Biology Genetic Engineering Power Point Notes

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11 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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Name: _____________________________________

Period: ________


Date: ___________________


Biology Genetic Engineering Power Point Notes


Slide

# 2: About Genetic Engineering


1.

Genetic engineering
: ______________ an organism’s _______ to make it more
_______________ to humans

a.

Genetic engineering has been going on for a very long time in the form of _____________ _________________

b.

Changing a cell’s _____________ by ______________ or _____________ DNA is very new technology


Slide # 3: Selective Breed
ing: Creating Plants Animals for our Benefit


1.

Selective Breeding
: Selecting individuals with the _____________ traits to produce offspring for the next generation


a.

Used since the beginning of _________________ to produce superior ____________ speci
es.

c.

Used to produce breeds of ___________ animals
--

_______. ___________. ___________. Sheep and cattle

2.

Also called __________________ ____________________.


Slide #
4
:
Hybridization


1.

Hybridization: Crossing two _________________, but related orga
nisms

a.

Offspring are called__________________.

2.

Advantages: usually _______________ / ________________ than parents; known as _________ _____________

3.

Disadvantages: may promote the loss of _____________ _____________


Slide #
5
: Genetic Engineer
ing: Recombinant DNA


1.

Recombinant DNA
: made from pieces of DNA


from _______________ organisms; the pieces


stick together

2.

How Recombinant DNA is made











Slide #
6
: Transgenic Organisms: Plants


1.

Transgenic organisms
: any organism t
hat has _________ from a _____________ organisms inserted into its DNA

2.

_______________ can be produced that could never be produced by nature


a.

Example: _____________ rice contains a gene from the ___________ that produces __________________



Slide

# 7 DNA Fingerprinting


1.

DNA fingerprinting
: tool used by forensics scientists to

______________
a person using DNA.

2.

How it Works:



A

___________
of the person’s DNA is taken from blood, semen, bone, or

_________
.



DNA fragments are placed into a
gel & connected to an

___________
current



DNA moves through gel;

_________
lengths move fastest & longest lengths move slowest.



Banding pattern is produced



The banding is unique for each person


thus called DNA fingerprinting


Slide # 8: Reading a DNA Fi
ngerprint


1.

DNA fingerprinting is used as
____________
in court cases

2.

DNA fingerprints are used to
___________
other facts presented to the court

3.

A
______________
is taken of the bands in the gel & then the bands are

______________
to the victim’s


Slide # 9: How Cloning Occurs in Nature


1.

Clone
: an organism that is genetically
________________
to another organism

a.

All of the

____________
are the same (identical)

2.

Examples of cloning that occurs in nature

a.

Self
-
pollination

b.

Reproduction in bacte
ria

c.

“budding” in sponges

d.

Regeneration of rays in sea stars


Slide # 10 & 11: How Animals are Cloned


1.

Process is called somatic cell nuclear transfer


a.

Nucleus from an adult cell (
A
) is transferred to an

____________
egg that has

had its
_________

removed (
B
)


b.

The “fertilized egg” cell is stimulated to

_________

using

___________
shock


c.

The
___________
is implanted into a surrogate

mother (
C
)

2.

The “baby” (
D
) is a
_________
of the animal that the


____________
cell (
A
) was taken from


Sl
ide # 12: Uses and Risks of Cloning Animals


Uses:

1.

Medical purposes: producing cloned animal models,
__________ ______
research, and for producing
___________

2.

Saving Endangered Species

Risks:

1.

Somatic cell nuclear transfer is
____________
; only 0.1 to 3 %

success rate (Dolly was attempt # 277!)

2.

Cloned animals are larger at birth and have larger internal organs; can lead to
___________
and
__________
flow
problems