Intel Open Cloud Vision Gold - Index of

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5 Φεβ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 4 μήνες)

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Cloud Industry Trends &

Customer Usage Models

Billy Cox

Director, Cloud SW Strategy

2012 August 10

IT Pros

Growth
& IT
Challenges Drive
Need for
Cloud Computing

1 Cisco Global Cloud Index Nov 2011

2 IDC
Extracting Value from Chaos June 2011

3 Intel ECG


One Smart Network device forecast

4 Cisco
Visual Networking Index: Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast Update, 2011

2016, Feb 2012

5

Datacenter
Dynamics Global Datacenter Energy Demand 2012 forecast
http://www.datacenterdynamics.com/research/energy
-
demand
-
2011
-
12
; projected to 2015 by Intel; Assume $0.10/kWh



15B

connected
devices by 2015
3

>3B

connected
users by 2015
1

Up to 2X or $27B
5


in additional data center
power costs by 2015

>11X

increase in mobile data
traffic by 2015
4

2X growth

in
information
every
two
years
2

Growth

IT Challenges

Avoid Lock
-
In

Seek interoperable solutions &
services

Improve Agility
Reduce service delivery
times, improve TCO

Greater Efficiencies
Reduce complexity & deploy
new workloads

Gain Better Insights

Via intelligent analytics

3

Cloud Adoption Growing & Delivers Benefits

4

Resource provisioning

Virtualized Platforms

Asset Utilization

Capacity

Traditional IT


2009

Private cloud
-

2011

90 days

45
minutes

12%

65%

10
-
20%

>60%

Silos

Shared
globally

$9M in savings in 2 years

Cost Savings



1
ODCA global member survey, Oct 2011,
N=63

2
Gartner, Dec 2010, N=55
The Road Map From Virtualization to Cloud Computing (G00210845
)

3 Source: Intel IT
-

http
://premierit.intel.com/docs


Intel IT example
3

Public

Cloud

Private

Cloud

Hybrid
Cloud

35% by 2015
2

Today: 7%

2014: 23%

Today: 14%

2014: 42%

IT Survey Results

>40% of IT
operations
1


>40% of IT
operations
1


Public

Cloud

Private

Cloud

Federated

Automated

Client Aware


Private
Cloud

Public
Cloud

5

Progress
Towards Vision of “Cloud 2015”

Today

Silo’d

Clouds

Growing
public and private
cloud adoption

Security, management
complexity, app migration

Resource
Provisioning:

Months
=>
Minutes

Manual
processes

Context
aware growing: screen
size, location, identity

Lack
client aware standards

6

2015 & Beyond: Open Cloud Vision

Open Clouds

Interoperable
,
Built on Open,
Multi
-
Vendor Solutions &
Industry Standards

Federated

Automated

Client
Aware

Private
Cloud

Public
Cloud

2015


Integrated hybrid clouds


Easy to compare services


Automated security and
resource allocation


Expanded context awareness

Private

Public

Future


Services & resources adapt to
environment


Predictive, real
-
time analytics


User experience adapts to
patterns/behaviors

Cloud high level framework

7

Cloud Management (Orchestration)

Fast
Storage

OSS

Mass
Storage

Service Provider

Network

Storage

BSS

Big data

Analytics

Cloud

Applications

Compute

Service Consumer

Servers:
Efficient, Secure, Highly Scalable

Challenges


Improve
OpEx
: Seek more
granular platform controls


Workload optimized platforms


Infrastructure security:1,200
new
rootkits/day
2


Enhance
QoS

& VM isolation

1.
Source: Intel


based on
SPECpower

results from 2006


2012. Refer to backup for more details.

2.
McAfee Labs, Quarterly Threats Report

3.
Source
Intel
-

2010


2020
Data center energy efficiency is determined by server energy efficiency (as measured by SPECPower_ssj2008 or equivalent publi
cat
ions and using a 2010 baseline of an E56xx series processor
-
based server
platform) as well as technology adoption that raises overall data center work output (such as virtualization
technology).
Performance
tests and ratings are measured using specific computer systems and/or components and reflect the approximate
performance of Intel products as measured by those tests. Any difference in system hardware or software design or configurati
on
may affect actual performance. Buyers should consult other sources of information to evaluate the performance of systems
or components they are considering purchasing. For more information on performance tests and on the performance of Intel prod
uct
s, visit
Intel Performance Benchmark Limitations
.




8


Platforms tailored to workloads


Advanced security, virtualization,
power & management controls

Benefits


Scale & improved automation


OpEx

&
QoS

improvements


More secure infrastructure

Homogeneous, Virtualized

Built in security / virtualization

>16X efficiency gains past 5 years
1

Environment

Future

Open Compute Project

Enablement

Contributions

Structure

Open Compute Projects

Impact of High Ambient Temp

Intel Analysis

Intel Internal estimate based on deploying HTA optimized system
24/7/365 ambient temperature in 15 MW New Mexico data center
with 5kW rack and 50% utilization. Assumed 10c/
kw

as cost of
power.



Data Center


15 MW datacenter with 10 KW rack and a 50% average
utilization. Standard Chilled water system, N+1 configuration


System


Compared an HTA optimized platform with a non optimized system


CPU, layout & heat sink


Reduction in cooling
energy costs


Power savings due to
optimized system


Energy savings
converted to server
power
-

from cooling
infrastructure reduction


Reduction in chillers,
cooling towers and ACU
by using free cooling

Optimized
Networking

for Cloud Infrastructure

12

Challenges


Complex management


Isolate multi
-
tenant networks


Scale & meet SLAs

Benefits


Agility, scale, improved
QoS


Network automation


Increase pace of innovation

Company


C


Company


B


Company


A


Multi
-
tenant

Dynamic

Network management

Company


C


Company


B


Company


A



Programmable


Open ecosystem


Standard high
volume hardware

Cloud OS

Network management

Controller

cluster

Environment

Future

configure

configure

configure

configure

configure

configure

Networks

Scalable Cloud
Storage

Advancements

Challenges


Limited scalability & cost effectiveness


Long deployment times

1 IDC Digital Universe Study 2011




14

Benefits


Scale up to
Exabytes


Lower cost $/
TB for
capacity


Flexibility

Traditional Centralized Storage


More efficient centralized storage


Scale out, highly distributed storage


Advanced storage capabilities

Scale out

Storage
Servers

Metadata
Servers

Application
Servers

50X

Increase in data
managed by
2020
1

20%

of all info “touched”
by cloud by 2015
1

Environment

Future

Servers

SAN

(Storage Area

Network)

Centralized

Scale
-
out storage

15

Lustre

Swift

Cloud Management (Orchestration)

16

Cloud Applications

Client Device

App types:


Local app


Browser


Browser app


Hybrid

Global
Transport

CDN

CDN

CDN

CDN

Cloud App

Pages

Images

Content

Logs

Analytics

Global transport:


Geo specific DNS


IP level transport


Geo specific content

CDN


“local” delivery


Caches ‘most’ content


May do local processing (encoding)

Cloud App


The datacenter part of the app


C#, Java, Ruby, PHP,
Javascript


Scale
-
out and across providers


Stateless instances

Storage


DB and
NoSQL


Replicated for performance
and availability


Scalable capacity and
throughput are critical

Analytics


For diagnostics


For business intelligence

Cloud Application

Cloud App

Logs

Pages

Images

Users

Financials

Client Device

LB

webfe

webfe

Geo
DNS

cache

IPS

LB

cache

SP

cache

cache

cache

IPS

LB

cache

SP

GEO

Geo
DNS

cache

IPS

LB

cache

SP

cache

IPS

LB

cache

SP

GEO

Financials

DB

Users

DB

Pages

Images

NoSQL

Logs

NoSQL

Analytics

Global Transport

~10TB

~1TB

~1PB

~100TB

CDN

Hadoop+

memcached

memcached

Scaling
Memcached

Performance

with Intel® Xeon® Server

Software Optimizations to
memcached

v1.6

Thread pinning

Age
-
Bag LRU

Lockless GET

Released to Open Source


Configuration

Optimizations

10 Gb NIC


Intel® 82599EN

16 TX and RX queues

Intel® Hyper
-
Threading™ Technology

Linux Kernel 2.6.30 or later


(multiple NIC TX and RX queues)


0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Relative Throughput

Number of cores

Throughput Scaling of GET

Memcached V1.6 Base vs.
Optimized

Optimized
Base
Software and workloads used in performance tests may have been optimized for performance only on
Intel®
microprocessors. Performance
tests, such as
SYSmark
*
and
MobileMark
*,
are measured using specific computer systems, components, software, operations and functions.
Any change to any of those factors may cause the results to vary. You should consult other information and performance tests
to
assist you
in fully evaluating your contemplated purchases, including the performance of that product when combined with other
products.
For more
information go to
http://
www.intel.com/performance
. Configuration:
see slide 39

20

Open Data Center Alliance

Defining requirements & amplifying voice of IT


Published IT Requirements for:


Secure
F
ederation


Enhanced Identity Management


Services Transparency & Automation


Common Management & Policy

Proposal Engine Assistant
tool:


Use ODCA usage models in RFPs


>$100B in annual IT spend

www.opendatacenteralliance.org

21

Source: ODCA member survey, Oct 2011

Accelerating Open, Interoperable Standards



ODCA collaborating with multiple industry organizations: CSA,
DMTF, Green Grid, OASIS, Open Compute Project, and
TMForum

Intel: Technical Advisor

Influence and Take Advantage of Emerging Industry Standards

22

Drive standards for development of the web

Intel: Active member

Open source software for building clouds

Intel: Active member

Publishes specs for efficient datacenters, server, storage

Intel: Founding member

Usage Models

Secure Federation


Secure Provider Assurance


Security Monitoring


Identity Management Interoperability Guide


Cloud based Identity Governance and Auditing


Infrastructure as a Service Privileged User Access


Cloud based Identity Provisioning


Single Sign on Authentication

Automation


IO Control


VM Interoperability


Long Distance Workload Migration

Common Management and Policy


Regulatory Framework

Transparency


Carbon Footprint


Service Catalog


Standard Units of Measure

23

VM Interoperability

24

Security Monitoring

25

From Intel IT

Category

Change/Add

Block Storage

Nova Volume HA

Block Storage

Boot from Volume support

Image Management

HTTP based image management

Image Management

Preserve in use images and snapshots

Manageability

An open, extensible deployment design that is not hardware vendor specific

Manageability

For the operators, a richer set of command
-
line tools

Networking

Security group enhancements

Networking

IP address management integration with external DNS servers

Security

OpenID federation to Keystone

Manageability

Macro Install All Projects Package/script.

Security

Optimized code for everything over SSL/TLS

Security

SDL and 3rd Party Code Auditing for Core

Security

Standardize Logging output for all Openstack Services and applications.

Security

Federation of roles and identities between different Openstack Instances/Implementations

Security

Implement Multifactor authentication options for administrative identities in Openstack

Security

User configurable RBAC

Capacity Management

User quota support

Manageability

Amazon Cloud Watch; Amazon Simple Workflow

Manageability

Add
federation or P2P capabilities for multiple OpenStack instances in the same environment to
work together.

Manageability

Change
Keystone

API to include CUD operations for administrators to manage tenants and user
memberships.

Manageability

Add sub
-
system for auto
-
scaling.

User Interface

Greatly improved Web interface enabling end user usage of GUI to consume Open Stack based
Cloud services

Image Management

Trusted Source Glance Peers with local Glance caching

Core

Added metrics/filter attributes for scheduler service

http://communities.intel.com/community/openportit/blog/2012/07/18/chipping
-
in
-
to
-
the
-
open
-
source
-
cloud

26

Closing

Cloud adoption is happening. Rapidly.


Cloud technology is on fast evolution path: hw and sw.


Infrastructure is evolving quickly in cloud environments.


Open source continues to be a strong influencer.


Customers have a
voice for their
requirements.



If 5 years ago, you knew the tools you would have today:
would you have implemented your IT differently?

27

28

Legal Disclaimer

Pages 33
-

36
-

Pick the ones needed


remove others

Overclocking Disclaimer

WARNING:


Altering clock frequency and/or voltage may: (
i
) reduce system stability and useful
life of the system and processor; (ii) cause the processor and other system components to fail; (iii) cause reductions in
system performance; (iv) cause additional heat or other damage; and (v) affect system data integrity.


Intel has not
tested, and does not warranty, the operation of the processor beyond its specifications.


Intel assumes no responsibility
that the processor, including if used with altered clock frequencies and/or voltages, will be fit for any particular
purpose.


For more information, visit
http://www.intel.com/consumer/game/gaming
-
power.htm


Overclocked

Memory Warning:


Altering PC memory frequency and/or voltage may (
i
) reduce system stability and use
life of the system, memory and processor; (ii) cause the processor and other system components to fail; (iii) cause
reductions in system performance; (iv) cause additional heat or other damage; and (v) affect system data
integrity.


Intel assumes no responsibility that the memory, included if used with altered clock frequencies and/or
voltages, will be fit for any particular purpose.


Check with memory manufacturer for warranty and additional details.

Overspeed

Protection Removed Warning:


Altering clock frequency and/or voltage may (
i
) reduce system stability and
useful life of the system and processor; (ii) cause the processor and other system components to fail; (iii) cause
reductions in system performance; (iv) cause additional heat or other damage; and (v) affect system data
integrity.


Intel has not tested, and does not warranty, the operation of the processor beyond its specifications.

Intel® Trusted Platform Module (
Intel® TPM
):
The original equipment manufacturer must provide TPM functionality,
which requires a TPM
-
supported BIOS.


TPM functionality must be initialized and may not be available in all countries.

WiMAX

Technology
requires a
WiMAX
-
enabled device and subscription to a
WiMAX

broadband service.


May require
purchase of additional software or hardware.


WiMAX

availability is limited; consult your service provider for details and
network limitations.


Actual performance will vary depending on your service provider and other variables.


See
www.intel.com/go/wimax

for more information.

Intel®
WiDi

Technology
requires an Intel® Wireless Display enabled PC, compatible adapter, and TV.


1080p and
Blu
-
Ray* or other protected content playback only available on 2nd generation Intel® Core™ processor
-
based PCs with
built
-
in visuals enabled.


Consult your PC manufacturer.


For more information, see
www.intel.com/go/widi



Intel® AES
-
NI requires a computer system with an AES
-
NI enabled processor, as well as non
-
Intel software to
execute the instructions in the correct sequence. AES
-
NI is available on select Intel® processors. For
availability, consult your reseller or system manufacturer. For more information, see
Intel® Advanced
Encryption Standard Instructions (AES
-
NI)


Home Server: Requires
an Internet connection and wireless router. Certain capabilities may not be compatible
with all computer systems, consult your system or device manufacturer. For more information, visit
Intel®
Home & Small Business Storage Developer
Resources

Client
Initiated Remote Access (
CIRA): Client
Initiated Remote Access may not be available in public hot
spots or "click to accept" locations. For more information on CIRA, visit
Fast Call for Help Overview




Legal Disclaimer

Built
-
In Security: No computer system can provide absolute security under all conditions. Built
-
in security
features
available on select Intel® Core™ processors may require additional software, hardware, services
and/or an Internet connection. Results may vary depending upon configuration. Consult your PC
manufacturer for more details.

Enhanced Intel
SpeedStep
® Technology
-

See the Processor Spec Finder at
http://ark.intel.com

or contact
your Intel representative for more information.

Intel® Hyper
-
Threading Technology (Intel® HT Technology) is available on select Intel®

Core™
processors.


Requires an Intel® HT Technology
-
enabled system.


Consult your PC
manufacturer.


Performance will vary depending on the specific hardware and software used.


For more
information including details on which processors support Intel HT Technology, visit
http://www.intel.com/info/hyperthreading
.

Intel® Pair & Share App requires a genuine

Intel® processor
-
based computer with Windows* 7 OS,
Intel®

Pair & Share device application installed on each supported device and the sharing session host
PC.


Host PC and devices must be connected to the same wireless network.


Intel® Wireless Display
technology required for sharing on TV.

Intel®
vPro
™ Technology is sophisticated and requires setup and activation.


Availability of features and
results will depend upon the setup and configuration of your hardware, software and IT environment.


To
learn more visit:


http://www.intel.com/technology/vpro
.

Intel® Small Business Advantage requires an Intel® Small Business Advantage enabled system and proper
configuration. Availability of features will depend upon the setup and configuration by your PC
manufacturer. Consult your system manufacturer.

Requires activation and a system with a corporate network connection, an Intel® AMT
-
enabled chipset,
network hardware and software. For notebooks, Intel AMT may be unavailable or limited over a host OS
-
based VPN, when connecting wirelessly, on battery power, sleeping, hibernating or powered off. Results
dependent upon hardware, setup and configuration. For more information, visit
Intel® Active
Management Technology
.

Intel
® Anti
-
Theft Technology (Intel® AT): No system can provide absolute security under all
conditions.


Requires an enabled chipset, BIOS, firmware and software, and a subscription with a capable
Service Provider.


Consult your system manufacturer and Service Provider for availability and
functionality.


Intel assumes no liability for lost or stolen data and/or systems or any other damages
resulting thereof.


For more information, visit
http://www.intel.com/go/anti
-
theft
.

Intel® HD Graphics P3000 are only available on select models of the Intel® Xeon® processor E3 family.


To
learn more about Intel Xeon processors for workstation visit
www.intel.com/go/workstation
.

Intel® High Definition Audio (Intel® HD Audio)
requires
an Intel® HD Audio enabled system. Consult your
PC manufacturer for more information. Sound quality will depend on equipment and actual
implementation. For more information about Intel HD Audio, refer to
Intel® High Definition Audio

Legal Disclaimer

Intel® 64 architecture requires a system with a 64
-
bit enabled processor, chipset, BIOS and software.


Performance
will vary depending on the specific hardware and software you use.


Consult your PC manufacturer for more
information.


For more information, visit
http://www.intel.com/info/em64t


Intel® Trusted Execution Technology (Intel® TXT):
No computer system can provide absolute security under all
conditions.


Intel® TXT requires a computer with Intel® Virtualization Technology, an Intel TXT enabled processor, chipset,
BIOS, Authenticated Code Modules and an Intel TXT compatible measured launched environment (MLE).


Intel TXT also requires
the system to contain a TPM v1.s.


For more information, visit
http://www.intel.com/technology/security


Intel® Virtualization Technology (Intel® VT)
requires a computer system with an enabled Intel® processor, BIOS, and virtual
machine monitor (VMM).


Functionality, performance or other benefits will vary depending on hardware and software
configurations.


Software applications may not be compatible with all operating systems.


Consult your PC manufacturer.


For
more information, visit
http://www.intel.com/go/virtualization




Intel® Turbo Boost Technology
requires a system with Intel Turbo Boost Technology.


Intel Turbo Boost Technology and Intel
Turbo Boost Technology 2.0 are only available on select Intel® processors.


Consult your PC manufacturer.


Performance varies
depending on hardware, software, and system configuration.


For more information, visit
http://www.intel.com/go/turbo


InTru
™ 3D:
Viewing stereo 3D content requires 3D glasses and a 3D
-
capable display.


Physical risk factors may be present when
viewing 3D material.

Intel®
MyWiFi

Technology
is an optional feature and requires additional software and an Intel®
Centrino
®

wireless
adapter.


Wi
-
Fi devices must be certified by the Wi
-
Fi Alliance for 802.11b/g/a in order to connect.


See
www.intel.com/network/connectivity/products/wireless/mywifi.htm

for more details.

Intel® Insider™
is a hardware
-
based content protection mechanism.


Requires a 2nd Generation Intel® Core™ Processor based
PC with built
-
in visuals enabled, an internet connection, and content purchase or rental from qualified providers.


Consult your

PC manufacturer.


For more information, visit
www.intel.com/go/intelinsider
.

Thunderbolt™:
As compared to other PC I/O connection technologies including
eSATA
, USB and IEEE 1394
Firewire
*.
Performance will vary depending on the specific hardware and software used. For more information go to
Thunderbolt™ Technology
.

Intel® Identity Protection Technology (Intel® IPT):
No system can provide absolute security under all conditions.


Requires
an Intel® Identity Protection Technology
-
enabled system, including a 2nd Generation Intel® Core™ processor enabled chipset,
firmware and software, and participating website.


Consult your system manufacturer.


Intel assumes no liability for lost or
stolen data and/or systems or any resulting damages.


For more information, visit
http://ipt.intel.com
.

Ultrabook™ Touch/Convertibility: Touch
and convertibility may not be available on all models. Consult your
Ultrabook
TM

manufacturer. For more information and details, visit
http://www.intel.com/ultrabook

Built
-
in
Visuals:
Built
-
in visual features are not enabled on all PCs and optimized software may be required. Check with
y our system manufacturer. Learn more at
http://www.intel.com/go/biv
.



Legal Disclaimer

KVM Remote Control (Keyboard, Video, Mouse) is only available with
Inte
® Core™ i5
vPro

and Core™ i7
vPro

processors with Intel® Active Management technology activated and configured and with integrated
graphics active. Discrete graphics are not supported
.

ENERGY STAR*
is a system
-
level energy specification, defined by the Environmental Protection Agency, that relies on
all system components, such as processor, chipset, power supply, etc.)


For more information, visit
http://www.intel.com/technology/epa/index.htm


Software Source Code Disclaimer: Any software source code reprinted in this document is furnished under
a software license and may only be used or copied in accordance with the terms of that license. {include
a copy of the software license, or a hyperlink to its permanent location
}


Other
Software Code
Disclaimer


Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and
associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including
without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the
following conditions:


The
above copyright notice and this permission notice (including the next paragraph) shall be included
in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.


THE
SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT
HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF
CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE
OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.



Risk Factors

The above statements and any others in this document that refer to plans and expectations for the second quarter, the year an
d
the future are forward
-
looking statements that involve a number of risks and uncertainties. Words such as “anticipates,” “expect
s,”
“intends,” “plans,” “believes,” “seeks,” “estimates,” “may,” “will,” “should” and their variations identify forward
-
looking stat
ements.
Statements that refer to or are based on projections, uncertain events or assumptions also identify forward
-
looking statements.
Many factors could affect Intel’s actual results, and variances from Intel’s current expectations regarding such factors coul
d c
ause
actual results to differ materially from those expressed in these forward
-
looking statements. Intel presently considers the foll
owing
to be the important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the company’s expectations. Demand coul
d b
e
different from Intel's expectations due to factors including changes in business and economic conditions, including supply
constraints and other disruptions affecting customers; customer acceptance of Intel’s and competitors’ products; changes in
customer order patterns including order cancellations; and changes in the level of inventory at customers. Uncertainty in glo
bal

economic and financial conditions poses a risk that consumers and businesses may defer purchases in response to negative
financial events, which could negatively affect product demand and other related matters. Intel operates in intensely competi
tiv
e
industries that are characterized by a high percentage of costs that are fixed or difficult to reduce in the short term and p
rod
uct
demand that is highly variable and difficult to forecast. Revenue and the gross margin percentage are affected by the timing
of
Intel
product introductions and the demand for and market acceptance of Intel's products; actions taken by Intel's competitors, inc
lud
ing
product offerings and introductions, marketing programs and pricing pressures and Intel’s response to such actions; and Intel
’s
ability to respond quickly to technological developments and to incorporate new features into its products. Intel is in the p
roc
ess of
transitioning to its next generation of products on 22nm process technology, and there could be execution and timing issues
associated with these changes, including products defects and errata and lower than anticipated manufacturing yields. The gro
ss
margin percentage could vary significantly from expectations based on capacity utilization; variations in inventory valuation
,
including variations related to the timing of qualifying products for sale; changes in revenue levels; segment product mix; t
he
timing and execution of the manufacturing ramp and associated costs; start
-
up costs; excess or obsolete inventory; changes in un
it
costs; defects or disruptions in the supply of materials or resources; product manufacturing quality/yields; and impairments
of
long
-
lived assets, including manufacturing, assembly/test and intangible assets. The majority of Intel’s non
-
marketable equity
investment portfolio balance is concentrated in companies in the flash memory market segment, and declines in this market
segment or changes in management’s plans with respect to Intel’s investments in this market segment could result in significa
nt
impairment charges, impacting restructuring charges as well as gains/losses on equity investments and interest and other. Int
el'
s
results could be affected by adverse economic, social, political and physical/infrastructure conditions in countries where In
tel
, its
customers or its suppliers operate, including military conflict and other security risks, natural disasters, infrastructure d
isr
uptions,
health concerns and fluctuations in currency exchange rates. Expenses, particularly certain marketing and compensation expens
es,

as well as restructuring and asset impairment charges, vary depending on the level of demand for Intel's products and the lev
el
of
revenue and profits. Intel’s results could be affected by the timing of closing of acquisitions and divestitures. Intel's res
ult
s could be
affected by adverse effects associated with product defects and errata (deviations from published specifications), and by lit
iga
tion or
regulatory matters involving intellectual property, stockholder, consumer, antitrust, disclosure and other issues, such as th
e
litigation and regulatory matters described in Intel's SEC reports. An unfavorable ruling could include monetary damages or a
n
injunction prohibiting Intel from manufacturing or selling one or more products, precluding particular business practices, im
pac
ting
Intel’s ability to design its products, or requiring other remedies such as compulsory licensing of intellectual property. A
det
ailed
discussion of these and other factors that could affect Intel’s results is included in Intel’s SEC filings, including the com
pan
y’s most
recent Form 10
-
Q, Form 10
-
K and earnings release.

Rev. 5/4/12