Evolution and Types of the Computers

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ICTL For Secondary School
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Computer

hardware

Module




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Evolution and Types of the Computers




























Curriculum Development Centre

Ministry of Education Malaysia



ICTL For Secondary School
-

Computer

hardware

Module




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1
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Evolution of the Computer




FIRST GENERATION (1940
-
1956)


The first generation of computer
s

were huge, slow, expensive and o
ften unreliable. In 1946, two
Americans,
Prospers

Eckert and Willian Mauchly build the
ENIAC

(Electronic Numerical
Integrator and Computer). It use
s

vacuum tube instead of mechanical switches of the MARK 1.















In 1951, Eckert and Mauchly build

the UNIVAC,

that

could calculate at the rate of 10,000 addition
s


per seconds.







Presper Eckert

Willian Mauchly

Vacuum tube

MARK 1

UNIVAC


UNIVERSAL AUTOMATIC COMPUTER


ICTL For Secondary School
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Computer

hardware

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SECOND GENERATION (1956
-
1963)


The famous computer scientists during the second generation era were:














The creation of
the
transistor spark
ed
the producti
on of
the

second generation computer.
Transistor
s were
small devices use
d

to transfer electronic signals across a resister. Transistors
had many advantages compared to other hardware technology.





transistors were smaller than vacuum tubes



they needed no
warm up time



consumed less energy



generated much less heat



faster and more reliable




THIRD GENERATION (1964
-
1971)


In the third generation era, the IBM

370 series was

introduced in
1964. It came in several models and sizes.It was used for business
and s
cientific program
me
s. Other computer models introduced
were
the
CDC 7600 and B2500.






The development of integrated circuit (IC), signal the beginning of the third

generation computers. Silicone chips were manufactured in 1961 at the

Silicone Valley.

Then came the integrated circuit technology, which had

reduced the size and cost of computers.









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Computer

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The microchip is a complete electronic circuit on small chip of silicon

known

as a
semi conductor.



FOURTH GENERATION (1971
-
PRESENT)


It took onl
y 55 years for the 4 generations to evolve. The growth
of the computer industry developed technologies of computer
inventions. There are many types of computer models such as:



Apple Macintosh



IBM



DELL



ACER


In 1971 Intel created the first microprocessor. I
n 1976, Steve Jobs built the first Apple computer.
Then, in 1981, IBM introduced its first personal computer.














During the fourth generation, hardware technology such as silicone chips, microprocessor and
storage devices were invented. A

microproce
ssor is a specialized chip that

is developed for
computer memory and logic.












The microprocessor is a larg
e
-
scale integrated circuit that

cont
ains

thousands of transistors.
The transistors on this one chip
are capable of performing
all

the functions of a computer's
central processing unit.




Steve Jobs

( Apple Mac
intosh)



Bill Gates

(IBM)

Micheal Dell

(DELL)

Microprocessor

Silicone Chips


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Computer

hardware

Module




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FIFTH GENERATION (PRESENT & BEYOND)


The fifth generation computers are technologically advance and
are still being develop
ed.


The inventions of new hardware technology in the fifth
generatio
n have grown rapidly
to include

many other modern
computer devices such as :



silicone chips



processor



robotics



virtual reality



intelligent systems



program
me
s which translate languages



NEW ERA COMPUTER


After the fifth generation computer, the technology
of computer
s

has become more advanced,
modern and sophisticated. The latest invention in the era of computers are :




Super Computers



Mainframe Computers



Mini Computers



Personal Computers



Mobile Computers





In the new era of computers, expert system
s

such as
teleconferencing and speech
-
recognition system
s

have been
invented as part of
the modern world communication tool
.








Mini Computers


Mainframe Computers


Personal Computers


Mobile Computer

Super
Computers



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Computer

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The
Cray
-
2

was the world's fastest
computer from 1985 to 1989.


Multi
-
user
mini computer

at RAL

Types of Computers



Supercomputer


Super Computers:

specifies that these are

the

most powerful
computers
compared to the
m
ainframe.




Additional Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supercomputer




Mainframe


Mainframe Computer: Is

a very powerful and larg
e computer. I
t

can

process many

users at a time.

Its
Termi
nals ar
e used to
connect a user to the

computer
.The

users submit the task
through mainframe.



Additional Source
:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mainframe_computer






Mini
c
omputer



Minicom
puters are smaller than
Mainframes (usually the size of a filing
cabinet). They have smaller memory and
are not as powerful as a mainframe.




Additional Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minico
mputer









ICTL For Secondary School
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Computer

hardware

Module




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Microc
omputer

The microcomputer is the smallest

group
of the computer
system

as

(usual
ly the size of a typewriter) it

can sit on a
desktop. A microcomputer allow
s only a

user at a time.
Microcomputers include: Home computers, Desktop comput
ers,
Portable computers, and Laptop computers.


© From the Hutchinson Encyclopaedia.

Helicon Publishing LTD 2007.

All rights reserved.



Additional Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microcomputer



:
http://www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/dictionaries/computers/data/m0008890.html




Work
s
tation


A type of computer u
sed for engineering applications (CAD/CAM), desktop publishing, software

development

and other types of applications that require a moderate amount of computing
power and relatively high quality graphics capabilities.


Workstations generally come with a l
arge, high
-
resolution graphics
screen, at least 64 MB (megabytes) of RAM, built
-
in network
support, and a graphical user interface.







Different
T
ypes of
C
omputer


There are a lot of terms used to describe computers. Most of these words imply

to

the si
ze,
expected use and

c
apability of the computer. T
he term

computer


can apply to virtually any
device that has a
microprocessor

in it

.




PC

-

The personal computer (PC)
is

designed for
personal

use
by a single person. PCs were first known as
microcompute
rs

because t
hey were a complete computer

built on a smaller
scale
.





Desktop

-

A PC that is
placed on a permanent location. Most of
them

offer more power,
storage

and versatility for less co
st.







Laptop

-

Also called
notebook
,
laptops

are portable
comp
uters that integrate the
display
, keyboard, a pointing

ICTL For Secondary School
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Computer

hardware

Module




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device or trackball, processor,
memory

and
hard drive

all in a
battery
-
operated

package slightly larger than an average hardcover book.






Palmtop

-

More commonly known as
Personal Digital Assistant
(PDA
)
, palmtops are tightly integrated computers that often use
flash memory

instead of a hard driv
e for storage. These computers

rely on
touchscreen

technology for user input. Palmtops are
typically smaller than a paperback novel, very lightweight with a

reasonable battery life.









Server

-

A computer that has been optimized to provide services
to other computers over a
network
.
Servers

usually have powerful
processors,
a large

memory and


hard drives.










Wearable

-

The latest trend in comput
ing are

wearable computers

integrated into watches,
cell phones
, visors and even clothing
.