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Name:________________
___________
_________

Date:_____________ Period:_____

Genetics
-

DNA

Unit
3



Overview

Schedule

-

October

2
9
, 2007 through
December

14
, 2007
;

Unit

Exam Tuesday 12/1
1
/07



Fall Semester Final Week 12/17
-

12/21.

Grant Key
Standards

3D
:

The genetic composition of cells can be altered by incorporation of exogenous DNA into the cells.

Students will

describe

the
processes of
genetic
engineering and biotechnology

and
analyze

the
ethical
implications
. (5c, 5d)

Key Elements:

1.

Define the following concepts: genetic
engineering, biotechnology, ethical implication

2. Describe the processes of genetic
engineering and biotechnology.

3. Analyze the ethical implications of genetic
engineering and biotechnology.

3E
:
Genes are a set o
f instructions encoded in the
DNA sequence of each organism that specify the
sequence of amino acids in proteins characteristic of
that organism

Students will
demonstrate

the
role of DNA and RNA
in the processes of replication, transcription, and
translati
on
. (1a, 4a, 4b, 4c, 5a, 5b)

Key Elements:

1. Define DNA, RNA (mRNA, tRNA, rRNA),
replication, transcription, translation, genetic
code, codon, anticodon, amino acid, mutation, base
pairing, protein, complement, template.

2. Transcribe DNA into mRNA.

3
. Translate mRNA into an amino acid sequence.

4. Explain the role of DNA in each of the following processes: replication, transcription, and
translation.

5. Explain the role of RNA in each of the following processes: replication, transcription, and
tra
nslation.

6. Explain the steps of each of the following processes: replication, transcription, and translation.

Textbook



Chapters
1
2 (pg 3
24



3
57)
1
3 (pg
3
58
-
3
8
7
).

Class Website


www.marric.us/teaching
;


Resources
-

http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/glossary/index.html

Tentative Schedule

10/29

-

11/2



Chapter 12


Transcription/Translation Process Diagrams

11/
5

-

11/9



Chapter 12


Replication and Mutations and Processing

11/12

-

11/16



Chapter 13


Biotechnology


DNA Extraction Lab

11/19

-

11/23


Thanksgiving Holiday



No homework


Free Study

11/26

-

11/30



Begin Review for Semester Final



DNA Regulatio
n and Expression

12/3

-

12/7



Review for Unit 3 Exam

12/10

-

12/14
-


Unit 3 Exam 12/11


Review for Semester Final

12/17
-

12/21

-

Review for
Semester Final

(12/20 and 12/21)

The nucleus is a membrane
-
bound
organelle that contains the
hereditary materia
l in eukaryotic
cells.
This hereditary material is
DNA whose

information

is
found in
DNA’s nitrogen bases: adenine,
guanine, cytosine, and thymine. Each
DNA monomer or subunit is a
nucleotide which is made of a
phosphate group, a dexoyribose
sugar, and
a nitrogen base. DNA is
a
double stranded
helix (ladder)
and is
complementary in that one strands
thymine (T) pairs with the other
strands adenine (A). Likewise
cytosine (C) pairs with guanine (G) in
accordance with Chargaff’s Rule.

DNA

is transcribed (t
ranscription) as
messenger RNA that is transferred
from the nucleus to the cytoplasm by
exiting the nuclear pores.
DNA needs
messenger RNA because DNA is
double stranded and cannot exit the
nuclear pores whereas RNA is single
stranded and can do so. RNA i
s made from DNA by an enzyme called RNA polymerase (an enzyme
that makes a polymer of RNA). Additionally RNA (made of ribose sugar) does not have a thymine base
instead RNA has the base uracil (U) which pairs with adenine (A).

The hereditary information mu
st
get into the cytoplasm where ribosomes are located because ribosomes are the structures where
messenger RNA is translated (translation)

into a protein (polypeptide with the help of transfer RNA
(tRNA)
. Ribosomes along with tRNA translate the genetic inf
ormation into a protein by adding one
amino acid per three mRNA bases (codons). Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have ribosomes

and
tRNA to make proteins

remember viruses do not have ribosomes and cannot make their own proteins.

DNA must also repli
cate itself when a new cell is needed. The process involves several other enzymes
including DNA helicase (opens the helix), DNA polymerase, RNA primase, and DNA ligase. With so
many steps and enzymes involved it is a miracle that there are so few errors
in the replication
process. Especially when you
consider

that a human
genome

has
about 30,000 genes and 3.5 billion
base pairs. Nevertheless, mutations do occur: insertions, deletions, substitutions as point mutations
or frameshift mutations (insertion o
r deletion mutations) which can affect the type of protein that is
produced. Besides having great repair enzymes the code has a redundancy that helps maintain

integrity

in that there are multiple codons that code for the same amino acid: 20 amino acids pe
r 64
possible base combinations in a codon (4x4x4).

W
hen

a mutation

does occur
the three most common
outcomes are

cancer, birth defects, or no problem at all.

The regulation of gene expression is very
complicated and most is known about prokaryote (bacter
ia) gene regulation. You will learn about two
operons or regulatory units called the trp operon and the lac operon. Onward molecular biologists.


1.

Adenine
_______________
__________________________________
_
_________________

2.

Amino acid
_________________
______
_______________________
_
__________________

3.

Anticodon
___________
___________________________________
_
___________________

4.

Base pairing

____________
____________________________________
_
_______________

5.

Birth defect
____________
___________________________________
_
_
_______________

6.

Cancer
______
_
____
_________________________________________________________

7.

Chromosome
__________
_
_____________________________________________________

8.

Codon
____________
_________
_
_
__
____________________________________________

9.

Complementary

strand

____________
_
_______
_______
_____________________________

10.

Cytosine
_________________
________
_
_________________________________________

11.

Deletion mutation

_________
_______
_________________
__________________________

12.

Deoxyribose

________________
_______
____
____________________________________

13.

Double helix

___
__________________
__________
________________________________

14.

Enzyme

_
__________________
________________________________________________

15.

Expressed gene

___
_
___________________
______
__________________
______________

16.

Exon

___________
_
_________
___________
__
___________________________________

17.

Frame
shift

mutation
____
_
_______
_______________________
_______________________

18.

Gene

___________
__
_
_______________________________________________________

19.

Genetic code

___
___________
______
_
__________
________________________________

20.

Genome

____________
___________________________
_
___________________________

21.

Genotype

_______
___________
___________
__________
_
__________________________

22.

Guanine

____________________
_____________
________
_
_________________________

23.

Hemoglobin
____________________
_____
_____________
_
__________________________

24.

Heredity

_____________________________
__________
_
__________________________

25.

Heterozygous
__________________
___
________________
_
___________________
______

26.

Homozygous

____________________
_
___
_____
____________________________
_
______

27.

Intron

____________________________
_______________________________
_
________

28.

Insertion mutation

_______________________
_____
______________________
_
________

29.

Inversion

mutation

__________________
__________
_____________________
_
_________

30.

Ligase ____________________________________________________________________

31.

Mutation(s)

___________
__
__________________
__
_______________________________

32.

Nitrogen bases
________
_
______________
___
_____
_______________________________

33.

Nucleotide

____________
_
________
_____
_______________________________________

34.

Okasaki Fragment____________________________________________________________

35.

P
lasmid___
______
_
_________
_______
________________________________
__________

36.

Phosphate group
___________
_
_
___________________
_____
________________________

37.

Polymerase
_______________
_
_
______
__________________________________________

38.

Probability
________________________
_
__________
_
_____________________________

39.

Promoter

______
_______________
__
_____________
_
_____________________________

40.

Protein
______________________________________
_
_____________________________

41.

Purine

_______________________________________
_
____________________________

42.

Pyrimidine

___________________
_____________
_______
_
_________________________

43.

Recessive
_____________________
________________________________
_
____________

44.

Regulatory site

_________________________
__________________________
_
_________

45.

Replication

__________________
____________________________________
__________

46.

Repressor

_________________
________
________________________________________

47.

Ribose


__
__
___________________
____________________________________________

48.

Template
_______________________
____
______________________________________

49.

Thymine

__________
_______
_________________________________________________

50.

Trait


_______________________
__
__
_________________________________________

51.

Transcription

__________
___
_________________________________________________

52.

Translation (protein synthesis)


____________
_______
___________
___________________

53.

Translocation

____
______________
____________________________________________

54.

tryptophan

_______
___________________________________
______________________

55.

Uracil

________
__
_____
________________________________________
_____________

56.

DNA

________
___
___
______________________
_
________________________________

57.

RNA

______
__
_
_
__________
_______________
__
________________________________

58.

tRNA (transfer RNA)

________________
____
________________
___
_
________________

59.

mRNA (messenge
r RNA)


_______________
__
____________
_
_______
_
________________

60.

rRNA (ribosomal RNA)

______________
____
__________________________
_
___________

61.

Biotechnology
______
_
__________________________________________
_
_____________

62.

Clone

_____________
____________
__
_____
_______________________
_
_____________

63.

Genetic engineering


________________________
____
_
_____________________________

64.

Variation

_______________
_____________
_
_____________________________________

65.

3’ (three
-
prime)

_____________________
_
______________________
_________________

66.

5’ (five
-
prime)

_________________
___
_
_________________________________________

67.

Catalyzing
_______
________
__
_________________________________________________


Unit 2 Genetics


DNA




Name:______________________________








Date:_______
_________ Period:________

1.

What are the building blocks of DNA?

2.

A
rrange

the
following

in order from largest to smallest in size?

Nucleus, DNA, Chromosome,
nucleotide
, cell

3.

What are the purine bases and what are the pyrimidine bases for DNA:

a)

Purine ba
ses =

b)

Pyrimidine bases =

4.

A particular sequence of parent DNA has four purine bases and two pyrimidine bases. According
to base
-
pairing rules what are the possible sequences formed during replication:

Represent Purine as Pu and Pyrimidine as Py







5.

I
n which part of the cell does this process shown
above

take place?

6.

Structure I

in the figure above
represents a(n) __
_____________________
__
_______
__.

7.

Structure II

in the figure above
represents a(n) __
____________________
_
________
__.

8.

Structure III
in the
figure above
represents a(n) __
___________________
_
________
__.

9.

Structure I
V

in the figure above
represents a(n) __
___________________
_
_________
__.

10.

Structure I
V

in the figure above
represents a(n
)__________________________________.

11.

The process illustrated i
n
the figure above

is called __
____________________
_
______
__.

12.

Which of the structures in
the figure above

are composed of RNA?


13.

X
-
ray evidence was used to discover that the shape of DNA was a


_______


.

14.

In 1962 a Nobel Prize for
Medicine/Physiology

was a
warded to whom?



15.

The information that directs replication, transcription and translation is found in DNA’s

___________________


16.

What is Chargaff’s Rule and how was it important for determining DNA’s structure?




17.

This segment of DNA has undergone a muta
tion in which
six

nucleotides have been deleted. A repai
r enzyme
would replace
them.

Which series of bases will complete
the strand of DNA?








The
messenger RNA

codes for six different amino acids are shown in the table below.


18.

In one type of mut
ated gene for hemoglobin,
CAC

has
replaced the normal
CTC

in the DNA code. What amino
acid substitution has taken place in the mutated
hemoglobin?








19.

Process 1 in the diagram above is known as








20.

Process
2

in the diagram above is known as








21.

Process
3

in the diagram above is known as








22.

What is the product of process 3

as shown in

the diagram above,?

______



23.

Which

process
in the diagram above
occurs in the nucleus?
____________________________

24.

Which process in the diagram above occu
rs in the
cytoplasm
?
_________________________

25.

How many bases are needed to specify four amino acids?

26.

What is the difference between the lagging strand and the leading strand?



27.

A DNA segment is changed from
-
AA
G
TAG
-

to
-
AAATAG
-
. This is a __
______________
m
utation.


28.

A DNA segment is changed from
-
AATTAGAAATAG
-

to
-
ATTAGAAATAG
-
. This is a(n)
_
______________________
___

mutation
.

29.

Here are two related mRNA sequences:
5'UUUAGCGAGCAU3' and
5'UUUAGCCAUAAAAAAAA3'. How was the
second sequence formed?


30.

Use the amin
o acid code chart to sequence the
following messenger RNA strand into an amino
acid strand. AU
G
U
UA
CC
C
CAAUUU










Help Wanted

Positions Available

in the genetics industry. Hundreds of entry
-
level openings for
tireless workers. No previous experience
necessary. Must be able to transcribe
code in a nuclear environment.

Accuracy and Speed

vital for this job in the field of translation. Applicants must
demonstrate skills in transporting and positioning amino acids. Salary
commensurate with experience.

E
xecutive Position

available. Must be able to maintain genetic continuity through
replication and control cellular activity by regulation of enzyme production.
Limited number of openings. All benefits.

Supervisor

of production of proteins

all shifts. Must
be able to follow exact
directions from double
-
stranded template. Travel from nucleus to the cytoplasm
is additional job benefit.


31.

Applicants for the
first

job of the Help Wanted ad in the table above "
Position Available
," could
qualify if they were ____
_
______________________
___.

32.

Applicants for the
second

job of the Help Wanted ad in the table above "
Accuracy and Speed
vital
," could qualify if they were ____
_______________________
___.

33.

Applicants for the third job of the Help Wanted ad in table above "Exec
utive Position," could
qualify if they were
_____________________
____.

34.

Applicants for the fourth job of the Help Wanted ad in
the table above

"Supervisor," could qualify
if they were __
__
_______
_____________
___
_
__.

35.


What is the mRNA sequence for a strand o
f DNA reading C
A
CGTAC?

36.

The template strand of a piece of DNA being replicated reads: 5'
-
ATAGGCCGT
-
3'. A partially
synthesized Okazaki fragment is 5'CCTA3'. If the next fragment is four bases long, what is its
first base?






37.


What type of mutation has

occurred in
the
figure
?





38.


What will be the result of the mutation in
the
figure above
?






39.

This is a template DNA sequence: 3'

AATCGC
A

5'. This is a partially
-
completed mRNA strand
transcribed from the DNA template: 3'GCGA5'. What is the next nucleo
tide that RNA
polymerase will attach?






40.

Using DNA sequencing, you discover that a bacterium has experienced a deletion mutation that
removed three nucleotides. The bacterium appears completely unaffected in all its functions.
Where is the mostly likel
y location for the mutation?

41.

Three samples of DNA contain the
percentages of nitrogenous bases
listed in Table 12
-
2. According to
Chargaff’s law, which two samples
probably belong to the same species?




42.

You have a building toy set consisting of parts th
at can be connected together. You are going
to use it to model a piece of DNA. You have decided that each part of DNA will be represented
by a different type of toy piece. You have chosen the following four pieces so far: adenine =
large red cube; guanine

= large green cube, thymine = small orange cube; cytosine = small blue
cube. How many other types of pieces do you need to represent the remaining parts both the
3
-
prime and the 5
-
prime strands of a section of DNA?




43.

Describe the parts which are found i
n
each nucleotide

found in DNA?

a.

____________________________________________________________

b.

____________________________________________________________

c.

____________________________________________________________

d.

_________________________________________
___________________

44.

Because of base pairing in DNA, the percentage of

______________________

in DNA is
about equal to the percentage of
_________________________
.

45.

DNA is copied during a process called

________________________


46.

How is RNA different
from DN
A?


47.

Which type(s) of RNA is(are) involved in protein synthesis?

48.

What is produced during transcription?

49.

During transcription, an RNA molecule is formed
:


a.

Inside the
____________________

b.

Is _____________
-
stranded

c.

Is ___________________

to one of the strand
s of DNA

50.

Why is it possible for an amino acid to be specified by more than one kind of codon?

51.

Which type of RNA functions as a blueprint of the genetic code?


52.

What happens during the process of translation?



53.

The cell uses information from messenger RNA to

produce
_____________
.

54.

During translation, the type of amino acid that is added to the growing polypeptide depends on
the

___________________on the mRNA and the _________________ on the tRNA to
which the amino acid is attached.


55.

Explain the following type
s of gene mutations:

a.

Insertion

-

b.

Deletion

-

c.

Substitution

-

d.

Point
m
utation



e.

F
rame
-
shift mutation
-

56.

What is a promoter?


57.

RNA polymerase is used to ______________
_____________________
______________.

58.

An expressed gene is turned ___________.

59.

Proteins that bin
d to
____________________________

on DNA determine whether a gene
is expressed.

60.

If a specific kind of protein is not continually used by a cell, the gene for that protein is
______________________________________

61.

A bacterium that was once able survive in a

tryptophan
-
free environment is now unable to
synthesize its own tryptophan. The bacterium is otherwise unaffected. Where is the most
likely location for the mutation causing the change?


62.

What can result when a mutation to DNA occurs?



63.

Under certain con
ditions RNA can perform additional functions which include?


64.

Describe the following enzymes:

a.

DNA helicase


b.

DNA ligase


c.

DNA polymerase
-

d.

RNA primase
-

e.

RNA polymerase
-

65.

What are introns and exons?



66.

Compare and contrast the
trp

operon and the
lac

operon







67.

What are plasmids and how are they used in biotechnology