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UNIT 1


INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS


2 MARKS


1. What is a Computer?


A Computer is an electronic machine, devised for performing calculations and controlling
operations that can be expressed either in logical or numerical terms.


A Computer is an electronic

device that converts raw data into valid or meaningful
information.


Data


Information

Input


Process


Output







2. Define data and information.


Data:
Raw material for information processing. It is the input given to the computer.

Information:

The processed data is called information. It is the output of the computer.


3.

What are the basic operations of Computer?




Input




Process




Output




Storing




Controlling


4.

What are the applications of Computers?




Word Processing




Internet




Desktop pub
lishing




Digital video or audio composition




Mathematical Calculations, Research, Robotics




Weather analysis




Industry, Banking


5.

Explain: Computer Vs Human being




The computer can perform any arithmetic task with high speed which a man cannot
perform
.




The advantage of using computer is that it can execute tasks with more accuracy and
speed than human being.




Page 1


D. Abila Princy, Lecturer, SRIT.




Human being is not restricted by any limits, but computer is restricted by limited step by
ste
p instructions called program.




Human being can think, discover but the computer can simply compare, calculate and
manipulate.


6.

Explain: Computer Vs Calculator


S. No

Characteristics

Calculator

Computer







1.

Speed

Fast

Much Faster









Simple

Calculations

Complex problem


2.

Performance

and numeric

and non


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processing

processing









Less internal memory

Large internal


3.

Memory

and no permanent

memory and large


storage, temporary

permanent storage







storage on
ly

available.







4.

Machine

Electronic device

Electronic device







5.

Operation

Arithmetic

Arithmetic and


Logical











7.

What are the characteristics of computer?




Speed




Accuracy




Automation




Endurance/Diligence




Versatility




S
torage capacity




Cost reduction




Resource Sharing




Memory


8.

Write about memory capacity.


Computers have more memory capacity in order to store large amount of data,
information and instructions. All information can be retrieved whenever required.


Mem
ory expressions:




1 Nibble = 4 bits




1 Byte = 8 bit




1 Kilo Byte = 1024 Bytes



Page 2


D. Abila Princy, Lecturer, SRIT.



1 Mega Byte = 1024 Kilo Bytes




1 Giga Byte = 1024 Mega Bytes




1 Tera Byte = 1024 Giga Bytes


9.

Mention some of the evolution of

computers.




Abacus




Pascal’s calculating machine




Punched card machines




Analytical and Difference engine




Electronic calculator


o
The Mark I Computer (1937
-
44)


o
The Atanasoff
-
Berry Computer (1939
-
42)


o
The ENIAC (1943
-
46)


o
The EDVAC (1946
-
52)


o
The EDSAC (1947
-
49)


o

The UNIVAC I (1951)


10.

Expand ABC, ENIAC, EDVAC, EDSAC, UNIVAC




ABC


Atanasoff Berry Computer




ENIAC


Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator




EDVAC


Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer




EDSAC


Electr
onic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator




UNIVAC


Universal Automatic Computer.


11.

What is meant by generation in computer terminology?


A generation is a ‘step’ in technology. Each generation is characterized by major
technology that fundamentally change
s the way computers operate.


12. Define vacuum tubes. Give example of system using vacuum tubes.


Vacuum tubes are fragile glass devices that use filaments as a source of electronics
and could amplify electronic signal.
Example:

ENIAC


13. Define Assembly

language.


Assembly language is a low
-
level language that allows a programmer to use simple
English words called mnemonics to represent instructions in a program.
Example:

LOAD,
STORE.


14. Specify the Electronic components used for different computer gen
erations.



Generations

Electronic Components



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Page 3


D. Abila Princy, Lecturer, SRIT.

15.

Narrate the languages used in computer g
enerations.




I Generation
-

Machine Language.




II Generation
-

Assembly Language, Mnemonics




III Generation
-

High Level Language, BASIC, PASCAL, COBOL, FORTRON.




IV Generation
-

4GL




V Generation
-

Artificial Intelligence.


16.

Write down the characteri
stics features of First Generation?




The Computers were based on vacuum tube technology.




They were the faster calculating devices of their time.




It uses circuitry and magnetic drums for memory.




It relies on binary coded language and solves only one
problem in a time.




Computation time is in the range of milliseconds.




They were too bulky in size, requires large rooms for installation.


17.

Write down the characteristics features of Second Generation?




The Computers were based on transistor technology
.




Assembly language was used for programming.




It is smaller in size and occupies less space compared to first generation.




Computation time is in the range of microseconds.




It generates lower heat compared to first generation.


18.

Write down the chara
cteristics features of Third Generation?




The Computers were based on Integrated circuit (IC) technology.




Extensive use of high level language becomes possible.




Lower power consumption.




More reliable and portable.




Smaller in size and occupies less

space compared to second generation.




Computation time is in the range of nano seconds.


19.

Write down the characteristics features of Fourth Generation?




The Computers were based on Micro
-
processor technology.




These computers are very small and cheap.




Hardware failure is negligible, so minimum maintenance is required.




GUI and pointing devices enables users to learn the use of computer quickly.




Interconnection of computers leads to better communication and resource sharing.


20.

Write down the charact
eristics features of fifth generation?




Mega chips:
Fifth generation computers will use Super Large Scale Integrated
(SLSI)

chips.




Parallel Processing:
Accesses several instructions at once and works on them at the

same time through the use of multiple
processing units.


Page 4


D. Abila Princy, Lecturer, SRIT.




Artificial Intelligence (AI):
It tries to simulate and reproduce human behavior,
including

thinking, speaking, and reasoning.


21.

What are the classifications of computers?




Super computer




Mainframe computer




Mini computer




Micro computer ( Hand held Computers(Palm top), Laptop PC

s, Personal computer)


22.

Define PC.


Desktop computers
are also known as Personal Computer (PC).It is a small single user

computer based on microprocessor. In addition to the microprocessor, a PC has keyboard for
entering data, a monitor for displaying in
formation and a storage device of saving data.
Examples:
Dell, HP, Samsung, etc.


23.

What is Super computer?




Super computer has the highest processing speed at a given time for solving scientific
and engineering problems.




It contains a number of CPUs that

operate in parallel to make it faster.




It is specially designed to maximize the number of Floating point operations per Second (
FLOPs)




Examples
: CRAY, PRAM and Cyber 205.



24.

Define Mainframe computer.


A Mainframe computer is an ultra high performanc
e computer made for high volume,
processor intensive computing. It consists of high end computer with related peripheral devices
capable of supporting large volumes of data processing, high performance and extensive data
storage. This type of computer is s
till very expensive and is not readily found in
architectural/interior design offices.
Examples:

IBM’s ES000, VAX 8000, CDC 6600.


25. Define Minicomputer
.


Minicomputers were developed in the 1960's resulting from advances in microchip
technology. Smaller

and less expensive than mainframe computers, minicomputers run at several
MIPS and can support 5
-
20 users. CAD usage throughout the 1960's used minicomputers due to
their low cost and high performance.
Examples:

DEC PDP, VAX 11.


26. Define Micro computer
.


Microcomputers were invented in the 1970's and were generally used for home
computing and dedicated data processing workstations. Advances in technology have improved
microcomputer capabilities, resulting in the explosive growth of personal computers in

industry.
In the 1980's many medium and small design firms were finally introduced to CAD as a direct
result of the low cost and availability of microcomputers.
Examples
: IBM, Compaq, Dell,
Gateway, and Apple Macintosh.


27.

What are the basic components of C
omputer?




Input Devices




Central Processing Unit (CPU)


Page 5


D. Abila Princy, Lecturer, SRIT.



Output Devices




Memory


28.

Give examples for Input devices of a computer.




Keyboard




Mouse




Joystick




Light pen




Scanner


29.

Give examples for Output
devices of a Computer.




Monitor




Printer




Plotter




Speaker


30.

What are the sub systems of the Central processing Unit (CPU)?




Arithmetic and Logic Unit(ALU)




Control Unit




Registers


31.

What are the types of memory?


Primary memory:
It is also known a
s main memory that stores data and instructions for

processing. It is the integral component of the CPU but it is physically placed on the computer
mother board. The two types of primary memory are RAM (Random Access Memory) and ROM
(Read Only Memory).


Se
condary Memory:
It is known as auxiliary memory or external memory. It is used for

storing instructions, since main memory is temporary and limited in size. It is least expensive
and has much larger capacity than primary memory. Example: Disks.


32. Differ
entiate: ROM and RAM



ROM(Read only Memory)

RAM(Random Access Memory)







It is a
non
-
volatile memory

It is a
volatile memory







The contents are permanent

The contents are temporary







Cost effective

Cost is very high







Available in h
igh storage capacity

Available in small storage capacity







Processing speed is low

Processing speed is high







Operating system supporting program is stored

User defined programs can be stored at any




time
















Page 6



D. Abi
la Princy, Lecturer, SRIT.

33. Differentiate analog and digital computers?



Analog computer

Digital computer



Process measured data

Process discrete data



Analog computers are not precise

Digital computers are more precise



Processing speed is l
ow

Processing speed is high



Less accuracy

More accuracy




34. What is number system?


A number is required for counting or to express the amount of some quantity. It consists
of group of symbols called digits, which are arranged in a definite manner
. The way of arranging
the digits is called as number system.


Example:
The decimal number system has 10 digits (0 … 9)

The binary number system has 2 digits (0 and 1)


The octal number system has 8 digits (0 … 7)


The hexadecimal number system has 16 digi
ts (0 … 9, A …F).


35. Define Base / Radix.


The number of digits in the number system is called as Radix or Base.
Example:
The decimal number system is called as Radix
-
10.


The binary number system is called as Radix
-
2.


36. What are the types of number s
ystem?


The two types of number system are Non positional number system and Positional
number system. In
Non positional number system

each symbol represents the same value
regardless of its position in the number. The symbols are simply added to find out t
he values of a
particular number. It is also called as additive approach.
Example: I for 1, II for 2, III for 3,

etc.


In
Positional number system

few symbols are used called as digits. Such symbol
represents different values depending on the position that

occupy in the number.

37. Convert hexadecimal number E6C4
(16)

into decimal number.


E 6 C 4 = E * 16
3

+ 6 * 16
2

+ C * 16
1

+ 4 * 16
0

16
3

16
2

16
1

16
0

= 14 * 16
3

+ 6 * 16
2

+ 12 * 16
1

+ 4 * 16
0

=

57344 + 1536 + 192 + 4

=

59076= 59076
10
.


E6C4
16

= 59076
10



P
age 7


D. Abila Princy, Lecturer, SRIT.

38. Convert binary number 100111.110
2

into decimal number.


100111.110
2

= 1*2
5
+0*2
4
+0*2
3
+1*2
2
+1*2
1
+1*2
0

+
.

1*2
-
1
+1*2
-
2
+0*2
-
3


=

32 + 0 + 0 + 4 + 2 + 1+.5+.25+0


=

39.75
10



100111.110
2

= 39.75
10


39. Convert the deci
mal number 3977.39
10

into Octal number.


8

3977










8

497
-

1









8

62


-

1

3977
10
= 7611
8









7



-

6











0.39*8 = 3.12
--


0.12 with carry of 3
0.12*8 = 0.96
--


0.96 with carry of 0

0.96*8 = 7.68
--


0.68 with carry of 7

0.39
10

= 0.3075
8


0.68*8 = 5.44
--


0.44 with carry of 5

3977.39
10

= 7611.3905
8


40. How will you convert CAB in hexadecimal to binary?


Hexadecimal numbe
r: CAB


C

A

B




1100

1010

1011


CAB
(16)

= 110010101011
(2)










Page 8


D. Abila Princy, Lecturer, SRIT.

16

MARKS



1.

Define computer and explain its characteristics.


2.

With suitable example, explain various number systems.


3.

Discuss the evolution o
f computers.


4.

Explain the fundamental units of computer with block diagram (Basic computer organization).


5.

Explain the generations of computer with advantages and drawbacks.


6.

Explain and detail about classification of computers.













































Page 9


D. Abila Princy, Lecturer, SRIT.