Network Hub
--
24 user 3
-
com linkswitch or equivalent



SOFTWARE



For Novell Network Server users
:


MS Windows


version 3.1, 3.11 or 95 f



MS DOS version 6.0


or higher



Novell

Netware version 4.1


(25 user) or higher



MapInfo


4.0 (commercial mapping software) Runtime license




For Windows NT server users
:


MS Windows 95 and NT Workstation


MapInfo


4.0 (commercial mapping software) Runtime license



Spectrum operates using pull down menus to activate normal simulation functionality and contains
flexible database shells that allow the trainer to create any type unit, event, terrain

feature, geo
-
political
region, symbol, and other elements required to accomplish training objectives. The National Simulation
Center provides the software to run the simulation but the user must procure and install Novell Netware


or
NT Server and MapInfo Runtime

.



Spectrum performs much like other military simulations in terms of icons on a screen, movement,
combat adjudication, and mapping. Two unique features of Spectrum are the regional an
alysis model
(RAM) and the situational event generator (SEG).



The RAM uses a subject matter expert developed database to describe the political, economic, and
social characteristics of the region being simulated. It defines social groups, agencies, forces, outside
actors, and contenders and their political, economic
, and quality of life sensitivities. The RAM essentially
models all facets of a society and the internal and external factors influencing the region. The RAM is the
key to placing the training audience in the MOOTW environment because the actions of the
training
audience have a direct and indirect effect upon the society and can raise or lower support to operations by
the population. The RAM exposes the training audience to the complex, chaotic, and dangerous world of
the full dimensional area of operati
ons where the actions of the individual soldier may have national interest
and the success of the MOOTW mission may depend on proper execution within the society and population
as a whole.



Situational events (SEs) can be used to drive the accomplishment

of specific training objectives
during the exercise. Master Event and Incident List (MEIL) items are used to drive manually manipulated
Command Post Exercises (CPXs) and some training objectives can only be accomplished by one human
being entering into d
ialog with another. However, the SE generator is much more sophisticated than a


61

normal MEIL item. SEs are tied directly to specific training objectives and are activated in the simulation by
three methods: time (pre
-
determined game time by the exercise de
signer), proximity (one icon moves
within a database defined distance of another icon or coordinate on a map), or by protest level (a database
defined numerical value assigned to a RAM defined social group, institution, government, or outside actor
that ca
uses this group to openly protest through demonstration, active interruption of operations, or direct
disobedience and violence). SEs can be used to control the exercise and are written as either
informational, directional, or interactive. Informational
events provide the player/controller specific raw
information. Directive events are used by the Upper Control Cell (UCC) to cause the player/controller to
accomplish specific tasks within the simulation. Interactive situational events are designed to cau
se the
player/controller or other training audience to interact with the simulation by requiring a response to a
specific question or situation that is tied to a training objective.



Corps Battle Simulation (CBS), Brigade and Below Simulation (BBS), and J
ANUS execute
automatic combat engagements when one side sees another (red versus blue). These simulations
are considered two sided (JANUS being the exception) and only concern themselves with
adjudicating combat and combat related activities by using comp
licated algorithms to determine
outcomes. Spectrum provides an environment with multi
-
colored, multi
-
sided icons in an effort to
simulate realistic situations that is conducive to MOOTW. Even during war, economics, politics,
regional populations, non
-
gov
ernmental agencies (NGO), and humanitarian relief agencies (HRO)
are evident on the battlefield and require commanders to consider their impact. Spectrum portrays
the graphics and terrain of this environment and adds the human dimension. Again, Spectrum
performs differently than other simulations by design and users should not attempt to use Spectrum
as a force on force model. It should be noted however, that a simple combat engagement algorithm
exists in Spectrum for those incidents where combat is inev
itable.



Spectrum also contains a terrain editor that allows the creation of terrain features and performs
terrain manipulation functions including graphics and drawing tools, digitizer input, symbol editing, layer
control, and on line Help.



NSC Develop
ed Exercise Packages. The Spectrum team continues to develop "turn key on
-
the
shelf" exercises that are exportable to using units. Listed below are the exercise designs that are
available..


Bosnia. The purpose of this training support documentation is

to support a staff training
exercise for one or two division Battle Staffs engaged in peace operations.



*

Peace Enforcement/Peacekeeping, Nation Assistance and Humanitarian Relief for a battalion
task force operating at the tactical level



*

Govinia:

Peace Enforcement/Peacekeeping, Peace Building for an armor brigade task force in
a fictitious country that resembles Bosnia at the tactical level




Pineland: An unconventional warfare and foreign internal defense exercise for CA and
PSYOP augmented sp
ecial forces operational detachments in the fictitious country of Pineland
(North and South Carolina).




62





Mindadao. This training support package supports an exercise design for conducting a
situational training exercise (STX) for an Army Special Forces

battalion operating a forward operating base
(FOB).




Lantica. Provides all the exercise documentation for conducting a situation training exercise for a
theater support command (TSC).

The overall exercise design envisions a TSC supporting a multinational
and joint task force conducting combat operations against a modern, heavy OPFOR in a developed theater
of war




Haiti. Designed to support a staff training exercise for a brigade or
battalion task force engaged in
peace operations. Since the brigade or battalion task force may operate independently in an OOTW
environment, it is normally augmented with aviation, engineers, MPs, PSYOP, and civil affairs capabilities.




Spectrum is a l
ow
-
cost, high training yield, user friendly, flexible and adaptable simulation that fills a
void left by other training tools to prepare varying training audiences for MOOTW. It can support training
scenarios from the individual soldier to the National Co
mmand Authority and is limited only by the
imagination of exercise directors and designers. As the simulation evolves and new scenarios are
developed, the up front load tasks will be diminished as more and more users have on
-
the
-
shelf exercises
ready to e
xecute. The Spectrum team will continue to develop new exercises and provide them to the field
as they become available. Spectrum may serve as the baseline simulation from which all new simulation
technologies evolve to replicate the full dimensional envi
ronment of operations other war and indeed war
itself.



Section 7.5

The Variable Intensity Computerized Training System (VICTORS)



NOTE: VICTORS is an obsolete computer assisted board game that has a large user
-
group.
The NSC no longer provides field s
upport for this model, but will answer technical questions.




Section 7.6

The Brigade/Battalion Battle Simulation (BBS)



BBS is designed as a low cost training simulation used to provide maneuver brigade and battalion
commanders and their battle staffs w
ith the opportunity to practice decision making skills in the execution of
AirLand Battle doctrine in a realistic, multi
-
threat, time stressed combat environment. The commanders
with their battle staffs must be able to develop, correlate, and assess large

quantities of tactical and
logistical data, formulate situational estimates, and make immediate decisions in the C2 and
synchronization of combat, CS, CSS, and aviation assets. BBS supports training of combat maneuver
commanders and the staffs at brigade
and battalion levels. Company commanders, CS, and CSS units
also receive valuable secondary training as part of any BBS driven CPX. Normal training time for
workstation interactors and warfighters is 6
-
8 hours.




63


BBS offers fully automated AAR capability
. The Brigade/Battalion Battle Simulation After Action
Review (BBSAAR) provides the capability to store and replay up to 48 hours of battle information in 1
minute increments.


BBS uses laser video disks (LVDs) medium to generate terrain for wargaming act
ivity. The normal
playbox is a 175 km X 175 km terrain area. LVDs exist for the Fulda Gap, the CMTC (Hohenfehls,
Germany), Korea, the NTC (Fort Irwin), Fort Chaffee, Sardinia, Bosnia
-
Herzegovinia and the JRTC (Fort
Polk), Korea (WGS 84 Datum) 180 km X 180

km.


Next Generation Terrain Imagery: Digital Terrain (BBS Version 5.1)



BBS V5.1 introduced the use of Digital Terrain (DT) imagery. DT imagery will serve as the media
used to replace the imagery previously obtained from the LVD. DT image files are d
eveloped using ARC
(equal Arc second Raster Chart) Digitized Raster Graphics (ADRG). ADRG products are obtained from the
National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA). ADRG images are digital representations of paper map
products. Paper maps are converted
into digital data by scanning and converting the image into the ARC
system frame of reference. The ADRG images are imported into the DT program and converted into bit
map files (BMP). These BMPs are then compressed using the Joint Photographic Experts Gr
oup
compression (JPEG). The resulting JPEG files are written to CD
-
ROMs, which will serve as the distribution
media for the DT image files





DevelopCourses Of Action
Template Battlefield
Synchronize BOS
Issue Orders to Units
Role Players
Observer Controllers
Collect AAR Data
Training
Audience
Spot Reports
Unit Locations, & Status
Communications
Simulation
Center


Figure 7.6
-
1
-

BBS Simulated Battlefield



64


BBS runs on DEC MicroVax minicomputers with the objective suite having five VAX 3100
-
40's and
ten workstations. The suite runs on a Local Area Network as a fully distributed
simulation. The game can
be remoted to multiple sites using multiplexors, modems, and standard commercial telephone lines.



NSC recommends a minimum of three full
-
time personnel to operate the system: an OIC (Major or
GS
-
11), a System Manager (Captain or

GS
-
9), and a Database Manager/Threat Controller (Captain or
GS
-
9).



*

ECHELON
. BBS has been developed to provide a CPX driver for tactical level commander
and their staffs.




**

BBS supports training of battalion and brigade commanders and their staffs. It
provides a training environment and stimulation for all staff functions. It is particularly well designed to train
staff procedures and staff integration.




**

While designed

primarily as a CPX driver for combat units and their supporting
arms, BBS also serves as a staff trainer for CS and CSS.


*

FUNCTIONALITY
. Major functionalities include the following.



Direct Fire

Target Acquisition

Artillery Fires including FASCAM

Operational States

Digitized Terrain

Unclassified Database


Indirect Fire

Movement

Counter
-
Battery Radars


Engineers

Chemical/Nuclear

Personnel and Logistics


Weather Control

Ground Surveillance

Magnetic and Infrared Sensors


Smoke

Survivability

Casualty
Evacuation


Mobility

Countermobility

Airborne and Airmobile


Operations

Casualty Evacuation

Infrared Sensors


Air Defense

Archiving

Close Air Support


Army Aviation

Acoustic Sensors

Magnetic Sensors


1,000 Icons

Remoting Workstations

Archiving


Unmanned A
erial Vehicle

Terrain Editing


EPW/Refugee

Roll Up Reports

After Action Review Capability



*

NETWORK CAPABILITIES
. BBS is a fully distributed system of five MicroVax 3100
-
40s
utilizing a LAN to drive a standard configuration of 10 workstations. System a
rchitecture will allow up to a
42 workstation configuration. Remoting of mini
-
processors or peripheral hardware can be accomplished
through the use of multiplexors, modems, and standard commercial telephone lines to allow multiple site
exercise capability
.



*

HARDWARE
.




**

BBS is hosted on a DEC suite of five MicroVax 3100s using the VMS 6.1OS. Each
workstation has three DEC VT 320 terminals; a wide carriage, dot matrix printer; an Amiga 2000 HD PC or
DEC PC used as a graphics overlay device; a commer
cial LVD player; a 25,27 or 29
-
inch color monitor,


65

and an interactive mouse. Digital Terrain hardware includes: An internal 12X CD
-
ROM drive, needed to
load the files, and a 5.1 Gigabyte (gb) hard disk, to store and access the files.




**

Fielding. BBS S
uites currently exist at Fort Leavenworth, I Corps, III Corps, V
Corps, XVIII Abn Corps, 1st AD, 1st ID, 2nd ID, 3rd ID, 4th ID, 6th ID, 10th Mtn Div, 24th ID, 25th ID, 75th
Div(Ex), 78th Div(Ex), 85th Div(Ex), 87th Div(Ex), 91st Div(Ex), 101st Abn Div, CM
TC
-
Hohenfels, GE,
JFKSWC, Fort Polk, the Chemical School, the Infantry School, the Engineer School, the Artillery School,
the Air Defense Artillery School, the Armor School, the Aviation School, the Academy of Health Sciences
and the Battle Staff NCO Cours
e at Fort Bliss, TX.




*

UNITS PLAYED
. BBS is capable of modeling from individual soldier and individual
weapon through brigade size units with all accompanying weapons systems (i.e., from pistols through tanks
as well as other equipment and supplies). The standard unit size is platoon leve
l for ground maneuver
elements and individual systems for aviation and CSS specialty missions. The equipment database also
allows the modeling of many non
-
US weapon systems and platforms for both OPFOR and BLUEFOR.



*

PERSONNEL REQUIRED
. BBS requires a
minimum of three full
-
time personnel to
operate the system. A major or GS
-
11 OIC, a captain or GS
-
9 systems manager and a captain or GS
-
9
database manager/threat controller are recommended.



*

COMPATIBILITY
. Current BBS hardware is identical to that use
d for CBS. However, each
game has different software requirements and terrain products are not interchangeable. In addition, CBS
requires a mainframe computer and server.



*

FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS



Version 5.2 slated for release in December 1998 will incl
ude improvements on the Medical, Smoke
and OPFOR modules.




**

BBS version 2.3 was released in June 1993 and contained significant
improvements in maintenance, resupply and chemical play. Version 2.3.1, based on Bosnia
-
Herzegovina
terrain was fielded su
ccessfully to USAREUR in July 1993. Version 2.3.2 which eliminated code
duplications and improved Line of Sight algorithm was released on 1 Nov 1993. Version 3.0 contains an
improved graphic user interface, roll
-
up reports system, and POW and refugee pla
y. Version 3.0 was
fielded in November, 1994. Version 4.0 contains the BBSAAR, support for DEC PC graphics, improved
terrain editor, ability to create units during the exercise and an enhanced Artillery module. Version 4.0 was
fielded in November, 1995
. Version 5.0 included enhanced AAR capability, Video Capture, multi
-
sided
forces and a 24 hour game clock.

Version 5.0 was fielded in December, 1996. Version 5.1 will include the new Digital Terrain (DT) capability,
and significant improvements to the
engineer, artillery, after action review and air defense artillery



*

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
.




66

Future BBS versions will be developed and fielded annually, depending on resource availability and user
requirements, until WARSIM 2000 is fully fielded.



Se
ction 7.7

The Corps Battle Simulation (CBS)



CBS supports the collective training of division through corps commanders and their battle staffs.
Additionally, CBS forms the core of the ALSP Joint Training Confederation used to support joint force
training

up to theater level.



CBS runs on a network of DEC MicroVax minicomputers with the primary processor being a DEC
mainframe computer. A single minicomputer usually supports two to three workstations. Each Corps site
has a mainframe and approximately 42
workstations. Each CONUS stand
-
alone division has
approximately 27 workstations but no mainframe. A division exercise must use remote connections (e.g.,
telephone lines) to a Corps mainframe to run CBS exercises.



*

ECHELON
. CBS supports training of
command staff officers at the joint, combined, corps,
division and brigade levels.



*

FUNCTIONALITIES
.



Ground Combat

Army Aviation

Artillery

NBC


Ground Movement

Air Defense

Infiltration

SOF


Tactical Air

Engineer

Logistics



67



*

NETWORK CAPABILITIES
. CBS network communications support distribution of
workstations to any user site. The CBS network normally comprises one or more Ethernet b
ased LANs.
These are connected by dedicated communications processors into a WAN. The LANs use the Ethernet
and DECnet satellite communications links.



*

HARDWARE
.




**

CBS Version 1.5.4.1 runs on a network of DEC Virtual Address Extension
(VAX)/Virtua
l Memory System (VMS) minicomputers. The primary processor is a VAX 7620 with the VMS
OS. The standard supporting hardware configuration includes 512 Mbs of Random Access Memory
(RAM).



**

A workstation hardware suite consists of one large color video monitor, a graphics
pad, a laser video disk player, a graphics display controller, a printer, and three computer terminals. A
MicroVAX 3100/40 usually supports 2
-
3 workstations. CBS suites
are currently installed at the following
TIR I sites: I Corps, III Corps, V Corps, XVIII Airborne Corps, Eighth US Army, Korea, and the National
Simulation Center. The following sites have CBS workstation suites: 1st AD, 75th Div (Ex), 85th Div (Ex),
91s
t Div (Ex), 78th Div (Ex), 87th Div (Ex), 25th ID, 3rd ID, 10th Mtn Div (LI).



*

UNITS PLAYED
. Friendly ground combat forces are generally modeled down to battalion

Mobility
Countermobility
Survivability
Intelligence
Combat
Service
Support
Air
Defense
Artillery
Fire
Support
Command
and
Control
Maneuver
CBS
X
XXXX
XXX
XX
Joint or
Theater



Figure 7.7
-
1
-

CBS



68

level. Friendly and OPFOR air forces are modeled down to squadron level. OPFOR ground c
ombat forces
are usually modeled to regimental level. Specialized activities such as Engineer and ADA are generally
modeled to lower levels.



*

PLAYBOX USED
. There are currently sixteen terrain databases available.. Available
playboxes include Central

America, Southwest Asia, Central Europe, Korea, Expanded Europe, SW USA,
Bosnia, Cuba, Lantica, Atlantis, Philippines, Algeria, Nigeria, North Japan, South Japan, and Western
Europe.



*

PERSONNEL REQUIRED
. Approximately 600 personnel are required to co
nduct a Corps
level exercise, a Division level exercise requires approximately 300 personnel.



*

FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS
. Fielding of CBS 1.5.4.1 was recently completed in 1998.
The Simulation, Training, and Instrumentation Command (STRICOM) is providing
post development
software support (PDSS). CBS version 1.5.4.2 is scheduled to be released in June 1999. Improvements
planned to be introduced with 1.5.4.2 are the Army ALSP Confederation (CBS/CSSTSS/TACSIM) Version
of the CBS
-

EADSIM linkage, enhanced r
epresentation of ground combat, some improvements in the
aviation/ADA play, and a new organizational tracking architecture (Unit Identification Code Concept) to
resove a number of problems with the efforts to integrate CBS to C4I Systems. Subsequent vers
ions of
CBS will be developed and fielded annually, depending on resource availability and user requirements, until
WARSIM is fully fielded.


SECTION 7.8 The Tactical Simulation (TACSIM)



The TACtical SIMulation (TACSIM) is the Army’s primary intelligenc
e simulation. It is fully
accredited by the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) and a compatible member of the Joint Training
Confederation (JTC). TACSIM can also be used in a point to point configuration to support CBS only.
TACSIM is designed to provide

training for intelligence collection managers, analysts, and staffs. It
accomplishes this mission by simulating or stimulating the entire spectrum of intelligence operations. The
TACSIM suite is composed of several systems: a main simulator hosted on a
DEC ALPHA; a sub system
responsible for message addressing, message classification, simulated analyst capability, and after action
reports, hosted on a SUN SPARC ULTRA; a “real world” High Order Language (HOL) Communications
Support Processor; a sub system

sponsored by the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) called NWARS
which provides national level intelligence simulation and is hosted on a SUN SPARC ULTRA; and a stand
alone workstation, which is used for tasking collection missions. TACSIM is accredite
d to operate at the
SCI security level therefore all TACSIM hardware must be operated in a SCIF. However, TACSIM can
disseminate through the Multi Level Security (MLS) HOL intelligence products down to the unclassified
level.




FUNCTIONALITY
. TACSIM is
a near
-
real
-
time simulation that aids in the training of
intelligence specific skills or general intelligence staff skills. TACSIM has the capability to simulate any
intelligence sensor from national through the division tactical level. TACSIM replicates

sensors through a
set of highly sophisticated collection models, which have been independently validated in performing like
“real world” sensors. TACSIM also has a Generic Sensor capability, which allows a user to define and build
a collection sensor, wh
ich is not included in the standard collection suite. This supports users with new


69

equipment or prototype sensors that have not been fully fielded as well as providing users a way to simulate
those sensors that are currently in the inventory but have no c
orresponding TACSIM sensor.


The TACSIM integrated Battlefield Intelligence System (IBIS) is a group of processes, which provide
automated message declassification, message addressing. Additionally, IBIS contains an artificial analysts
capability called A
NALYST. ANALYST collates all TACSIM raw products and based on a set of user
defined parameters, produces a Situation Report (SITREP) or Size Activity Location Uniform Time
Equipment (SALUTE) report. The Analyst functionality is used by those units who do

not have the
capability to handle raw intelligence, or who cannot receive classified information at the SCI and/or
collateral level. The IBIS After Action Report (AAR) system provides preformatted or ad hoc (based on
defined query) AAR reports upon deman
d to users. Another TACSIM sub system called the High
Resolution Sytem Stimulator (HRSS) receives aggregated CBS information and deaggregates it to
stimulate the Joint Stars Simulation System (JSS) and the Multiple Unified Simulation Environment
(MUSE).



70




*

NETWORK CAPABILITIES
. TACSIM is an accredited member of the JTC. TACSIM is the
only intelligence simulation in the JTC. It supports intelli
gence training requirements for all the services and
models within the JTC. The JTC is linked via ALSP simulation protocol. When used in the JTC, TACSIM
communicates through ALSP to the JTC via TACSIM ALSP Translator (TAT). When used exclusively with
CB
S, TACSIM uses an interface called the TACSIM Interface Processor (TIP). The external TACSIM
components i.e. those located outside the SCIF are networked via DECNET and TCP/IP. Internally,
TACSIM systems communicate over the closed network inside the SCI
F via TCP/IP.



TACSIM simulates product origination but uses the real
-
world communications systems. Since
TACSIM product is released in standard USMTF format, TACSIM has the capability to send to any address
within the DOD
system. The TACSIM Communications Support Processor (CSP) is the center piece for all
TACSIM communications. The CSP permits communications directly to all currently fielded Intelligence
processors and pre
-
processors. For example the message parser of t
he All Source Analysis System
(ASAS), Enhanced Tactical Users Terminal (ETUT), Mobile Integrated Tactical Terminal (MITT) can
process TACSIM reports without having to make modifications or work
-
arounds. The CSP enables
TACSIM to transmit USMTF formatted

reports via AUTODIN, leased or dial
-
up commercial telephone lines,
Mobile Subscriber Equipment, TROJAN, and TRAP and other satellite links and broadcasts.



*

HARDWARE
. A single TACSIM suite consists of: a DEC ALPHA 1000; 4 SUN SPARC
ULTRAs (1
-
IBIS, 1
-
NW
ARS, 1
-
HRSS, 1
-
HOL CSP); a DEC 3100 model 40 which hosts the TIP/TAT; a VAX
3100 model 96 which hosts the TIP/TAT; and a VAX 3100 model 40 which hosts the TACSIM Message
CSS/TSS
JCAS
CBS
AWSIM
AFSAF
TACSIM
MTWS
LAD
PSM
AMP
RESA
JECEWSI
ALSP
LAN
ALSP
LAN
Unclassified
Users
Collateral Users
NATO ROK
SCI Users
HRSS
JSS
TIP
TAT
DTI
DMMAIN
TMAP
HOL CSP
BTLSPC
DBI
Analyst
AAR
MAFS
TACSIM
NWARS
SUPPORTS MULTI-LEVEL USERS
JOINT TRAINING
CONFEDERATION PLAYERS


Figure 7.8
-
1
-

TACSIM Support Array



71

Audit Processor (TMAP). TMAP is a security requirement necessitated by the multiple l
evels of security in
which TACSIM operates. Peripherals and special hardware requirements are X
-
Windows terminals, ASC II
terminals, and printers. The network requirements are RS232, TCPIP, Ethernet and DECnet.



*

UNITS PLAYED
. TACSIM is a theater
-
le
vel model capable of resolution and reporting
down to individual items of major equipment such as tanks, radar and artillery. Up to 19,000 enemy units
can be played in TACSIM. These units can range from “FRONTS” down to individual units as small as
‘plat
oons” or “squads’ as long as there are major pieces of equipment assigned to the “unit”. The database
for TACSIM in the linked mode is totally dependent on and controlled by the OPFOR Commander, who
controls the OPFOR database through the combat model bei
ng used, such as CBS. For TACSIM to
maintain an OPFOR database that is the mirror image of the combat model database requires not only that
the initial databases be identical, but also that the combat model constantly sends updates to TACSIM, as
the OPFOR

database is changed, splits and merges, or as the OPFOR controllers move and degrade units.
In the stand
-
alone mode, a database is prepared and maintained within the TACSIM system. When
building a database for stand
-
alone training, the developers must a
lso add pre
-
scripted movement to the
OPFOR units.



*

PLAYBOX
. The TACSIM playbox is unlimited and is expandable from company to EAC
level. It is not restricted by playbox for linkage to another simulation. Databases and scenarios have been
developed fo
r Europe, Asia, Caribbean, US and the Middle East.



*

PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS
. The TACSIM suite requires trained personnel with
TS/SCI security clearances for operation within a Secret Compartmented Information Facility (SCIF).
Recommended minimum staffi
ng is four operators per shift in the SCIF however, for enhanced operational
flexibility the TACSIM SCIF personnel could be increased up to eight operators per shift. One person is
required to run the HRSS. HRSS is not an SCI level system and is not loca
ted in the SCIF. The operator is
not required to have a SCI clearance. Additionally TACSIM requires at least one controller, per shift in the
simulation control center and at least one tasking operator per shift with each exercise intelligence element
ha
ving tasking authority for TACSIM. Tasking operators are normally provided by the exercise units.



Section 7.9

The Combat Service Support Training Simulation System (CSSTSS)



CSSTSS (Version 1.5)



*

ECHELON
. CSSTSS 1.5 trains C2 tasks for commanders a
nd staffs from DISCOM,
COSCOM, Theater Army Area Command (TAACOM), Theater Army (TA), and subordinate commands
down to battalion level.




*

FUNCTIONALITY
. Major subsystems follow.



Supply

Transportation

Mortuary Affairs


Liquid Logistics

Maintenance

Pe
rsonnel


Ammunition

Medical

Rear Operations



72


Close and Deep

RSO&I



The Combat Service Support arena in the early 1970’s was also lacking a comprehensive
training simulation with which to train the commanders and staffs from battalion to Ech
elons Above Corps
level. A CPX driver was needed for the major logistics exercise at that time which was the annual Army
Logistics Center (USALOGC) exercise known as LOGEX. The deficiency was documented and
development of the Combat Service Support Train
ing Simulation System (CSSTSS) was begun. Due to the
complexity of the interaction of CSS functions on the battlefield and as depicted by a simulation, a build and
test approach was taken by USALOGC. A module would be developed and tested, then added to
the other
operating modules. Although this approach took several years to develop the model, it resulted in a fully
integrated, functional model available for training the logistics imperatives to combat and logistics
commanders and staffs throughout the
Army. In 1994, work linked this CSS model to the major combat
exercise driver, Corps Battle Simulation (CBS), and to the Army’s logistics command and control system,
Combat Service Support Control System (CSSCS) in 1995. CSSTSS has since been used to sup
port
numerous stand alone CSS exercises, and linked to the Joint Training Confederation for combat, combat
support and combat service support integrated exercises.



*

NETWORK CAPABILITIES
. CSSTSS 1.5 supplies information to workstations on both
LAN and W
AN basis. The WAN uses terrestrial communications.



*

HARDWARE
. CSSTSS 1.5 is an IBM
-
based system. It is run on an IBM9121 computer
mainframe that is fielded at the Fort Leavenworth, KS and Fort Lee, VA.



*

UNITS PLAYED
.




**

Simulates over 9000 unit flags (limit undefined).




**

Simulates over 2000 played items (limit undefined).




**

Simulated road and rail networks, waterways and air transport.




**

Emulates STAMIS reports for functional areas.



*

PLAYBOX USED
. CSSTSS 1
.5 will use the same playbox as CBS in the linked mode. In
the unlinked mode, a terrain DB is not used. Current terrain databases available for CBS are Europe,
Korea, Southwest Asia, Central America, and Japan. In the stand alone mode, a terrain DB is n
ot used, but
any theater can be depicted (without graphics).



*

PERSONNEL REQUIRED
. CSS commanders and staffs being trained. Additional
personnel will be required to play lower and adjacent CSS units. The simulation will be designed to train
commanders

and staffs from the Theater Army (TA) to DISCOM level and subordinate units.



*

FUTURE DEVELOPMENT
. The functionalities of CSSTSS will be included in Warfighters’
Simulation (WARSIM) 2000.




73


Section 7.10 FAMSIM Training Audiences



The FAMSIM members
are effective training tools when their capabilities are matched with the
echelon and trainees to be targeted in those echelons. FAMSIM members are normally used to support
training as outlined in Figure 7.10.



SIMULATION

TRAINING AUDIENCE



TACSIM

INTELLIGENCE STAFFS AT ALL ECHELONS IN THE JOINT
AND COMBINED COMMUNITIES, INCLUDING ANALYSTS
AND INTELLIGENCE COMPONENTS OF THE BATTLE
STAFFS.



SPECTRUM

COMPANY TO DIVISION COMMANDER; STAFF; 1SG AND
PLATOON LEADERS; G AND SPECIAL STAFF; MAJOR
SUBORDIN
ATE COMMANDERS



JANUS

PLATOON LEADERS TO BRIGADE COMMANDERS, BATTLE
STAFF (S1 S2; S3, S4)



BBS

BATTALION AND BRIGADE COMMANDERS; PRIMARY AND
SPECIAL STAFF; PLUS COMPANY AND BATTALION
COMMANDERS



CBS

SEPARATE ARMOR AND INFANTRY BRIGADE TO EAC
COMMANDERS; PRIMARY AND SPECIAL STAFF; PLUS
BRIGADE TO CORPS COMMANDERS



CSSTSS

CSS COMMANDERS AND STAFF FROM BATTALION TO EAC


Figure 7.10
-

FAMSIM Members Matched to Training Audiences



FAMSIM represents the a
pproved Army C2 training simulations that the trainer has
to assist in training. The Army's resources are devoted to enhancing these simulations to
ensure that the trainer continues to have realistic training tools available well into the 21st
Century.