Transmission of Genetic Information from Generation to Generation

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11 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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10
th

Grade Genetics Content

K
-
U
-
D

Topic:
Transmission of Genetic Information from Generation to Generation




(SGI) Lessons:


Breeding Corn



Genes and Traits



Breeding Corn for Two Traits




Breeding Better Rice



OR

(Gen/Biotech)


Meiosis and Genetic Variation



Lessons:


Potato Head Genetics



Embryological Development





Which Standards are st
udents
learning

in this unit?

Standard 6.4.B


The scientific investigation of cellular chemistry enables the biotechnology
industry to produce medicines foods and other products for the benefit of society (ESSENTIAL)



Standard 7.1.A
Hereditary/genetic inf
ormation in chromosomes is contained in molecules of
DNA.


Genes are sections of DNA that direct syntheses of specific proteins associated with traits
in organisms.


These consist of various combinations of four different nucleotides that encode
this infor
mation through their sequences. (Essential)



Standard 7.1.D

Only

random mutations in germ cells (gametes) can create the variation that is
inherited by an organism’s offspring.


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摥a瑨Ⱐ畮捯湴t潬oed

ce汬⁧牯 瑨爠tance爮r(f浰潲ma湴n



Standard 7.1.F
Meiosis is the production of sex cells (gametes).


The production and release of
these gametes is controlled by hormones.


In meiosis, the number of chromosomes is reduced by
one
-
half and chromosomes may

randomly exchange homologous parts to create new
chromosomes with combinations not necessarily found in the parent cell. (Essential)



Standard 7.1.G
Upon fertilization, the fusion of the gametes restores the original chromosome
number, and new gene combi
nations lead to increased genetic variation, which, in turn, increases
the likelihood of survival of the species. (Essential)



Standard 7.1.I

Embryological development in plants and animals involves a series of orderly
changes in which cells divide and di
fferentiate.


Development is controlled by genes whose
expression is influenced by internal factors (i.e., hormones) and may also be influenced by
environmental factors (i.e., nutrition, alcohol, radiation, drugs, and pathogens).


Alteration in this
balanc
e may interfere with normal growth and development. (Compact)









By the end of this unit, students will be able to…



Know:

Understand:

Do:


Vocabulary:



Allele




Dominant




Gene




Genotype




Phenotype




Punnett square




Recessive




Co
-
dominance




Heterozygo
us




Homozygous




Incomplete dominance




Karyotypes




Sex
-
linked trait




Trisomy





Organisms reproduce,
develop, have predictable life
cycles, and pass on heritable
traits to their offspring.





The development of
technology has allowed us to
apply our knowl
edge of
genetics, reproduction,
development and evolution to
meet human needs and wants.



Use Punnett squares, including
dihybrid crosses, and pedigree
charts to determine
probabilities and patterns of
inheritance (i.e.
dominant/recessive, co
-
dominance, s
ex
-
linkage,
multi
-
allele inheritance)



Analyze a karyotype to
determine chromosome
numbers and pairs.


Compare
normal and abnormal
karyotypes.



Use characteristics of
offspring can help determine
the genotype of parent
organisms. (phenotypes)










Discovery Education Resources


Videos:

Punnett Square: Charting Dominant and Recessive Traits

Gregor Mendel's Rules of Heredity: Using Punnett Squares

Introduction: Sex
-
Linked Inheritance

Inherited Human Traits and Patterned Sex
-
Linked Inheritance

Incomplete Dominance in Snapdrago
ns

Multiple Alleles and Co
-
Dominance in Human Blood Types

Nondisjunction

Punnett's
Contributions to Genetics: Development of a Tool to Predict the Outcomes of
Matings

Introduction: Dihybrid Crosse
s

Images:

Karyotype

Down syndrome; distinguishing between types

Genotype; definit
ion

Phenotype; definition

Recessive allele; definition

Dominant allele; definiti
on

Audio:

Genetics: Gregor Mendel's Early Observations

Heredity: Sex
-
Linked Genetic Conditions in Humans

Reading Passages:

Give These People a Hand

True Gene
-
ius

True Blue

Articles:

Genetics

Exploration:

Breeding Pea Plants

Chip

Off the Old Block

Interactive Lab:

Genes Make the Rabbit


Open Resources




Resource 1
:
Genetics

Media type
: PPTs, worksheets, labs

Description
: This is a collection of PowerPoint presentations, labs, and worksheets that cover
many of the topics of this lesson, including gen
es, alleles, Mendel's experiments, homozygous
and heterozygous organisms, dominant and recessive, phenotypes and genotypes, Punnett
squares, pedigree, antibodies, antigens, genetic engineering, and cloning. The materials can be
downloaded and edited.

Level
: Intermediate


Credit
:

Brent Maddin, Developing Curriculum Inc.

License
: CC BY


Notes/activity suggestions
:

Tags: biology, science,

genetics, grade10, genetic disorders, genes, alleles, Mendel,
homozygous, heterozygous organisms, dominant, recessive, ph
enotype, genotype, Punnett
squares, pedigree, antibody, antigen, genetic engineering




Resource 2
:
Mendelian Genetics

Media type
: Textbook

Description
: A textbook chapter that covers Mendel and his ex
periments, Mendels' theory of heredity,
dominant and recessive alleles, Punnett squares, and

pedigree.

Level
: Interediate, Advanced


Credit
: Nianh Gray
-
Wilson, CK12

License
: CC BY SA

Tags: grade10, science, biology, genetics, Mendel, alleles, heredity, Pun
nette squares, pedigree



Resource 3
:
Genetics and Inheritance Patterns

Media type
: Video

Description
: A series of video lectures from MIT on topics including Mendel's ex
periments, key
vocabulary in genetics, human genetics and pedigree, and more. Also available are audio files, lecture
notes, practice problem sets, and exam questions.

Level
: Advanced


Credit
: Prof. Eric Lander, Prof. Robert Weinberg, Dr. Claudette Gardel,

MIT OpenCourseWare

License
: CC BY NC SA


Notes/activity suggestions
:

Tags: grade10, science, biology, genetics, Mendel, DNA, pedigree, gene, allele, phenotype, genotype,
homozygote, heterozygote, dominant, recessive



Resource

4
:

Genetics

glossary

-

text
,

PPT

Media type
:

text,

ebook,

PPT

Description
:

A

glossary

of

key

terms

related

to

this

unit

as

specified

in

unit

outl
ine.

Level
:

Beginning



Credit
:

Kids

Open

Dictionary,

http://dictionary.k12opened.com

License
:

public

domain


Notes/activity suggestions
:

This

glossary

can

be

used

as

a

study

handout

or

you

might

have

students

illustrate

or

add

to

the

glossary

with

their

o
wn

ideas

or

examples

that

illustrate

the

words.

You

can

also

use

the

PowerPoint

as

flashcards.

Tags:

biology,

science,

genetics,

grade10,

glossary




Resource

5
:

Di
hybrid

Crosses

Media

type
:

Video

Description
:

A

13

minute

video

lecture

on

dihybrid

crosses

from

a

high

school

teacher

Level
:

Intermediate


Credit
:

Jesse

Craig

License
:

CC

BY


Notes/activity

suggestions
:


Tags:

grade10,

science,

biology,

genetics,

dihybri
d

crosses,

Punnett

Squares




Resource

6
:

Gene

Manipulation

in

Plants

Media

type
:

Online

course

Description
:

This

course

gives

an

overview

of

gene

manipulation

and

GM

crops

and

then

discus
ses

the

Golden

Rice

case

study.

Level
:

Intermediate


Credit
:

The

Open

University

License
:

CC

BY

NC

SA


Notes/activity

suggestions
:


Tags:

grade10,

science,

genetics,

biology,

GMO,

genetic

engineering,

genetically

modified,

rice,

golden

rice




Resource

7
:

The

Genomic

Revolution
,

Golden

Rice

Media

type
:

Text,

photos

Description
:

A

look

at

various

examples

of

genetically
-
engineered

food,

including

salmon,

chicken,

strawberries,

and

rice,

and

the

pros

and

cons

of

this

work.

Level
:

Intermediate


Credit
:

American

Museum

of

Natural

History

License
:

public

domain


Notes/activity

suggestions
:

Have

student
s

find

scientific

articles

about

genetic

engineering

or

GMOs

from

sites

like

SciDevNet

or

the

Public

Library

of

Science

and

debate

the

pros

and

cons.

Tags:

grade10,

science,

geneti
cs,

biology,

GMO,

genomic,

genetic

engineering,

genetically

modified,

rice,

golden

rice