88 . Greedy Routing with Anti-Void Traversal for Wireless Sensor Networks

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21 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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88 .

Greedy Routing with Anti
Void Traversal for Wireless Sensor Networks


In this project, a greedy anti void routing (GAR) protocol is proposed to solve the void problem
with increased routing efficiency by exploiting the boundary finding technique for the unit disk graph
(UDG). The proposed rolling
ball UDG boundary traversal
(RUT) is employed to completely guarantee the
delivery of packets from the source to the destination node under the UDG network. The boundary map
(BM) and the indirect map searching (IMS) scheme are proposed as efficient algorithms for the realization
of t
he RUT technique. Moreover, the hop count reduction (HCR) scheme is utilized as a short
technique to reduce the routing hops by listening to the neighbor’s traffic, while the intersection navigation
(IN) mechanism is proposed to obtain the best rol
ling direction for boundary traversal with the adoption of
shortest path criterion.



The well
known greedy forwarding (GF) algorithm is considered a superior scheme with its low
routing overheads. However, the void problem which makes the
GF technique unable to find its
next closer hop to the destination will cause the GF algorithm failing to guarantee the delivery of
data packets.


A representative UDG
based routing scheme means the BOUNDHOLE algorithm forwards the
packets around the networ
k holes by identifying the locations of the holes. However, due to the
occurrence of routing loop, the delivery of packets can not be guaranteed in the BOUNDHOLE
scheme even if a route exists from the source to the destination node


The BOUNDHOLE and GF alg
orithms result in lowered delivery ratio due to the occurrence of
routing loop and the ignorance of the void problem, respectively.



In this project, a greedy anti
void routing (GAR) protocol is proposed to guarantee packet delivery
with in
creased routing efficiency by completely resolving the void problem based on the UDG
setting. The GAR protocol is designed to be a combination of both the conventional GF algorithm
and the proposed rolling
ball UDG boundary traversal (RUT) scheme


The GF sc
heme is executed by the GAR algorithm without the occurrence of the void problem,
while the RUT scheme is served as the remedy for resolving the void problem, leading to the
assurance for packet delivery.


Both the GAR
based algorithms and the planar graph
based GPSR(GG) and GOAFR++(GG)
protocols can achieve 100 percent delivery rate owing to their design nature with guaranteed
packet delivery.


The proposed scheme Owing to the closely related characteristics with the end
end delay
performance, the path ef
ficiency obtained from these schemes follows similar trends, as can be

The proposed rolling
ball UDG boundary traversal is while occur the void problem it will change route to
delivery the data to destination



Route Finding


Greedy Forwarding (GF) algorithm


A Greedy Anti
void Routing (GAR) protocol


Route Finding

The route from NS to ND can therefore be constructed for packet delivery. Moreover, if
there does not exist a node NY such that d(PNY ; PND ) <

d(PNV ; PND ) within the boundary
traversal phase, the RUT scheme will be terminated after revisiting the edge EVA. The result
indicates that there does not exist a routing path between NS and ND.


Greedy Forwarding (GF) algorithm

The GF scheme is conside
red a straight forward algorithm that only requires the
implementation of the one
hop neighbor table TNi . The next hop node can be found by the linear
search of TNi if the void problem does not occur; otherwise, the RUT scheme will be adopted
based on the

proposed GAR protocol


A Greedy Anti
void Routing (GAR) protocol

The objective of the GAR protocol is to resolve the void problem such that the packet
delivery from NS to ND can be guaranteed. Before diving into the detail formulation of the
proposed GAR
algorithm, an introductory example is described in order to facilitate the
understanding of the GAR protocol.

The data packets initiated from the source node NS to the destination node ND will arrive
in NV based on the GF algorithm. The void problem occu
rs as NV receives the packets,
which leads to the adoption of the RUT scheme as the forwarding strategy of the GAR

A circle is formed by centering at sV with its radius being equal to half of the
transmission range R=2. The circle is hinged at N
V and starts to conduct counterclockwise
rolling until an SN has been encountered by the boundary of the circle, i.e., NA, as in Fig.
Consequently, the data packets in NV will be forwarded to the encountered node NA.



: Pentium IV 2.4 GHz


: 40 GB


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: Logitech.


: 256 MB


: 110 keys enhanced.


Operating system

: Windows XP Professional


: Java

Java Version

: Jdk1.6 or above