NEW ENGINEERING DEVICE FOR FIGHTING COLORADO BEETLE

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11 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 4 μήνες)

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NEW ENGINEERING DEVICE FOR
FIGHTING COLORADO BEETLE


Messrs E. Lazarev and A. Churgel, independent Russian R&D experts, have been experimenting
with innovational pest
-
control technologies since 1992. As a result of these studies, the group
came up with an
engineering device facilitating efficient extermination of Colorado Beetle
avoiding the use of chemical or genetic technologies.

The beetle, first found in wild potatoes in the valley of Colorado River 150 years ago, has since
spread all around the world,

becoming a dangerous pest. Therefore, there is significant market
for the technology in the USA, Canada, EU countries, Russia, Turkey etc.

The proposed engineering device allows extermination of beetle through physical impact on
larvae and eggs, found on
plants. The method is quite simple. It requires periodic passing of the
device above insect
-
infected plants. At the same time the treatment prevents breeding of other
pest and facilitates plant growth. The device does not affect in
-
soil fauna, which explai
ns why
periodic treatments are required. Good news is that worms and other beneficial fauna are spared.
To the best of our knowledge, the proposed device today is the only solution allowing treatment
of large crops areas without use of toxic pesticides.

W
e envisage both a portable and an industrial version of the device. The portable battery
-
powered version will allow treatment of approximately 0.5 hectares. Net weight (without the
battery) does not exceed 3 kg . Object treatment time need not exceed 1/2 s
ec. Productivity of an
industrial version could be increased 50 times, which will increase treatment area. The device
can be connected to the circuits of an agricultural vehicle and is attached on external arms.

The method is ecologically safe. At testing
this was confirmed by experts of the “Ecologic union
of USSR” (President


N. Reimers). The method allows use of traditional potato species, without
chemical pesticides or genetic engineering.

Considering that natural pest
-
control methods are inefficient,

as its natural parasite antagonists
cannot stand severe climate like the Colorado beetle, there is no equally efficient pest
-
control on
the market. The authors conducted a patent research and were unable to identify a similar
methodology. Research was con
ducted at the risk and cost of the researchers. It would make
practical sense to have a patent issued to a company set up specifically for the purpose of project
implementation jointly with an investor. After completion of R&D, testing and certification,
w
hich will take approximately one year, during the second year the technology can be mass
-
marketed.


NOVELTY OF THE PROPOSED APPROACH


There are two schools of thought in pest
-
control research against Colorado beetle


perfection of
chemical pesticides and
active introduction of genetic engineering. Both are not proven safe or
efficient, although both have active proponents and serious financial support of international
corporations.


A number of laboratories conduct studies on changing the smell of potato

leaves to make it
unrecognizable for the beetle. However, there is no guarantee that the pest will not adjust to this,
or that it will not switch to other nightshade genus (tomatoes, tobacco etc.) Also, there is no
research of the potential impact of this

method on humans.

Therefore, our method of fighting Colorado beetle and other agricultural pests is an entirely new
area. An important advantage of the method is avoidance of chemicals that are dangerous for
both environment and health.

Since the Proje
ct is acute for world food production, the authors open the results of their work
for international use.

COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES


As mentioned earlier, we will be marketing a totally new product that is expected to surpass the
existing chemical and other m
ethods in safety and efficiency. Key competitive advantages are:


-

treatment efficiency, lack of “adjustment”

-

low treatment cost (physical unit can be used for several years)

-

ecological friendliness compared with use of chemicals or genetic engineering

-

can
be used to control other pests

-

short impact time and avoidance of soil or water contamination

-

production, transportation, storage and maintenance safety

-

transportability


the device can be used on more than one land plot

-

possibility of pest control at foo
ds storage, or treatment of infected foods

-

simple preventive treatment at cross
-
border transportation of foods and plants

-

plant growth stimulation

-

production of traditional species, as opposed to genetically modified species that might
have unpredictable
consequences for health and, in addition, have limited unprocessed
storage time and a number of other problems

-

short impact time, and possibility of use at times of lowest seasonal activity of beneficial
insects, such as bees;

-

unlimited potential for use
to control pests, including forestry, orchards, greenhouses etc.


We would like to specifically point out that the device does not rely on radioactivity, and the
physical impact is distanced from the operator and is directional. The use of a light protecti
ve
suit provides an additional insulation for the operator.


EXPECTED COSTS


The authors expect that Phase 1 activities comprised of research completion, construction and
development and production of a prototype will require $350 thousand. Project implem
entation
will require setting up a small company. Total duration of Phase 1, including testing, will be
approximately 11
-
12 months. Expected payback period


30 months. Expected cost of a portable
kit


under $270.




Tiny remote controlled underwater de
vice "
Micro
-
ROV " LUCKY
”.



1. Purpose of creation, characteristics and scope.


The purpose of the work which is carried out in Open Company
«
МГП

Center Algorithm
»

is to create an underwater device for examination "Micro
-
ROV "LUCKY

. The pur
pose of the
device is to carry out of a complex underwater examination works in the professional and
amateur intention. A source of financing


the state grant of the Russian Federation. The rights
on the intellectual property belong to the developer.



The basic result of the first stage of research and development on creation of tiny remote
controlled underwater device "Micro
-
ROV "LUCKY


should be to manufacture by August
-
September, 2004 of two working breadboard models of devices for their demo
nstration to
potential investors and for improvement of the design documentation.


Preliminary characteristics of the base model
"Micro
-
ROV" LUCKY ”:

-

weight



-
380
-
600 grammes

-

size



-
215
х

150
х

50 mm.

-

power consumption (from the accumulator)


less than 30 Watt

-

the management of the device is carried out with the help of a joystick and portable
television system
















-

the device has its own illumination

-

maximal h
orizontal speed

-
0,5 m/second., vertical


0,2 m/second

-

the device should be adapted for work in sea and fresh water.


2. Novelty of technical solutions.


At creation of the device it is supposed to use the new decisions being patentable.
Among

distinctive attributes of the created device are new baro
-
steady technology,
allowing to reduce metal consumption of a design, and, hence, to improve weight and
dimensional characteristics of the projected device. The applied technology is new and
conside
rably differs from existing solutions.


Constructive solutions of "Micro
-
ROV"
LUCKY”

allow to reduce notably labor input and
to improve characteristics of the created device viz:



Reduction of energy consumption


more than in 10 times comparing with existi
ng
analogues



Increase of reliability


more than in 2 times, due to lack of watertight units,



Increase in depth of the immersing, used technology allows to create a device with
depth of immersing over 5000 meters,



Improvement of steerability of the device,

due to high intelligence of the used
software and new program solutions,



Improvement of maintainability due to lack of watertight units and elements,
simplification of packing and conditions of transportation, reduction of weight and
dimensions, in compar
ison with analogues which weight exceeds "Micro
-
ROV"
LUCKY” more than in 10 times.



Besides the principles used in design of “Micro
-
ROV” can become base for creation of
other updatings underwater devices of various purpose and the sizes. It is t
o mention, that an
inspection variant of “Micro
-
ROV” can work as independently, and together with big ROVs, as
their additional equipment.


"Micro
-
ROV" LUCKY ”

can be complete not only as concrete professional examination
device, but also as a c
heaper and simplified model for the mass consumer.



3. Expected commercial effect.


TV

ROV

Ak.


The annual volume of manufacture


not less than 300 pieces that will allow to reduce the
price of the device and to make it accessible.


The need for
the similar device is justified, including, in its tiny size, without analogues,
low cost price and, accordingly, the possible low price of realization. For example, underwater
devices with similar functional parameters and weight more than 4 kg., cost 20
and more
thousand US dollars.



Thus, at the initial price of realization of “Micro
-
ROV” in 7000 US dollars (at the cost
price of the complete set less than 3000 dollars), the project will completely be paid back at
realization of the first 200
-

250 devices, that is less than planned annual volume of manufacture.


The requirement in portable (up to 1 kg), cheap, easy in operation and service
examination devices, suitable for professionals and amateurs, is huge. Such devices are not
av
ailable in the market, though the market is already generated and ready to receive such
production. Preliminary researches and negotiations show practically unlimited market capacity,
especially, at sales of such device as means of leisure and the price no

more than 4 thousand
dollars for the complete set.


"Micro
-
ROV" LUCKY ”

-

such device, suitable for the mass industrial production,
working from the portable accumulator, weighing about 400 grammes, idle time in operation and
with the characteri
stics comparable with average professional ROVs! The complete set,
including the power supply, finds room in one small suitcase!


In addition this confirms our research of requirement for similar devices lead by poll
among owners of yachts at the

USA coast. Every third is ready to buy the device under the price
about $3500. According to the same research numerous diving clubs are potential consumers of
the device.



The whole term of work on creation of the device and its serial manufac
turing, reaching
full self
-
support is of 3 years.





“TECHNOMIR” (Russian industrial world magazine) 1 . 2002


How to decrease the risk of man
-
caused
catastrophes.


Modern methods of estimation of the residual useful life of complex technical objects
req
uires data not only on the residual stress limits, but primarily the information on
mechanical characteristics of the material and characteristics of the stressed
-
strained
condition, which resulted from operation of the object. The Author is analyzing the
present
situation and offers his opinion on the issue from the standpoint of the modern safety
requirements.



The data for 1998 suggests that the share of the damage resulting from man
-
caused
catastrophes was not excessive and did not exceed 10% of the t
otal damage from catastrophes.
However, the situation is getting more complicated since presently the number of complex
technical objects with expiring or expired estimated physical service life has increased
significantly. The number of such objects has e
xceeded 60 % and this figure, unfortunately, has
been quickly growing in all industries of Russia. And that means increasing probability of the
man
-
caused catastrophes and damage from continued operation of the various objects, from
atomic/nuclear power
-
st
ations and aero
-
space ships to entertaining attractions.

The risk of man
-
caused catastrophes
-

the unpredictable behavior of the complex
technical objects under the actual operating conditions
-

is a multivariable function. Ultimately,
the risk depends on
the accuracy and reliability of the projected duration of accident
-
free
operation of the object, which, in turn, depends on the accuracy and reliability of the estimate of
the initial or residual service life. Therefore, the most effective way to decrease
the risk of man
-
caused catastrophes is to increase the accuracy and reliability in estimation of the service life of
the object, which mainly depends on the durability of construction materials: the material’s
capacity to resist the calculated strain under

real
-
life operating conditions.

Certainly, the processes of natural aging of the construction materials and equipment
deterioration, although very complex, can still can be modeled, which, although very
approximately, allows us to estimate residual worki
ng
-
life terms.

Moreover, the modern methods of durability and working
-
life terms calculation are based
on the real characteristics of construction materials, including existence of the discontinuities. To
implement such calculations it is necessary to hav
e information on the parameters of such
discontinuities, which should not be higher that the level, considered as rejected or defected; on
existence and characteristics of abnormal zones (concentrated stress zones); it is also important
to know not only ab
out distribution of the inner stress fields or their quantitative characteristics,
but also about quantitative parameters of the actual mechanic characteristics of the material, as of
the observation time, resulting from object operation..

Therefore, in th
e near future, there are three types of challenges facing scientists developing
non
-
destructive methods of diagnostics of materials:



detection and identification of the parameters of the defects;



determination of the inner stress distribution fields and th
eir quantitative characteristics;



identification of the actual mechanical characteristics of the material.

The first task of the construction materials diagnostics is not new and is being solved by the
traditional means of defectoscopy. However, new demand
s are being imposed even in this
field. The point is that the defectoscopy can only identify the existing defects, such as
discontinuities in excess of a certain given value. But during the process of installation or
operation of the construction local th
ermal or mechanical deformations, not envisaged by the
initial design, always occur and cause significant mechanical stress, unconsidered by the
calculation of strength of the construction and leading to intense local changes of the material
properties. Th
ose changes will call forth for appearance of the germs of the future defects:
discontinuity with the size not exceeding the rejection threshold. As the discontinuity in the
degenerative materials can develop avalanche
-
like during operation, the time remai
ning
before construction will collapse might be much too little to evade the catastrophe.

Therefore the information on the germs of potentially dangerous defects and of zones with
abnormal stress is very important to assess how dangerous they are. And once

fatigue
-
caused
destruction

is considered, we cannot discuss defects in conventional terms.


So new, more complicated challenges are facing the diagnostics.

Modern diagnostics has a broad range of methodologies and facilities to assess the residual
stress
, besides the defectoscopy. However, presently known methods of the residual stress
assessment, which use the different physical fields, measure only certain parameters of those
fields, related to
insufficiently explored and not always monotonous and defi
nite regularities.
At that, the superficial ideas of the physical essence of the methodologies being employed
leads to the wrong interpretation of the results of measurement and consequently mistakes in
the assessment of the working
-
life of the object.

The

analysis of the causes of low effectiveness of the numerous attempts to develop the
necessary facilities shows: the main reason is the lack of clear idea of the major material
characteristics and their functional connection with the parameters of the
stre
ssed
-
deformed
condition (SDC) and consequently lack of a scientifically proved methodology, which can
define the aims and tasks of SDC diagnostic of construction materials.

Better to say, we do not know exactly, what we are measuring, what it necessary to

measure
is and what the capacities of the instruments we are using for the measurement are.

The results of theoretical and
empirical research, which have been implemented by the
Laboratory of prospective ultra
-
sonic control units (PUSK) for more than 15
years, led to
development of the
Material oscillation theory.

The fundamental base of the Theory is a conception of a material as a
n
-
dimensional
thermodynamic system, in which the number of degrees of freedom of which depends on the
limited number of majo
r independent mechanical characteristics, determining the energetic
state of the material.

It was determined, that if the temperature is stable, the current state of initially isotropic
material within wide range of external mechanical strain would be dete
rmined by six major
independent mechanical characteristics and by one physical characteristic.

The physical characteristic is the density of the material


ρ
.

Material mechanical characteristics, which will serve as six major independent parameters,
shoul
d meet the following requirements:



consistency of material, sample and of the measurement process, ensuring
conservation of the relationship among the independent mechanical characteristics;




sufficiency for unambiguous description of material behavior and

state at one
-
dimensional strain within the strain range up to destruction .

As the result the following characteristics were selected to describe the image of the
isotropic material
-

it current SDC at one
-
dimensional strain and constant temperature durin
g
tests or operation:



module of normal resilience or Jung’s module


E;



coefficient of Poisson
-

μ;



margin of fluidity
-

σ
t;



relative residual deformation with the stressed fluidity
-

ε
t;



durability time margin or time durability
-

σ
B

;



relative extens
ion at distruction
-

ε
B

;



material density
-

ρ
.


That means that to receive reliable assessment of the material condition we need the
methodology commanding at least the above number of independent variables. The analysis
of informational capacities of d
ifferent physical methodologies, currently used for diagnostics
of the state of material, shows that the ultra
-
sonic measurement, the most informative method,
uses only four independent variables: the speed of normal and shear waves and their
amplitude cha
racteristics (fading). Now the second reason for inadequate results of
determination of the state of materials has become clear: inadequate descriptiveness of
physical fields, which traditionally have been used for the non
-
destructive tests and
diagnostics

methods to research the complex physical processes, defining the material SDC.

Consideration of the ultra
-
sonic oscillations as a variation of the material state allowed
to theoretically and empirically prove that materials have their own resonance freque
ncies


that of normal and shears resonance, changing depending on the parameters of external
impact on construction material. At that the range of the frequency changes of material’s own
resonance stretches from static up to hypersonic, which is a new fac
t, affecting the projecting
of the constructional material behavior while in operation.


Conceptual basis for the development of the theory is the process of research of the
objective processes of re
-
distribution of material’s own energy and identificatio
n of
regularities, describing the functional relations of material’s macro
-
characteristics with
external impact parameters and the response of the material to the impact.


Creation of the instrument for further development of the theory ensued. The new
sev
en
-
dimension model of the material presented as a radio
-
technical complex contour or the
system with distributed parameters


the replica of the material in a definite shape.

The basic provisions of the
Material oscillation theory
significantly expand the
science of materials and the classic ultra
-
acoustics theory; taking the position in the general
theory of mechanical oscillation and giving the practical recommendation and technical
solutions, ensuring that necessary and sufficient information for reliabl
e construction material
work
-
life assessment can be obtained
-

the important constituent of the total working life of
high danger objects.

The results of the scientific research were discussed and appraised by the leading
scientists in the area of theory o
f
endurance
, science of material and ultra
-
sonic diagnosis.
Besides the results obtained were reported to the Scientific and research boards of the Russian
State Institute of physical and technical problems (Chairmen of the Board
-

Mr. Lupichev,
Full Membe
r of the Academy), and the International Institute for safety of complex technical
systems on the base of the Institute of engineering science of the Russian Academy of
Sciences (RAS) (Chairmen of the Board
-

Mr. Makhutov, Corresponding Member of the
Acade
my) and were highly appraised. It was stressed, that
scientific level

of the theoretical
researches, based the diagnosis concept and practical solutions, contributory to reliable
assessment of the objects condition and working
-
life,
is higher than that ac
hieved by the
leading international companies and research institutes.

Application of the results to the challenges of ultrasonic diagnostics allowed to
develop the foundations of the methodology of ultrasonic diagnostics of the actual state of
constructi
on materials.

Methodology was based on the system of analytical statements, which connects the
mechanical characteristics of materials with the ultra
-
sonic oscillation parameters. At that, in
addition to the earlier used parameters of speed and amplitude o
f normal and shear types of
ultrasonic oscillations new variables have been added. They are the frequency of normal and
shear resonance of the material, discovered and studied by the author. This offers an
opportunity to commence the drawing of the image o
f the material. Paraphrasing, we can now
attempt to solve the problem of definition of major mechanical characteristics of the material
and the current characteristics of its SDC based on the measured parameters of ultra
-
sonic
oscillations of the material.

Let’s explain the statement using the following example. Normal and shear
oscillations of the material, used in diagnostics of the state of the material are the two major
types of the ultra
-
sonic oscillations (USO), shown below:




0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
6
6.5
7
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2

Received

USO

impulses
Relative time
Portioned instant shear
u
L
(
)
t
u
T
(
)
t
u0
L
(
)
t
u0
T
(
)
t
t

These oscillations can be descibed by the following formulars:


u
L
.
.
.
U
0L
.

L
t
.
.
2


L
e
.

L
t
.
.
2


L
sin
.

L
t

u
T
.
.
.
U
0T
.

T
t
.
.
2


T
e
.

T
t
.
.
2


T
sin
.

T
t


U
L,
T

-

impulse ultra
-
sonic characteristic of amplitude and time, used for shear and
longitudinal

oscillation.

The Parameters, measur
ed by the characteristics, will be: ω
L
and ω
T

-

own frequencies
of normal and shear oscillations of the material, t
mL
and t
mT

-

the time which the impulse of
oscillation of both types takes to pass certain distance
-

Z
L
and Z
T.

At that, the speed and
rec
eptivity of impulse distribution (for both types of oscillation)
can be easily calculated as follows:


L
.

L
t
mL
.
2



T
.

T
t
mT
.
2


С
L
Z
L
t
L

С
T
Z
T
t
T


If we substitute the measured and calculated values of USO parameters in the earlier
developed system of equation (the following patents were re
ceived for new scientific and
technical solutions, based the concept and methodology in year 2000: No. 2146809 of
22.06.99; No. 2146818 of 22.06.99; No. 2149367 of 07.09.99; No. 2149394 of 07.09.99) and
by solution of the obtained equation we will receive
the values of major mechanical
characteristics of the material and the characteristics of its SDC:

margin of fluidity, margin or
time durability
,
relative extension at distruction, current values of inner stress and relative
deformation and
coefficient of

Poisson. It is possible to calculate the other characteristics,
such as the relative contraction, using the characteristics, stated above.


Laboratory of PUSK has developed and manufactured specialized instruments for the
study of SDC characteristics of t
he materials with and without external power impact.
Technical characteristics of receiving and amplifying and excitation path of the electronic
device comply with the highest international standards, while its productivity and the dynamic
range of the aut
omatic amplification adjustment are far greater, than that of the foreign
devices built for similar purposes. Due to incorporation of unique scientific and technical
solutions the unit allows to measure the short time intervals with the precision not worse

than
+

10
-
4
% at the resolving capacity not less than 10
-
8
sec. Such characteristics provide the
possibility to study the SDC parameters of the materials at the strain range from
0,01÷1kg/mm
2

up to destruction.


Currently multi
-
purpose software is being dev
eloped to make possible the hands
-
off
solution of the system of equations for each specific object of study.


The author assumes that the purpose of future development of construction materials
ultra
-
sonic diagnostics is the creation of the science of ene
rgy durability, which is to be the
symbiosis of new measurement instruments and applied methodologies of residual life
calculation. This type of diagnostics will allow to define the operating life of specific units
after the measured value of its own mater
ial energy and measured characteristics of energy
conversion, which are possible for the certain material under certain conditions.

MGP Center Algorithm LTD

is prepared to consider various cooperation opportunities
with interested companies and government
al agencies on application of the proposed
methodology to the resolution of spesific economic issues.


Laboratory of Advanced Ultrasonic Monitoring Facilities (PUSK)

"MGP Algorithm Center"

ul. Pokrovka, 43, building 7

Moscow, Russia 105062

Phone: (095) 917
-
96
-
94