Office of the Secretary Of Defense (OSD) Deputy Director of Defense Research & Engineering Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Science & Technology) Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) FY2009.2 Program Description

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OSD
-

1

Office
o
f
t
he Secretary Of Defense (OSD)

Deputy Director
o
f Defense Research & Engineering

Deputy Under Secretary
o
f Defense (Science & Technology)

Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR)

FY200
9
.
2

Program Description



Introduction


The Deputy Under Secr
etary of Defense (Science & Technology) SBIR Program is sponsoring
the
Information Assurance Technology theme, the Software Protection Technology theme, the
Modeling
Advanced Energetic Materials Technology theme, the Energy and Power Technology theme, and
the
Human, Social, Cultural & Behavioral

Technology theme

in this solicitation.


The Army
,
Navy
, and Air Force

are participating in the OSD
SBIR P
rogram this year.


The
service laboratories act as our OSD Agent in the management and execution of the contra
cts with small
businesses.


The service laboratories, often referred to as a DoD Component acting on behalf of the OSD,
invite small business firms to submit proposals under this Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR)
Program

solicitation. In order to
participate in the OSD SBIR Program this year, all potential proposers
should register on the DoD SBIR
Web site

as soon as you can, and should follow the instruction for
electronic submittal of proposals. It is required that all bidders submit their propo
sal cover sheet,
company commercialization report and their firm’s technical and cost proposal form electronically
through the DoD SBIR/STTR Proposal Submission
Web site

at
http://www.dodsbir.net/submission
. I
f
you experience problems submitting your proposal, call the help desk (toll free) at 1
-
866
-
724
-
7457. You
must include a Company Commercialization Report as part of each proposal you submit; however, it does
not count against the proposal page limit
of 25 pages. Please note that improper handling of this form may
result in the proposal being substantially delayed. Information provided may have a direct impact on the
review of the proposal. The DoD SBIR Proposal Submission
Web site

allows your company

to come in
any time (prior to the proposal submission deadline) to edit your Cover Sheets, Technical and Cost
Proposal and Company Commercialization Report.


We
WILL NOT

accept any proposals that are not submitted through the on
-
line submission
site.

Th
e submission site does not limit the overall file size for each electronic proposal, there is only a
25
-
page limit. However, file uploads may take a great deal of time depending on your file size and your
internet server connection speed. If you wish to u
pload a very large file, it is highly recommended that
you submit prior to the deadline submittal date, as the last day is heavily trafficked. You are responsible
for performing a virus check on each technical proposal file to be uploaded electronically.
The detection
of a virus on any submission may be cause for the rejection of the proposal. We will not accept e
-
mail
submissions.


Firms with strong research and development capabilities in science or engineering in any of the
topic areas described in th
is section and with the ability to commercialize the results are encouraged to
participate. Subject to availability of funds, the DUSD(S&T) SBIR Program will support high quality
research and development proposals of innovative concepts to solve the liste
d defense
-
related scientific or
engineering problems, especially those concepts that also have high potential for commercialization in the
private sector. Objectives of the DUSD(S&T) SBIR Program include stimulating technological
innovation, strengthening

the role of small business in meeting DoD research and development needs,
fostering and encouraging participation by minority and disadvantaged persons in technological
innovation, and increasing the commercial application of DoD
-
supported research and de
velopment
results. The guidelines presented in the solicitation incorporate and exploit the flexibility of the SBA

OSD
-

2

Policy Directive to encourage proposals based on scientific and technical approaches most likely to yield
results important to DoD and the p
rivate sector.


Description of the OSD SBIR Three Phase Program


Phase I is to determine, insofar as possible, the scientific or technical merit and feasibility of ideas
submitted under the SBIR Program and will typically be one half
-
person year effort ove
r a period not to
exceed six months, with a dollar value up to $100,000. We plan to fund 3 Phase I contracts, on average,
and down
-
select to one Phase II contract per topic. This is assuming that the proposals are sufficient in
quality to fund this many.

Proposals should concentrate on that research and development which will
significantly contribute to proving the scientific and technical feasibility of the proposed effort, the
successful completion of which is a prerequisite for further DoD support in
Phase II. The measure of
Phase I success includes technical performance toward the topic objectives and evaluations of the extent
to which Phase II results would have the potential to yield a product or process of continuing importance
to DoD and the priv
ate sector, in accordance with Section 4.3.


Subsequent Phase II awards will be made to firms on the basis of results from the Phase I effort
and the scientific and technical merit of the Phase II proposal in addressing the goals and objectives
described

in the topic. Phase II awards will typically cover 2 to 5 person
-
years of effort over a period
generally not to exceed 24 months (subject to negotiation). Phase II is the principal research and
development effort and is expected to produce a well define
d deliverable prototype or process. A more
comprehensive proposal will be required for Phase II.


Under Phase III, the DoD may award non
-
SBIR funded follow
-
on contracts for products or
processes, which meet the
Component

mission needs. This solicitatio
n is designed, in part, to encourage
the conversion of federally sponsored research and development innovation into private sector
applications. The small business is expected to use non
-
federal capital to pursue private sector
applications of the researc
h and development.


This solicitation is for Phase I proposals only. Any proposal submitted under prior SBIR
solicitations will not be considered under this solicitation; however, offerors who were not awarded a
contract in response to a particular topi
c under prior SBIR solicitations are free to update or modify and
submit the same or modified proposal if it is responsive to any of the topics listed in this section.


For Phase II, no separate solicitation will be issued and no unsolicited proposals wil
l be accepted.
Only those firms that were awarded Phase I contracts, and have successfully completed their Phase I
efforts, will be invited to submit a Phase II proposal. Invitations to submit Phase II proposals will be
released at or before the end of t
he Phase I period of performance. The decision to invite a Phase II
proposal will be made based upon the success of the Phase I contract to meet the technical goals of the
topic, as well as the overall merit based upon the criteria in section 4.3. DoD is
not obligated to make any
awards under Phase I, II, or III. DoD is not responsible for any money expended by the proposer before
award of any contract. For specifics regarding the evaluation and award of Phase I or II contracts, please
read the front se
ction of this solicitation very carefully. Every Phase II proposal will be reviewed for
overall merit based upon the criteria in section 4.3 of this solicitation, repeated below:


a.

The soundness, technical merit, and innovation of the proposed approach

and its incremental
progress toward topic or subtopic solution.

b.

The qualifications of the proposed principal/key investigators, supporting staff, and consultants.
Qualifications include not only the ability to perform the research and development but

also the
ability to commercialize the results.


OSD
-

3

c.

The potential for commercial (defense and private sector) application and the benefits expected to
accrue from this commercialization.


In addition, the OSD SBIR Program has a Phase II Plus Program, which

provides matching SBIR
funds to expand an existing Phase II contract that attracts investment funds from a DoD acquisition
program, a non
-
SBIR/non
-
STTR government program or Private sector investments. Phase II Plus allows
for an existing Phase II OSD SBI
R contract to be extended for up to one year per Phase II Plus
application, to perform additional research and development. Phase II Plus matching funds will be
provided on a one
-
for
-
one basis up to a maximum $500,000 of SBIR funds. All Phase II Plus award
s are
subject to acceptance, review, and selection of candidate projects, are subject to availability of funding,
and successful negotiation and award of a Phase II Plus contract modification. The funds provided by the
DoD acquisition program or a non
-
SBI
R/non
-
STTR government program must be obligated on the OSD
Phase II contract as a modification prior to or concurrent with the OSD SBIR funds. Private sector funds
must be deemed an “outside investor” which may include such entities as another company, or

an
investor. It does not include the owners or family members, or affiliates of the small business (13 CFR
121.103).


The Fast Track provisions in section 4.0 of this solicitation apply as follows. Under the Fast
Track policy, SBIR projects that attract

matching cash from an outside investor for their Phase II effort
have an opportunity to receive interim funding between Phases I and II, to be evaluated for Phase II under
an expedited process, and to be selected for Phase II award provided they meet or e
xceed the technical
thresholds and have met their Phase I technical goals, as discussed Section 4.5. Under the Fast Track
Program, a company submits a Fast Track application, including statement of work and cost estimate,
within 120 to 180 days of the awa
rd of a Phase I contract (see the Fast Track Application Form on
www.dodsbir.net/submission). Also submitted at this time is a commitment of third party funding for
Phase II. Subsequently, the company must submit its Phase I Final Report and its Phase II

proposal no
later than 210 days after the effective date of Phase I, and must certify, within 45 days of being selected
for Phase II award, that all matching funds have been transferred to the company. For projects that qualify
for the Fast Track (as disc
ussed in Section 4.5), DoD will evaluate the Phase II proposals in an expedited
manner in accordance with the above criteria, and may select these proposals for Phase II award provided:
(1) they meet or exceed selection criteria (a) and (b) above and (2)
the project has substantially met its
Phase I technical goals (and assuming budgetary and other programmatic factors are met, as discussed in
Section 4.1). Fast Track proposals, having attracted matching cash from an outside investor,
presumptively meet c
riterion (c). However, selection and award of a Fast Track proposal is not mandated
and DoD retains the discretion not to select or fund any Fast Track proposal.


Follow
-
On Funding


In addition to supporting scientific and engineering research and develo
pment, another important
goal of the program is conversion of DoD
-
supported research and development into commercial (both
Defense and Private Sector) products. Proposers are encouraged to obtain a contingent commitment for
follow
-
on funding prior to Phas
e II where it is felt that the research and development has
commercialization potential in either a Defense system or the private sector. Proposers who feel that their
research and development have the potential to meet Defense system objectives or privat
e sector market
needs are encouraged to obtain either non
-
SBIR DoD follow
-
on funding or non
-
federal follow
-
on
funding, for Phase III to pursue commercialization development. The commitment should be obtained
during the course of Phase I performance, or ea
rly in the Phase II performance. This commitment may be
contingent upon the DoD supported development meeting some specific technical objectives in Phase II
which if met, would justify funding to pursue further development for commercial (either Defense r
elated
or private sector) purposes in Phase III. The recipient will be permitted to obtain commercial rights to

OSD
-

4

any invention made in either Phase I or Phase II, subject to the patent policies stated elsewhere in this
solicitation.


Contact with DoD


Gene
ral informational questions pertaining to proposal instructions contained in this solicitation
should be directed to the topic authors and point of contact identified in the topic description section.
Proposals should be electronically submitted. Oral co
mmunications with DoD personnel regarding the
technical content of this solicitation during the pre
-
solicitation phase are allowed, however, proposal
evaluation is conducted only on the written submittal. Oral communications during the pre
-
solicitation
pe
riod should be considered informal, and will not be factored into the selection for award of contracts.
Oral communications subsequent to the pre
-
solicitation period, during the Phase I proposal preparation
periods are
prohibited

for reasons of competitive

fairness. Refer to the front section of the solicitation for
the exact dates.


Proposal Submission


Proposals shall be submitted in response to a specific topic identified in the following topic
description sections. The topics listed are the only topics

for which proposals will be accepted. Scientific
and technical information assistance may be requested by using the SBIR/STTR Interactive Technical
Information System (SITIS).


It is required that all bidders submit their proposal cover sheet, company co
mmercialization
report and their firm’s technical and cost proposal form electronically through the DoD SBIR/STTR
Proposal Submission
Web site

at
http://www.dodsbir.net/submission
. If you experience problems

submitting your proposal, call the help desk (toll free) at 866
-
724
-
7457. You must include a Company
Commercialization Report as part of each proposal you submit; however, it does not count against the
proposal page limit of 25 pages. Please note that imp
roper handling of this form may result in the
proposal being substantially delayed. Information provided may have a direct impact on the review of the
proposal. The proposal submission
Web site

allows your company to come in any time (prior to the
proposa
l submission deadline) to edit your Cover Sheets, Technical and Cost Proposal and Company
Commercialization Report. We
WILL NOT

accept any proposals which are not submitted through
the on
-
line submission site.

The submission site does not limit the overa
ll file size for each electronic
proposal, only the number of pages is limited. However, file uploads may take a great deal of time
depending on your file size and your internet server connection speed. You are responsible for performing
a virus check on
each technical proposal file to be uploaded electronically. The detection of a virus on
any submission may be cause for the rejection of the proposal. We will not accept e
-
mail submissions.


The following pages contain a summary of the technology focus
areas, which are followed by the topics.

OSD
-

5

Information Assurance



Cyber Conflict Defense

Technology Focus Area


As the cyber threat continues to increase in sophistication and complexity, the DoD must be
prepared to defend the ability to provide the informa
tion and processing needed to support critical
missions during a cyber conflict. Networks and systems must be built with the ability to use alternate
paths and survivable architectures and algorithms to get the critical work done even when attacked in
una
nticipated ways that may succeed in interfering with their normal operation. We also need to make it
harder for a determined adversary to succeed against us, for instance, by increasing redundancy, diversity,
and agility to disrupt attack planning. The D
oD needs new tools and technologies to force capable
adversaries to spend more, move more slowly, and take bigger risks, while providing mission assurance
by enabling us to fight through cyber degradation. The DoD must go beyond efforts to build and
maint
ain security in systems overwhelmingly built from commercial off
-
the
-
shelf technology. Hardening
DOD networks will require key security components with high assurance and of known pedigree as well
as adaptable and robust defenses. This theme will support

the findings and recommendations of the
Guidance for the Development of the Force (GDF) Study A4.18 in the areas of hardening key
components for cyber conflict defense, assuring missions despite adverse cyber effects, and disrupting
adversary attack plann
ing and execution.


This theme will also continue to support the FY07 Program Decision Memorandum (PDM
-
III)
research goals. As envisioned, the Global Information Grid (GIG) will connect the roughly 3 million
computers, 100,000 LANs, 100 long distance netw
orks, and a multitude of wireless networks and devices
in support of all DoD, national security, and related intelligence community missions and functions. It
will underlie the increased ability to conduct network
-
centric operations, providing the joint wa
rfighter
with a single, end
-
to
-
end information system capability, built on a secure, robust network
-
centric
environment. It will allow users to post and access shared data and applications regardless of their
location


while inhibiting or denying an adve
rsary’s ability to do the same


in a converged
heterogeneous enterprise capable of protecting content of different sensitivities. However, this vision
presents serious challenges from a security perspective. DoD’s unprecedented enterprise vision for futur
e
information operations must simultaneously address protecting and defending its critical information and
information technology systems by ensuring availability, integrity, authentication, confidentiality and
non
-
repudiation; and by providing security ma
nagement and operations that incorporate the requisite
protection, detection, and quick reaction capabilities.


Further, as operations are ever
-
more enmeshed in the decentralized fabric of the GIG, the
converged, decentralized vision of the future networ
k requires a parallel adoption of a decentralized trust
paradigm. Degrees of trust and robustness hitherto provided by enclave isolation and separation must be
distributed across the networks down to the tactical edge devices. With increasing joint, allied

and
coalition operations, dynamic and secure collaboration and data sharing across security domains are
critical capabilities.


DoD is making significant IA investments in ensuring the security of net
-
centric operations of the
GIG. However, the scope of t
he challenges, the dynamics of the information technology industry, and the
need for dynamically optimizing defenses within particular mission contexts provide multiple
opportunities for new and innovative security solutions. In particular new technology s
olutions are needed
for supporting the edge users who must operate across multiple domains and communications paths, on
less hardened networks, to reach other tactical mission players, and to access protected core information
systems and data warehouses.


The Information Assurance Technology topics are:


OSD09
-
IA1


Real
-
time Adversarial Characterization and Adaptive Software Protection


OSD
-

6




Countermeasures

OSD09
-
IA2


Countermeasures to Covert Access Methods to Reduce Attack Susceptibility and Ensure




Trus
t

OSD09
-
IA
3


Software Protection to Fight through an Attack

OSD09
-
IA4


Autonomic Knowledge Representation Construction for Software Protection Systems

OSD09
-
IA5


Developing Cyber Situation Awareness for Enterprise Health



Software Protection



Large Data
Handling Technology Focus Area


As the

Department of Defense increases the capability and capacity to generate increasing
amounts of data from the numerous sensors in the battlespace, the issue of handling very large data sets
has become more challenging.

This is in part due to
Department of Defense response to a changing threat
environment where there is an expansion of the types of sensors deployed, new types of information
collected, and different features used to classify these new threats. From a tec
hnical perspective, sensor
processing speeds have outpaced the speed and ability to transport, store and process the data created.


Research in the areas of Architecture, Shaping Data for Exploitation, and Data Discovery for
Exploitation are of interest.

In addition to the research and development of technology and approaches, it
is important to evaluate the impact of these efforts areas with regards to the way they change ho
w large
data sets are handled.


(a) A
rchitectures



Both
the size of the data to

be transferred and the growing size of databases
requires novel architectural approaches to provide the adaptability and usability (automation and
performance impact of human in the loop). Current databases, file systems and network protocols will
not ke
ep pace.


(b) Shaping Sensor Data for Exploitation


When tracing the processing chain from multi
-
source
sensor inputs to the user/analysts, the techniques that are known and used become fewer and less mature.
The simple process chain view goes from (1)

metadata tagging to (2) pre
-
processing to (3) multi
-
source
common data representation to (4) triage/identify high priority data subsets for analysis and action.
Candidate research areas include pattern analysis, data classification for importance and pri
oritization,
criticality assessment, change detection, uncertainty management and reduction, high level structures,
data search and retrieval, feature extraction, automatic translation, and automated or assisted pattern
recognition.


(c) Data Discovery for

Exploitation


In order to better to discover and exploit the growing
amount of sensor data, the following areas of research are considered: Object recognition in scenes and
streams, discovery and exploitation at the edge, structuring knowledge for discov
ery, improving analytic
throughput, aiding ISR functions, layered analysis and interpretation, effects prediction for decision
support and cross domain access for effective ISR



The
Software Protection t
opics are:


OSD09
-
SP1


Cloud Analytic Tools

OSD09
-
SP
2


High
-
performance, Large Scale Data Handling in Tactical Environments

OSD09
-
SP3


Automated Scene Understanding

OSD09
-
SP4


Designing Large Data Handling Architectures

OSD09
-
SP5


Discovery of Human Activity from Video

OSD09
-
SP6


Semantic Wiki for Page Aler
ting

OSD09
-
SP7


Novel Distributed Processing Environments


OSD
-

7

Modeling Advanced Energetic Materials Technology Focus Area


Improvements in Energetic Materials
will enable game
-
changing capabilities for all military
services. Weapon loadouts on military platf
orms can be increased to allow warfighters to up their
operational tempo (destroy more targets faster);

performance will be enhanced via better coupling of the
energy to the target; selectable yield and control over collateral damage will be enabled; and

dramatically
reduced logistics costs will be facilitated. Advanced energetic materials include not only higher
performing conventional explosive ingredients, but also a wide range of reactive materials (RM) which,
on their own or in conjunction with conv
entional explosives, provides a much broader range of
manufacturing processes, mechanical properties, energy release rates, and mechanisms to couple energy
to the target. These reactive materials (RM), being inorganic, have a varied, yet complementary, s
et of
attributes compared with conventional organic (CHNO) explosives. They offer both high energy density
(>2
-
5 HE), high mass density (3
-
10 HE) and high strength. In terms of safety and producibility, they are
very insensitive, environmentally benign, a
nd readily available, while being relativel
y

inexpensive and
tailorable over a wide range of properties.


Advances in processing explosives and reactive materials, development of nano
-
scale ingredients,
and diagnostic techniques are providing significant
system
-
level enhancements. However, a fundamental
understanding of the following relationships is required in order to
a priori

design advanced energetic
materials to provide transformational capabilities and flexibility:




Impact of processing and formula
tion technique/conditions on the length scale of features
(atomic, nano, meso scale)



Impact of length scale of features on mechanical properties (strength, toughness, ductility)



Impact of composition and length scale features on sensitivity , and energy re
lease rates



Changes in length scale features, mechanical properties, reactivity, and energy transport as a
result of thermal and shock loading in the form of preconditioning, unintended insult,
ignition, or detonation



Description of mass and energy transpo
rt or multiphase, reactive species during detonation,
deflagration, combustion, or reaction events



Modeling of the terminal effects from the detonation, deflagration, combustion, or reaction
of energetic materials on the surrounding environment



The Mode
ling Advanced Energetic Materials Technology topics are:


OSD09
-
W01


Modeling Energetic Materials at the Meso Scale

OSD09
-
W02


Mechanical Characterization of Energetic Materials

OSD09
-
W03


Utilizing Medical Imaging Technology for Generation of Mesoscale C
omputational




Descriptions

OSD09
-
W04


Modeling Energy Deposition Mechanisms at the Meso Scale

OSD09
-
W05


Reactive Material Dynamic Response & Energy Release

OSD09
-
W06


Mechanical Properties and Constitutive Relations of Reactive Material Formulations

OS
D09
-
W07


Hybrid Energetic Materials System


OSD
-

8

Energy and Power Technology Focus Area


Technology advances

in electric power generation, distribution, and use are enabling new,
transformational military capabilities
. Advanced energy and power technologies are

providing the critical
concepts, architectures, and systems to enable this revolutionary warfighting advantage. Integrating and
distributing power
on manned and unmanned ships, aircraft, ground vehicles and other platforms leads to
significant enhancemen
ts in platform flexibility, survivability, lethality and effectiveness. The Army’s
transformation challenge is to develop a smaller, lighter, and faster force, utilizing hybrid electric drive,
electric armament and protection, and a reduced logistical foo
tprint. The Navy is developing future ships
that integrate electric power into a next
-
generation architecture which enables directed energy weapons,
electromagnetic launchers and recovery, new sensors, as well as supporting significant fuel, maintenance,
and manning reductions. The Air Force needs electric power to replace complex mechanical, hydraulic
and pneumatic subsystems, and also enable advanced electric armament systems. Improved
batteries/power sources will support the individual soldier by perm
itting longer mission durations and
reduced weight borne by the soldier. Space based operational capability improvements include a more
electric architecture for responsive and affordable delivery of mission assets, and powering space based
radar systems.



Energy Storage systems and technologies are an important piece of the power puzzle.
Advances
in batteries, capacitors, fuel cells and other storage technologies are providing a technological foundation
but major challenges remain for achieving the adv
ances required for future energy storage needs.
More
efficient, compact, safe, and cost effective energy storage technologies are needed across micro
-
scale to
macro
-
scale military systems.



The Energy and Power Technology topics are:


OSD09
-
EP1


Lithium
-
Ion (Li
-
ion) and Lithium
-
ion Polymer (Li
-
polymer) Battery Safety

OSD09
-
EP2


Power Generation and Storage for Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAV)

OSD09
-
EP3


Biological
-
Based Energy Storage and Generation Technologies

OSD09
-
EP4


Wide Temperature, High Energy Densit
y Capacitors for Power System Conditioning

OSD09
-
EP5


Advanced Materials for Improved Safety Lithium
-
ion Batteries

OSD09
-
EP6


Extraction of Atmospheric CO2 and Conversion to Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuel

OSD09
-
EP7


Enhancing the Utilization Efficiency of Cathode

Materials in the Li Ion Batteries



OSD
-

9

Human, Social, Cultural & Behavioral (HSCB)


Decision Support Tools Technology Focus Area


Current military operations need and future operations will demand the capability to understand
the social and cultural terrain

and the various dimensions of human behavior within those terrains.
Behaviors in the social and cultural terrain context extend across the spectrum, from adversaries to our
joint U.S. forces, with our coalition partners, and with government and non
-
govern
ment organizations.
For operational, strategic and tactical warfighters, there is a significant need for socio
-
cultural models that
provide predictive capabilities with regard to the behavior of adversaries and contested populations.


DoD and the suppo
rting research and engineering (R&E) program are increasing the investment
in “non
-
kinetic” capabilities, relative to the traditional “kinetic” capabilities of weapons platforms and
munitions. A portion of this new investment strategy is focused on increa
sing awareness and
understanding of the impact of cultural, social, and behavioral variables within the operational
environment (2006 Quadrennial Defense Review, DDR&E Strategic Plan, Strategic Planning Guidance,
DoD Directive 5161.41E, and DoD Directive 3
000.05). Additionally, the recent DoD Directive 3000.07
(December 1, 2008) establishes Irregular Warfare (IW) and the subsequent need of non
-
kinetic
capabilities as a matter of strategic importance to the military, on par with our capability to wage
tradi
tional warfare. With that in mind, Human, Social, Cultural, & Behavioral (HSCB) science has been
identified as an enabling non
-
kinetic technology focus area for DoD R&E efforts.


DoD’s HSCB technology area emphasizes the application of knowledge, skills,
and supporting
technologies to give the DoD the ability to understand the complex human terrain and socio
-
cultural
environments in which we operate. This work merges the social and behavioral sciences with the
computational and computer sciences to deliver

the methodologies and tools to support Phase 0
(planning/shaping) to Phase 4 (stabilization) military operations critical to success in military operations
(DDR&E Strategic Plan). OSD’s HSCB modeling efforts are focused on narrowing the gap between
social

and behavioral science capabilities and military utility via the development of cross
-
domain
capabilities and tools. Investment in enhanced HSCB modeling capabilities and tools requires the
simultaneous development of decision support tools and systems t
hat enable the end
-
user to make optimal
use of HSCB model outputs and data.



The HSCB Technology topics are:


OSD09
-
HS1


Weather/Climate Variability Impact on Energy, Water and Food Resources and

Implications for Regional Stability

OSD09
-
HS2


A Cultural

Architecture Generator for Immersion Training in Virtual Environments

OSD09
-
HS3


Algorithmic Behavior Forecasting

OSD09
-
HS4


Using Serious Games for Socio
-
Cultural Scenario Training


OSD
-

10

OSD SBIR 092 Topic Index



OSD09
-
EP1


Lithium
-
Ion (Li
-
ion) and Lithium
-
i
on Polymer (Li
-
polymer) Battery Safety

OSD09
-
EP2


Power Generation and Storage for Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAV)

OSD09
-
EP3


Biological
-
Based Energy Storage and Generation Technologies

OSD09
-
EP4


Wide Temperature, High Energy Density Capacitors for Power Syst
em Conditioning

OSD09
-
EP5


Advanced Materials for Improved Safety Lithium
-
ion Batteries

OSD09
-
EP6


Extraction of Atmospheric CO2 and Conversion to Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuel

OSD09
-
EP7


Enhancing the Utilization Efficiency of Cathode Materials in the Li Ion Ba
tteries


OSD09
-
HS1


Weather/Climate Variability Impact on Energy, Water and Food Resources and

Implications for Regional Stability

OSD09
-
HS2


A Cultural Architecture Generator for Immersion Training in Virtual Environments

OSD09
-
HS3


Algorithmic Behavior F
orecasting

OSD09
-
HS4


Using Serious Games for Socio
-
Cultural Scenario Training


OSD09
-
IA1


Real
-
time Adversarial Characterization and Adaptive Software Protection




Countermeasures

OSD09
-
IA2


Countermeasures to Covert Access Methods to Reduce Attack Susc
eptibility and Ensure




Trust

OSD09
-
IA
3


Software Protection to Fight through an Attack

OSD09
-
IA4


Autonomic Knowledge Representation Construction for Software Protection Systems

OSD09
-
IA5


Developing Cyber Situation Awareness for Enterprise Health


OSD0
9
-
SP1


Cloud Analytic Tools

OSD09
-
SP2


High
-
performance, Large Scale Data Handling in Tactical Environments

OSD09
-
SP3


Automated Scene Understanding

OSD09
-
SP4


Designing Large Data Handling Architectures

OSD09
-
SP5


Discovery of Human Activity from Video

OS
D09
-
SP6


Semantic Wiki for Page Alerting

OSD09
-
SP7


Novel Distributed Processing Environments


OSD09
-
W01


Modeling Energetic Materials at the Meso Scale

OSD09
-
W02


Mechanical Characterization of Energetic Materials

OSD09
-
W03


Utilizing Medical Imaging Tec
hnology for Generation of Mesoscale Computational




Descriptions

OSD09
-
W04


Modeling Energy Deposition Mechanisms at the Meso Scale

OSD09
-
W05


Reactive Material Dynamic Response & Energy Release

OSD09
-
W06


Mechanical Properties and Constitutive Relations

of Reactive Material Formulations

OSD09
-
W07


Hybrid Energetic Materials System



OSD
-

11

OSD SBIR 092 Topic Descriptions



OSD09
-
EP1


TITLE:
Lithium
-
Ion (Li
-
ion) and Lithium
-
ion Polymer (Li
-
polymer) Battery Safety


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Ground/Sea Vehic
les


OBJECTIVE: To develop safe, high rate lithium
-
ion and lithium
-
ion polymer batteries for air, ground, sea, and
undersea emergency and pulse power applications.


DESCRIPTION: Lithium
-
ion (Li
-
ion) and lithium
-
ion polymer (Li
-
polymer) batteries are hig
hly developed and are
now being used or planned to be used in a variety of commercial and military applications. Recent Li
-
ion and Li
-
polymer battery fire incidents and laptop battery recalls have demonstrated that the safety of these existing batteries
is

of DoD concern. Li
-
ion and Li
-
polymer batteries can become unsafe by subjecting them to overdischarge,
overcharge, charging at high rates at low temperatures, operation at high temperatures, and by physically shorting
out the battery (internally and/or ex
ternally). Of particular interest are improvements in safety for Li
-
ion and Li
-
polymer batteries which include advanced/alternative electrolytes, anodes, cathodes, and cell/battery designs that
minimize the electronic controls necessary for safety. Innovat
ive solutions are sought to increase the safety of
military batteries under various abuse/extreme conditions while also increasing the battery performance at military
relevant operating temperatures (
-
40o to +75oC), storage temperatures (
-
55o to +85oC), an
d at high
charge/discharge rates (capable of charging/discharging at greater than 20C rate). These innovative solutions should
also place an emphasis on reducing the acquisition costs of these alternative batteries to levels that will make them
cost compet
itive on an acquisition and life cycle basis with existing lead
-
acid and nickel
-
cadmium military batteries.


PHASE I:

Evaluate and propose alternative Li
-
ion or Li
-
polymer chemistries and cell designs (greater than 5 Ah) with
equivalent or better energy a
nd power density capability in relation to current high rate Li
-
ion and Li
-
polymer
technology. Present experimental and other data to substantiate projections.


PHASE II:

Produce an alternative safer Li
-
ion or Li
-
polymer battery suitable for use in an Air

Force aircraft emergency and
pulse power application (TBD during Phase I). The prototype battery or module should be greater than 5 Ah, 28 or
270V. Provide cost projection data to substantiate the design, performance, operational range, acquisition, and l
ife
cycle costs.


PHASE III:


Military Application:

The military applications include aircraft emergency and pulse power, electric tracked vehicles, unmanned systems,
hybrid military vehicles, and unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs).


Commercial Applicat
ion:

Commercial applications include hybrid and electric vehicles, portable electric drills, etc.


REFERENCES:

1. S. Zhang, D. Foster, J. Wolfenstine, and J. Read, “Safety Issue and Its Solution of Li
-
ion Batteries,” Proc. 43rd
Power Sources Conference (PS
C), 7
-
10 July 2008, pp. 7
-
10.



2. W.R. Johnson, “Battery Requirements for Application of Lithium
-
ion and Lithium Polymer Batteries to Achieve
Standardization on Aircraft,” Proc. 43rd PSC, 7
-
10 July 2008, pp. 343
-
347.


3. C. Daniel, “Materials and Process
ing for Lithium
-
Ion Batteries,” JOM, 60 (2008) 43
-
48.


4. S. Cordova and Z. Johnson, “High Performance Lithium Ion Aircraft Battery for DoD Platforms,” Proc. SAE
2008 Power Systems Conf., 11
-
13 November 2008, paper no. 2008
-
01
-
2885.



OSD
-

12

KEYWORDS: lithium
-
ion
, lithium polymer, rechargeable, battery, safety, high rate




OSD09
-
EP2


TITLE:
Power Generation and Storage for Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAV)


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Ground/Sea Vehicles


OBJECTIVE: To develop a hybrid power system capable of powe
ring a micro air vehicle (MAV) for an extended
flight time as well as providing increased power for payload packages.


DESCRIPTION: In recent years, unmanned aerial systems (UAS) have been critical in providing real time
intelligence, surveillance and rec
onnaissance (ISR) to warfighters on the ground. As the demand for such assets
increase, the prospect of supplying small units with the capability to provide their own ISR in real time becomes
highly appealing. Recent efforts, within the 5
-

to 15
-
pound clas
s UAS, have demonstrated the ability of advanced
power generation and energy storage systems to achieve 3 to 4x increase in flight times over traditional battery
-
based systems through the use of fuel cell/battery hybrids. These UAS, however, can be bulky a
nd difficult to
transport for dismounted troops, creating the need to develop smaller systems. Current candidate systems fall in the
approximate 1
-
pound system class, but offer significantly reduced flight times with the average mission duration
less than
45 minutes. This leaves limited power available for advanced payload packages.


This topic seeks to apply the lessons learned from previous efforts in developing hybrid power generation/storage
solutions to a MAV size platform in order to increase flight
times and provide additional power for payload systems.
Current MAV
-
sized systems utilize approximately a 100 g battery, which is capable of providing an average of 25W
for approximately 30 minutes with 50W peak capabilities. The objective of the advanced
power system is to provide
35W nominal power (greater than 90 minutes duration) and 50W peak power (15 percent duty cycle), while
maintaining a power system size less than 130 g. Consideration will be given to solutions with the ability to scale
down to le
ss than 10 g while maintaining equivalent power and energy density for meeting future DoD applications.
DoD anticipates that successful approaches would exploit combining existing and advanced energy
-
dense and
power
-
dense power generation/storage technolog
ies to produce a hybridized power system solution. Some examples
of energy dense technologies could include, but are not limited to, fuel cells or advanced battery chemistries (lithium
CFx, lithium sulfur, lithium air). Examples of power dense technologies

could include, but are not limited to,
advanced lithium ion/lithium polymer batteries or ultracapacitors. By leveraging each technology’s strengths, an
increase of greater than 2x over current flight times is anticipated. Furthermore, with the increased p
ower
availability for the MAV platform additional payload packages, including advanced infrared cameras or chemical,
biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosive (CBRNE) detection, may be enabled. This not only serves to provide
better situational awar
eness for the warfighter, but reduces the required cost and logistics footprint necessary to
support larger systems for the same missions.


PHASE I: Perform an analysis to down
-
select competing approaches. Produce a conceptual design and breadboard
of th
e optimal approach to demonstrate progression toward meeting performance objectives.


PHASE II: Develop a prototype of the enhanced design to demonstrate and validate the ability to meet weight and
performance objectives. Construct multiple prototype unit
s which can be integrated into a tactical MAV or
microrobotic system for further testing.


PHASE III:

Military Application: Power systems for MAVs, wireless sensor networks, unattended ground sensors (UGS), small
unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and aut
onomous robotic systems which require Watts to 10s of Watts average
power draw for extended periods of time.


Commercial Application: Potential commercial applications could include homeland security and related
applications. Micro fuel cells are already

being marketed as portable rechargers for cell phones and other small
devices.


REFERENCES:


OSD
-

13

1. McConnel, V.P., "Military UAVs claiming the skies with fuel cell power," Fuel Cells Bulletin, Dec 2007, pp. 12
-

15.


2. Tiron, R., “The Quest for Better Batter
ies and Energy Systems: Power
-
Hungry Vehicles Drive Push for Longer
Endurance,” Unmanned Systems, Apr 2008, pp. 15


17 (
www.auvsi.org
).


KEYWORDS: power generation, energy storage, MAV, micro air vehicle, fuel cells, batteries, unattended ground
sensors,
autonomous robotic systems




OSD09
-
EP3


TITLE:
Biological
-
Based Energy Storage and Generation Technologies


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Ground/Sea Vehicles


OBJECTIVE: To develop a biological
-
based energy storage and generation system for small power

system
applications.


DESCRIPTION: With increased requirements for smaller energy storage systems for applications such as
implantable electronic devices, biosensing, microelectrical mechanical systems (MEMS) or micro air vehicles
(MAV), biologically
-
bas
ed approaches such as enzymatic/microbial electrochemical energy conversion and storage
systems (such as bio
-
fuel cells) offer a potential advantage. Utilizing biomass
-
based energy sources, such as glucose
or ethanol, these devices offer the potential to g
enerate power for prolonged periods of time from potentially
scavenged fuel sources. Biological
-
based power systems offer the potential for highly efficient, scalable power
systems with the ability to utilize a number of fuels sources, possible extracted f
rom the surrounding environment,
enabling extended power system endurance.


This topic seeks the development of biological
-
based integrated power system concepts capable of providing tens to
thousands of mW in a package weighing no more than 100 g, with a

target of less than 10 g. Anticipated DoD
applications include, but are not limit to, MAVs, autonomous robotic systems, power systems for small mobile
power devices, and unattended ground sensors.


PHASE I: Determine the technical feasibility of biologi
cal
-
based energy storage/conversion techniques for small
mobile power systems. Develop an initial concept design and model key elements to demonstrate the ability to meet
specified power system requirements.


PHASE II: Construct and demonstrate the operat
ion of a prototype power system for applicable DoD applications.
Evaluate the performance and limitations of the prototype for a variety of profile/loads to validate the ability to meet
system requirements and provide a path for transition and integration
into a specific DoD application.


PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: MEMS devices or micro systems such as micro air vehicles, unattended ground sensors, or
autonomous robotic systems.

Commercial Application: A biological
-
based
energy storage system has the potential to meet power system
requirements for a number of small, mobile power system applications such as cell phones or other portable devices.


REFERENCES:

1. Chau, L., Ip, J.S.C, Leung, K.C.F., Li, W.J. and Wong, K., “Dev
elopment of a Bio
-
Energy Generation System
Based on Microfluidic Platform,” Proc. Of 2008 IEEE Int. Conf. on Information and Automation, June 20
-
23, 2008,
Zhangjiajie, China: pp. 1379


1382.


2. Justin, G.A., Zhang, Y., Sun, M., and Sclabassi, R., "Biofu
el Cells: A Possible Power Source for Implantable
Electronic Devices," Proc. of 26th Ann. Int. Conf. of the IEEE EMBS, Sept 1
-
5, 2004, San Francisco, CA: pp. 4096
-
4099.


3.
Wojnar, Olek, Captain USAF, Thesis: Analyzing Carbohydrate
-
Based Regenerative Fuel
Cells as a Power Source

OSD
-

14

for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Dept. of the AF Air University, Wright
-
Patterson AFB, Ohio, AFIT/GAE/ENY/08
-
M31, 62 pages.


KEYWORDS: biological, energy storage, energy conversion, bio fuel cell, MEMS, micro air vehicles, MAV,
autonom
ous robotic systems




OSD09
-
EP4


TITLE:
Wide Temperature, High Energy Density Capacitors for Power System

Conditioning


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Ground/Sea Vehicles, Materials/Processes


OBJECTIVE: Develop high energy density capacitors with stable dielectric p
roperties over a wide temperature
range for utilization in defense power system conditioning.


DESCRIPTION: The advancement of military weapon systems over the last few decades has resulted in an
evolution of more electric architectures. For aircraft dev
elopment, the trend has been a result of a joint Navy and Air
Force effort to replace the hydraulic, pneumatic, and mechanical systems with electrically driven technologies.
Although the objective was to improve the capability, reliability, and maintainabi
lity of the weapon systems, thermal
management issues have arisen as a result of both higher power and more compact electrical architectures. The
objective of this topic is to develop high energy density capacitors with dielectric properties that are stabl
e over a
wider temperature range so as to be utilized in thermally robust power electronics. The robust electronics will
improve the durability and reliability of the power system and decrease the thermal load for the heat pump. High
energy density capacit
ors can be utilized as an energy storage component (e.g., DC
-
link or decoupling) throughout
the electrical system to provide stable power to the various loads of the weapon system and act as a low pass filter to
maintain a clean DC signal. The high power,
compact nature of the weapon system can necessitate the capacitors to
be in close proximity to heat sources (e.g., generators, motors, leading edges at high mach), which may include the
capacitor itself. This high power system architecture and the operatio
nal environment will require these devices to
be rated for 10,000 cycles over a wide temperature range. The devices need to have a stable capacitance (less than 5
percent change at 1 kHz), low dissipation factor (DF) (less than 0.1 percent at 1 kHz), and h
igh insulation resistance
(IR) for a temperatures range from
-
55 °C to 300 °C, and for an increase of voltage up to 600 V. Previous Air Force
analyses have found that capacitors can contribute over 30 percent of the volume and weight and over 50 percent of

the cost of electronics. Therefore, an energy density of 4 J/cc for the capacitor has been targeted for moderate
voltage applications (i.e., 20 to 1000 V) so as to provide more capacitance per volume and cost. Additionally, these
devices need to be design
ed with a long lifetime performance and a graceful failure mechanism to prevent
catastrophic failure of the system.


The offeror must demonstrate a thermally stable dielectric material with a high energy density, as well as have a
long endurance when bias
ed under AC or DC conditions. The dielectric layer may be a ceramic, polymer,
glass/glass
-
ceramic material, or a combination thereof into blends or multilayer structures. The offeror needs to
address the effort required to scale up the manufacturing proces
s of this material and the fabrication of prototype
capacitors. Other areas to address are the utilization of an appropriate electrode material, interconnects, and
packaging that will be required for operation of the capacitor over a wide temperature range

and at varying humidity
levels. It is also recommended to address the ability and identify a plan to transition the prototype capacitor into a
commercially competitive product.


PHASE I: Demonstrate the feasibility of a high energy density dielectric mat
erial, with electrodes, that have stable
dielectric properties as a function of temperature and voltage. Define scaling up process for dielectric material and
identify prototype capacitor architecture.


PHASE II: Develop larger scale processing of dielec
tric material, with electrodes, for optimum dielectric properties
and package into a prototype capacitor. Deliver prototype capacitors with a capacitance greater than 10 µF that have
stable dielectric properties over the identified temperature range and wi
th an increase in voltage. The capacitors
should be rated to 600 V with an energy density of 4 J/cc.



OSD
-

15

PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Application: Thermally stable capacitors are a critical technology enabler for the development of advanced

electrical systems for the more electric aircraft, the all
-
electric ship, and the military hybrid vehicle.


Commercial Application: Other applications include electric utilities, aircraft engine ignition systems, deep oil
and/or well drilling, and hybrid

vehicles.


REFERENCES:

1. “High Temperature Performance of Polymer Film Capacitors,” R. R. Grzybowski; F. P. McCluskey, Int. J.
Microelectronic Packaging 1998, 1, 153
-
158.


2. “A New High Temperature Multilayer Capacitor with Acrylate Dielectrics” A. Yial
izis; G. L. Powers; D. G.
Shaw, IEEE Trans. On Components, Hybrid, and Manufacturing Technology 1990, 13, 611
-
616.


3. “Diamond
-
like Carbon Capacitors for High Energy Density and High Temperature Operations,” R. L. C. Wu; S.
Finke; J. Veshinfsky; M. Carte
r; E. Smith; S. Lukich; S. Fries
-
Carr; J. Weimer; M. Freeman, Proceeding of 28th
Capacitor and Resistor Technology Symposium, Newport Beach, California (2008).


4. “Use of Amorphous Oxides as High Temperature Dielectric Material in Wound Capacitors,” K. D
. Jamison, R. D.
Wood; B. G. Zollars; M. E. Kordesch, Proceeding of 28th Capacitor and Resistor Technology Symposium, Newport
Beach, California (2008).


5. “The Mechanisms Leading to the Useful Electrical Properties of Polymer Nanodielectrics,” R. C. Smit
h; C.
Liang; M. Landry; J. K. Nelson; L. S. Schadler, IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, Vol. 15,
No. 1; February 2008, 187
-
196.


KEYWORDS: capacitors, power conditioning, power electronics, dielectric, wide temperature, polymers,
ceramics,
glass dielectrics




OSD09
-
EP5


TITLE:
Advanced Materials for Improved Safety Lithium
-
ion Batteries


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Ground/Sea Vehicles, Materials/Processes, Sensors, Electronics


OBJECTIVE: Improved chemistries are being sought for lithium
-
io
n batteries with improved energy density over
conventional lithium
-
ion batteries for soldier applications.


DESCRIPTION: High Energy Rechargeable Battery
-

Lithium
-
ion has the highest specific energy of any
commercial secondary battery, and converting fro
m primary to rechargeable power sources could substantially
reduce the Military

s cost for power. The present state of the art Lithium
-
ion cell containing a carbon negative
electrode conventional liquid electrolyte provide energy densities less than 200 Wh
/kg. We are seeking a higher
-
energy lithium
-
ion battery chemistry for long soldier missions through one of two approaches.


(1) High energy anode: Recently, many attempts have been made to use lithium alloys such as lithium
-
tin or lithium
-
silicon as neg
ative electrodes in place of carbon anodes to increase the energy density of lithium
-
ion batteries.
However, due to the large volume changes during charge and discharge, these alloys have poor mechanical stability
and easily break down during cycling of L
i
-
ion batteries. In order to develop high rate lithium
-
ion batteries with
improved safety and cycle life, the use of lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12) as a anode has been suggested. During
discharge cycle of the battery, lithium is deintercalated from lithium t
itanate electrode and inserted into the positive
electrode such as lithium cobalt oxide. The electrochemical processes at the electrodes are reversed during the
charge cycle . However, the use of lithium titanate as anode results in voltage loss of ~1.5 Vo
lts resulting in lower
energy density of lithium
-
ion batteries. Successful proposals will identify other non
-
carbonaceous intercalation or
alloy anodes with improved energy densities over carbon based anodes and long cycle life.


(2) High Voltage cathode a
nd high Voltage stable electrolyte: Recently a number of high energy positive electrode

OSD
-

16

materials with intercalation potentials approaching or above 5V have emerged. Although these high voltage
cathode materials could considerably improve the energy de
nsity, their use in lithium
-
ion batteries is limited because
side reactions with conventional cell electrolytes based on carbonate solvents can occur at the high charge potentials.
The combination of a solvent stable to 5V vs lithium or a solvent free, hi
ghly conductive, solid electrolyte that is
stable to 5V vs lithium with a high voltage cathode could lead to a higher energy lithium
-
ion battery.


Successful proposals will include a complete, battery chemistry to achieve improved energy density fro
m the
present state of the art lithium
-
ion battery. Operation and storage over the full Military temperature range
(
-
40°C to
70°C)

is required with minimal degradation and maximal charge retention. Electrode materials and electrolytes
should be selected to

maximize the energy density while permitting adequate discharge rate of 50 W/kg and
recharge of the cells in 1 hr. At
25°C

cells should operate safely for over 200 cycles at 80% depth of discharge.


PHASE I: Phase I should result in the identification o
f at least one new intercalation anode material which can be
used in conjunction with a cathode material such as lithium cobalt oxide and will deliver high energy densities and
long cycle life and/or Phase I should result in the identification/synthesis of

at least one cathode/electrolyte
combination of a positive electrode material with lithium intercalation potential is greater than 4.5 V and a
compatible electrolyte that is stable to 5V vs lithium and demonstration of high lithium conductivity and inte
rfacial
electrolyte with proposed positive and negative electrode materials. Deliverables: Monthly letter reports and final
report summarizing results of phase I studies.


PHASE II: Phase II will provide for further exploration and development of all cell
components, improvement of
rate performance and the formulation of complete prototype cells to demonstrate the capability of the system in
terms of energy density, temperature range, rate capability and cycle life. Deliverables: quarterly and final report
s
summarizing results of phase II studies including cell performance data and 10 prototype cells.


PHASE III DUAL
-
USE APPLICATIONS: The energy storage components under consideration here are of great
potential value for use with cellular phones, laptop com
puters, camcorders and many other commercial electronic
equipment.


REFERENCES:

1. J. Zhang and Y Xia,


Co
-
Sn alloy as negative electrodes for rechargeable lithium batteries

, J. Electrochem.Soc.,
153, A1466 (2006).


2. A.D.W. Todd, R.E. Mar and J.R. D
ahn,

Combinatorial study of tin
-
transition alloys as negative electrodes for
lithium batteries

, 153, A1998 (2006).


3. X.L. Yao, S. Xie, C.H. Chen, Q.S. Wang, J.H. Sun, Y. L. Li, and S.X. Lu,


Comparison of graphite and spinel
(Li4Ti5O12) as anode mater
ials for nrechargeable lithium
-
ion batteries
”,
Electrchim. Acta, 50, 4076 (2005).


4. F. Zhou, M Cococcioni, K. Kang, and G. Ceder,

The intercalation potential of LiMPO4 and LiMSiO4 olivines
with M + Fe, Mn, Co, and Ni

, Electrochem Comm 6, 1144 (2004).


5. F. Mizuno, T. Ohtomo, A. Hayashi, and M. Tatsumisago,

Lithium ion cond
ucting solid electrolytes prepared
from Li2S, elemental P and S

, Solid State Ionics, 177, 2753 (2006).


KEYWORDS: High energy density, intercalation, electrolyte, solid electroly
te




OSD09
-
EP6


TITLE:
Extraction of Atmospheric CO2 and Conversion to Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuel


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Ground/Sea Vehicles


O
BJECTIVE
: Develop processes to extract carbon dioxide (CO2) from the air, concentrate it and convert it
to a
liquid hydrocarbon fuel with energy input from either utility electricity, or other resources that generate no net
carbon dioxide. Hydrogen needed for the conversion process may be derived from water that should also be

OSD
-

17

collected from the air.


D
ESCR
IPTION
: Advanced energy conversion and storage technology is under intense development to meet the
increasing power demand by the military. Consumption of petroleum
-
based JP
-
8 fuel for propulsion and for
electricity generation in battlefield places a hea
vy logistic burden to the Army as evidenced during the recent wars.
The cost and availability of this conventional energy source is becoming an important factor to the success of the
military operations at present and in the future. Taking into account o
f the fully burdened cost of the petroleum fuel
used in theater, and the extra vulnerability rendered by the dependence on this sole energy source, the Army needs to
explore the possibility to develop capability to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuel from dilu
te (~400 ppm) but vastly
abundant CO2 and water in the atmosphere anywhere on the globe. This technology, if fully developed, will enable
the military to obtain a higher degree of energy security.


This topic is seeking innovative material and engineeri
ng process development to extract CO2 and water from the
air and use them as chemical feedstock [1] for making liquid hydrocarbon fuel, an energy
-
dense and reliable storage
medium. Carbon dioxide migration strategy [2], the related approaches for its sepa
ration/recovery [3], and the
chemical processes to convert it to liquid fuel [4
-
5] have been well documented. One of the key aspects of this
technology is the ability to be rapidly deployed to forward operating bases using existing transport equipment, an
d a
fast removal if the base closes or its location is changed. The process is desired to have a minimum output
capability of about 5000 gallons per day of liquid hydrocarbon fuel (such as JP
-
8) production. Energy input for the
processes is not a major c
oncern for the current topic, but eventually the whole process could be an integral part of
an autonomous deployable power generation system with the best possible energy and resource efficiency.


P
HASE

I:

A report to summarize the determination of the
preferred approach for extraction of CO2 and collection
of water from the atmosphere. Laboratory experiments should be conducted to support the determination and the
knowledge documented in literature should be the base on which a conceptual design of the

deployable synthetic
fuel production process will be developed, with emphasis on the size and weight of the system to meet deployment
requirements. The design should include all the process components such as CO2 extraction, water collection,
reactions o
f CO2 with water (or with hydrogen generated from the collected water), and liquid hydrocarbon fuel
formation.


P
HASE

II:

Construct one prototype for either CO2 extraction or water collection process, and demonstrate that
liquid hydrocarbon fuel can be
produced in laboratory with all the designed processes. The fuel should be
characterized, and the energy input be measured based on one unit liquid fuel produced. Present a detailed
description of the design, its operational parameters, and output perfor
mance together with specific cost and
development requirements. Provide suggestions on possible path forward for the next stage of the technology
development and associated technical barriers to be overcome.


P
HASE

III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Developm
ent of liquid hydrocarbon fuel production system
from atmospheric CO2 and water with either electricity or other appropriate alternative energy sources will have
significant impact on the enhancement of energy security, the addition of environmental benefi
ts, as well as many
possible applications of the technology to commercial auto, farming and aeronautical industries.


References:

1. Steinberg, M. Synthetic Carbonaceous Fuels and Feedstocks, U.S. Patent 4,197,421, 1980.


2. Halmann, M.M.; Steinberg, M.
Green Gas Carbon Dioxide Mitigation: Science and Technology, CRC Press:
Boca Raton, 1998.


3. Wade, J.L.; Lackner, K.S.; West, A.C. Transport Model For a High Temperature, Mixed Conducting CO2
Separation Membrane, Solid State Ionics 2007, 178, 1530
-
1540.


4. Martin, F.J.; Kubic, W.L. Jr. Green FreedomTM


A Concept for Producing Carbon


Neutral Synthetic Fuels
and Chemicals, Los Alamos National Laboratory Report, LA
-
UR
-
07
-
7897, 2007.


5. Frost, L.; Elangovan, E.; Hartvigsen, J. Co
-
electrolysis of Steam
and CO2 as Feed for Fuel Synthesis,
Proceedings of 43rd Power Sources Conference, page 619
-
621, 2008.


OSD
-

18


KEYWORDS: Atomspheric CO2 capture, synfuels, logistics fuel, JP
-
8




OSD09
-
EP7


TITLE:
Enhancing the Utilization Efficiency of Cathode Materials in the L
i Ion Batteries


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Ground/Sea Vehicles, Materials/Processes


OBJECTIVE: Improve energy density and specific energy of lithium ion batteries, through advances in utilization
of cathode active materials.


DESCRIPTION: Almost 41% of the Li i
on battery mass is dominated by the cathode weight and approximately 16
-
18 % each dominated by the graphite and the electrolyte. It is not that the cathode materials have low theoretical
specific energy. They do have in some cases over 800 Wh/kg and most
ly in the 600
-
700 Wh/kg range. However in
practical cells they are below 200Wh/kg (mostly between 100


160 Wh/kg range). So why are they not yielding
their full potential? It is probably related to the efficiency of their utilization. By modifying th
eir morphology and
their particle size better utilization can be expected. As a first step one needs to study the use of nano materials of
the current materials. Secondly minor addition of dopants such as Ni or Co or other transition metals has to be
add
ed to produce non
-
stoichiometric oxides. Non Stoichiometric oxides generally contain more “defects” and these
tend to be more energetic thus increasingly becoming more efficient in Li intercalation. A combination of nano
particles with “defects” may hav
e an effect that is synergistic.


PHASE I: Conduct research to investigate and evaluate the feasibility design concepts to demonstrate the enhanced
energy density and specific energy density of lithium
-
ion batteries. Phase I will address the performance
characteristics of the cathode material and scalability issues of the material for actual cell build. A research study in
the form of a report is expected from phase I deliverables.


PHASE II: This phase will cover the development and demonstration of
cells, and multi
-
cell modules of both
cylindrical or prismatic cells. The capacities of the cylindrical and prismatic cells shall be in the range of 30 Ah.
Enhanced cell performance and appropriate electronic controls shall be incorporated into the syste
m, based on the
results from Phase I. Delivery shall include small multicell demonstrator batteries using manufactured cells off a
piolt line for lab verification and evaluation.


PHASE III DUAL
-
USE COMMERCIALIZATION: The results of the development of
the improved energy density
and specific energy of lithium ion batteries should enable their incorporation into two types of systems:


Military: The cells will enable the development of safe, low
-
cost hybrid vehicle batteries and enhanced silent watch
sui
table for current ground vehicle systems.


Commercial: The high energy cells should allow the development of commercial and consumer hybrid vehicles and
plug
-
in hybrid vehicles, and in addition could be utilized in cordless power tools and garden applic
ations.


The goal in this phase will be to evaluate the products for military and commercial applications, and to initiate the
manufacturing processes to produce these products.


REFERENCES:

1. F.J. Puglia, M. Gublinska, S. Santee, “Domestically Prod
uced Cathode and Anode Materials for Li
-
Ion Cells”,
Proc. Of the 43rd Power Sources Conference, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, July 7
-
10, 2008.


2. W. Behl, J. Read, “Rechargeable Lithium Cells Using Cobalt Fluorides as Positive Electrodes”, Proc. Of the

43rd Power Sources Conference, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, July 7
-
10, 2008.


3. A. Jeffery, W. Macklin, S. Nicholson, “Development of High
-
Energy Density Li
-
Ion Cells”, Proc. Of the 43rd
Power Sources Conference, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, July 7
-
10,
2008.



OSD
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19



OSD09
-
HS1


TITLE:
Weather/Climate Variability Impact on Energy, Water and Food Resources and

Implications for Regional Stability


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Human Systems


ACQUISITION PROGRAM: OSD DDR&E


OBJECTIVE: Research, design, a
nd evaluate an innovative approach for the evaluation and adaptive management
of energy, water and food resource capabilities due to the impact of inter
-
seasonal, inter
-
annual and longer term
weather/climate variability, particularly as they intersect secu
rity and stability.


DESCRIPTION: The United States Global Change Research Program has made significant advances in the
understanding of earth’s climate and the anthropogenic influences on Earth’s climate and its ecosystems. Congress
has recently drafted

a bill to reauthorize and update the Global Change Research Act 15 USC 2931 noting that over
the next century, [alterations in world climate patterns] could adversely affect world agricultural and marine
production, coastal habitability, biological divers
ity, human health, global social and political stability, and global
economic activity.


At an April 2007 meeting of the UN Security Council, British Foreign Secretary, Margaret Beckett said that recent
scientific evidence reinforced, or even exceeded, t
he worst fears about climate change, as she warned of migration
on an unprecedented scale because of flooding, disease and famine. She also said that drought and crop failure
could cause intensified competition for food, water and energy.


The CNA Corpora
tion brought together 11 retired four
-
star and three
-
star admirals and generals as a Military
Advisory Board to provide advice, expertise and perspective on the impact of climate change on national security.
CNA writers and researchers compiled the report
under the board's direction and review. The study, "National
Security and the Threat of Climate Change," explores ways in which climate change acts as a "threat multiplier" in
already fragile regions of the world, creating the breeding grounds for extremi
sm and terrorism.


While long
-
term global climate change has captured the world’s attention and has ignited discourse on the
implications and impact for regional stability and the security environment, it is seasonal and inter
-
annual variability
that is p
erhaps more relevant to the management and distribution of energy, water and food resources


considered
future flash points of conflict by many. Consideration of water, food and energy cycles includes a spectrum in
interagency, inter
-
stakeholder interests
, ranging from disaster response and management, to agricultural efficiency,
coastal management, ecological wellbeing and forecasting, as well as the effective management of water, food and
energy resources. Inter
-
annual and seasonal variability can provi
de appropriate drivers to the types of planning,
activities and preparation for longer term trends that might have association with climate change. By understanding
the measures of effectiveness and performance of existing systems in terms of their abilit
y to handle seasonal and
inter
-
annual variability, one can characterize the performance envelope and assess this as related to longer term
trends in order to optimize among a variety of choices to serve both near
-
term and long
-
term interests.


Second and t
hird order effects are also of concern. For example, representatives of US Southern Command have
indicated that alterations in weather and climate patterns that impact drug cultivation, processing and distribution
would require changes in DOD training, mo
nitoring, and forward
-
deployed units in their area of responsibility.


PHASE I: Identify and describe areas of interest through both deductive and induction fusion of geospatial fields
showing sensitivity in agricultural production, coastal management, ec
ological well
-
being and critical water and
energy resources to seasonal, inter
-
annual and long
-
term trends. Define a comprehensive framework, methodology
and process that justifies and defines parameters and trigger events required for monitoring the impac
t of
weather/climate variability on energy, water and food systems that could contribute to instability and decreased
security. Conceptualize a web
-
based tool that would facilitate organizing, utilizing and archiving this information.


PHASE II: Develop
a web
-
based tool to facilitate, organize, integrate and apply information that represents the
impact of climate variability and change on energy, water and food systems that could exacerbate stability and

OSD
-

20

security environments. Identify thresholds and/or
trigger events that managers and operators could use to design and
implement specific activities to mitigate impacts. Develop analysis and visualization tools to assist users in
determining second and third order effects. Demonstrate developed capability

meets expectations and is accessible
and useful to US government practitioners and partner nations.


PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL: While the technology is being developed to support
Operational
-
level (Mission
-
level) efforts, this technology is als
o useful for Homeland Defense/Security missions.
The distinction between the two is statutory. This technology could be as useful during domestic disaster/incident
response as it would be for foreign applications. A commercial entity could adopt this so
ftware and improve it for
sale to state, county, and municipal governments.


REFERENCES:

1. Amendment of the Global Change Research Act of 1990


2. US Security Council 5663rd Meeting
http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2007/sc9000.doc.htm


3. “National Se
curity and the Threat of Climate Change,” CNA Corporation;
http://securityandclimate.cna.org/



KEYWORDS: climate change and fragile states, climate variability and instability




OSD09
-
HS2


TITLE:
A Cultural Architecture Generator for Immersion Training
in Virtual

Environments


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Human Systems


OBJECTIVE: The objective of this topic is to develop a platform
-
independent architecture for providing rapid, on
demand and up to date Cultural Immersion Training for Warfighte
rs who are either operationally deployed or in
their pre
-
deployment workup cycles.


DESCRIPTION: Doctrine governing the role of the United States Military has undergone a profound change in
recent years, placing increasing emphasis on small teams that ca
n be rapidly deployed to critical locations around
the world on short notice [1]. Discussions on the training requirements needed to enable this capability typically fail
to include techniques for rapidly indoctrinating today’s Warfighters in the Cultural

features common to the location
to which they are being deployed. Thus, while these forces may arrive well
-
versed in the art of war, they are at a
decisive loss in terms of understanding the unique challenges they may face in a given environment. The
cons
equences of being ignorant of these features can lead to major culture clashes, which can significantly impede
mission success [2]. Virtual Environment (VE) training systems, with their inherently small footprint, and
fundamental reliance on software rathe
r than hardware solutions, represent an elegant, scalable, solution to
providing this training. Yet, while some efforts have begun to explore the feasibility of providing such training [3],
the focus has been more on developing the environment rather than
on the underlying content that will provide
unique, realistic and accurate immersive cultural training.


The proposed framework, the Cultural Architecture Generator (CAG) will bridge this gap between technology and
training in four ways. First, it will
provide users with tools for scripting scenarios, defining parameters such as
regional dialect/phrases, Native customs, key terrain features and more complex social and religious customs.
Initially, this information can be derived through databases and lo
ok up tables, although ultimately it is expected that
a means for incorporating up
-
to
-
the minute data automatically will be developed. Second, the CAG will support the
instantiation of these behaviors through the use of Computer Generated Forces (CGFs). Th
e CAG
-
based CGFs will
evince a range of believable behaviors [4], including facial gestures as well as other verbal and non
-
verbal behaviors
[5]. Varying these properties in culture
-
specific ways can provide a unique approach for training Warfighters to
un
derstand the range of emotional states that can be attributed to such behaviors. By making these CGFs interactive,
capable of both speech synthesis and recognition (in local dialect), as well as recognizing simple gestures, the CAG
will support the develop
ment of a virtual forum for developing basic interactive skills. An additional capability will
be provided by the CGFs, in the form of monitoring trainee performance in order to provide meaningful After

OSD
-

21

Action Review [6]. Finally, the CAG will provide a
transparent and platform independent interface for representing
these features within a VE.


PHASE I: Define a platform
-
independent architecture and framework for scripting and implementing scenarios,
complete with After Action Review capability, through

Computer Generated Imagery and Computer Generated
Forces
-
based behaviors, including speech synthesis/recognition in both English non
-
English contexts and gesture
recognition, to convey pre
-
defined Cultural nuances. Architecture must support introduction o
f cultural information
from a wide range of sources, including but not limited to media, HUMINT and direct input. A final report will be
generated, including system performance metrics and plans for Phase II. Metrics shall include both measures of
effectiv
eness and measures of performance. Phase II plans should include key component technological milestones
and plans for at least one operational test and evaluation. Phase I should also include the processing and submission
of any necessary human subjects us
e protocols.


PHASE II: Develop a prototype system based on the preliminary design from Phase I. All appropriate engineering
testing will be performed, and a critical design review will be performed to finalize the design. Phase II deliverables
will incl
ude: (1.) a working prototype of the system, (2) specification for its development, and (3) test data on its
performance collected in one or more operational settings. The prototype must demonstrate operational
system/platform independence and the ability
to incorporate data sets from multiple media/sources.


PHASE III: This technology will have broad application in military as well as commercial settings. The military
requires training capabilities that will rapidly enhance its deployed forces abilities
to interact with Native
populations. With the increasing trends towards globalization in the market place, commercial sectors also require a
similar capability. The proposed system will provide today’s Warfighters with the ability to quickly learn key soci
o
-
cultural rules and styles, allowing them to be more effective in their missions. This system will also allow
commercial workforce personnel to quickly and rapidly integrate into the cultures and societies with which they
typically do business; it will al
so allow them to open up more opportunities, in new cultures and societies, faster and
more effectively than ever before possible.


REFERENCES:

1. “The limits of rapid deployment”, G2mil The Magazine of Future Warfare, April 2001
(
http://www.g2mil.com/Ap
ril2001.htm
).


2. “Culture clash creates tension beween U.S. troops and Iraqis.” The Olympian, Olympia Washington Sunday,
August 10, 2003.


3. Marsella, S., Gratch, J., Rickel, J. The Effect of Affect: Modeling the Impact of Emotional State on the Behav
ior
of Interactive Virtual Humans. Proceedings of the Agents2001 Workshop on Representing, Annotating, and
Evaluating Non
-
Verbal and Verbal Communicative Acts to Achieve Contextual Embodied Agents (Montreal,
Canada, June 2001).


4. Lester, J.C., Voerman,

J.L., Towns, S.G. & Callaway, C.B. (1999). Deictic believability: Coordinating gesture,
locomotion, and speech in lifelike pedagogical agents. Applied Artificial Intelligence, 13:383
-
414.


5. Ekman, p. & Friesen, W.V. (1971). Constants across cultures in

the face and emotion. Personality and Social
Psychology, 17(2).


6. Gratch, J., Mao, W. Automating After Action Review: Attributing Blame or Credit in Team Training. The 2003
Conference on Behavior Representation in Modeling and Simulation. Retrieved fro
m
http://www.ict.usc.edu/publications/brims03_gratch.pdf

on 02 Jan 2009.


KEYWORDS: Cultural Immersion; Training; Virtual Environment; Computer Generated Forces; Speech Synthesis;
Speech Recognition.






OSD
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22

OSD09
-
HS3


TITLE:
Algorithmic Behavior Forecasting


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Human Systems


OBJECTIVE: The objective of this topic is to develop a tool that will an provide accurate forecast into the cultural
and social behaviors of a domestic or foreign target population to enable more acc
urate and effective decision
making .


DESCRIPTION: In a world full of sophisticated weapons, forces who can more accurately forecast human behavior
and use that data to make wise decisions will have a significant edge over their competition. Today in
DoD, this
analysis is conducted by anthropological experts, known to carry their own bias, which often leads to faulty
recommendations and inaccurate behavioral forecasting (1.) and take a significant amount of time to develop, in
large part due to the rap
id expansion of information produced from any given target population over the past decade.
Alternative approaches, which significantly reduce or remove altogether this bias, while at the same time automating
the overall analysis method, would provide a si
gnificant improvement over this status quo.



Methods like genetic algorithmic modeling of human behavior (2,3) are becoming increasingly prevalent inside
marketing and advertising industries and have been shown to provide effective communication and mark
eting
strategies (4). At the same time, the development of modeling and simulation software has produced more accurate
forecast and analysis capabilities of target population behavior (5,6) such as economics, decision making and
identification of key infl
uencers (human or other) within groups (7). Despite this progress, these tools have not
been developed to support command
-
level military decision making processes in regard to troop movement,
offensive / defensive strategy, or message communication which

would help create a favorable environment for our
deployed forces. A technology that would exploit these recent trends to enable accurate forecasting of a given
populations’ potential responses to military relevant events would provide military decision
makers with a powerful
tool to more effectively use their limited resources to the greatest benefit possible. This tool could be used to
facilitate or to replicate wholly or in part many of the tasks that a human anthropological consultation would provide
such as, counter
-
insurgency, reconstruction or support operations, allowing faster and more accurate development of
social
-
cultural behaviors.


This effort will produce a system that will function as a rapid assessment of target population networks, hierar
chies,
social norms and communication styles in order to determine preferences and individual influencers. Data sources
will include, but are not limited to, information from print, voice and internet sources generated by investigators or
members of the p
opulation itself. In addition, the tool will be equipped to forecast population or sub
-
population
response to military actions, social / cultural interventions or mode of message dissemination. The software will be
user
-
friendly and intuitive so that com
mander level military members will be able to use it to guide or analyze his or
her strategy.


PHASE I: Prepare a feasibility study and proof of principle demonstration of the proposed system. Study and
demonstration must characterize the system’s ability

to rapidly capture large quantities of target population data and
develop accurate behavior forecasts. A final report will be generated, including system performance metrics,
conceptual software design, preliminary interface design and plans for Phase II.

Optimizing system flexibility and
utility of diverse anthropological applications will be considered a critical performance metric. Phase II plans
should include technological milestones and plans for one or more operational test and evaluation studies f
ocusing
on diverse social and cultural populations.


PHASE II: Develop a prototype algorithmic behavior forecast analysis tool that demonstrates phase I capabilities
using real
-
world scenarios and available data. All appropriate testing will be performed
, and a critical design review
will be performed to finalize the design. Phase II deliverables will include: (1.) a working prototype of the system,
(2.) training and implementation plans, and (3.) performance assessment in one or more operationally valid
settings.


PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: This behavior forecasting tool will have broad applications in military
as well as commercial settings. Military applications of this technology include enabling commander level officers’
rapid, un
-
biased infor
mation regarding target
-
population dynamics, hierarchies and likely behavioral response to a
wide array of interventions in order to help inform their decisions. Algorithmic Behavior Forecasting tools may also
extend beyond commander level officers provid
ing insight to any level of the military that has direct interaction or

OSD
-

23

working with the target population. Commercial applications include domains where personnel with different social


cultural backgrounds must continually interact in dynamic situation
s where the probability of miscommunication
is high and the risk and consequences, great.


REFERENCES:

1. Russert, T. (2003). Interview with Vice
-
President Dick Cheney, NBC, "Meet the Press," Transcript for March
16, 2003. Retrieved from
http://www.mth
olyoke.edu/acad/intrel/bush/cheneymeetthepress.htm



2. Vose, M.D. (1995). Modeling simple genetic algorithms. Evolutionary Computation. 3(4):453
-
472.


3. Lawrenz, C., Westerhoff, F. (2003).

Modeling exchange rate behavior with a genetic algorithm.

Computational
Economics. 21(3):209
-
229.


4. Anthes, G (2006). Deconstructing Complexity. Retrieved from
http://www.computerworld.com/action/article.do?command=viewArticleBasic&taxonomyId=18&articleId=263766i
ntsrc=hm_topic




5. Kahlert, B. R. C., Su
llivan, J. (2006). Microtheories in: Walther von Hahn, Cristina Vertan (eds), First
International Workshop: Ontology Based Modeling in the Humanities, April 7th
-
8th 2006, University of Hamburg
(Bericht 264). Retrieved from http://clio
-
knows.sourceforge.n
et/Microtheories
-
v2.pdf


6. Lowrance, J., Harrison, I., Rodriguez, A., Yeh, E., Boyce, T., et al. (2008). Template
-
Based Structured
Agumentation. In Knowledge Cartography: Software Tools and Mapping Techniques, Springer.


7. Morrissey, B. (2008). Ai
m high: ad targeting moves to the next level. Commercial Alert downloaded from:
http://www.commercialalert.org/news/archive/2008/01/aim
-
high
-
ad
-
targeting
-
moves
-
to
-
the
-
next
-
level



KEYWORDS: Decision making, Information systems, Anthropology, Cultural Dyna
mics, Software Systems,




OSD09
-
HS4


TITLE:
Using Serious Games for Socio
-
Cultural Scenario Training


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Human Systems


OBJECTIVE: The objective of this topic is to develop a low cost, portable Serious Game
-
based too
l that will
quickly train Warfighters on a wide range of Human, Social, Cultural and Behavioral knowledge.


DESCRIPTION: The Department of Defense spends billions of dollars annually to develop model and simulation
based training capabilities [1]. These h
igh end tools have been shown to have some degree of training effectiveness
[2], but often the return on investment makes widespread application of these technologies unfeasible [3]. At the
same time, results from both basic and applied scientific assessme
nts [4,5] of the effectiveness of games indicates
that when properly developed, these low cost
-
tools may have a much higher return on investment in terms of the
cost to develop as compared with the long term performance effectiveness they impart to their u
sers.


The key challenge with applying these game
-
based applications to the training needs of the DoD is that today’s
missions typically involve a wide range of non
-
kinetic activities, ranging from Phase 0 (planning/shaping) to Phase
4 (stabilization) mili
tary operations, in a wide range of socio
-
cultural environments. Developing a game
-
based
training application for each would be prohibitive in terms of time and cost. An alternative approach is to develop an
adaptive architecture that: 1) puts scenario aut
horing & in the hands of the users; 2) incorporates up
-
to
-
the minute
regional, social, cultural and ‘human terrain’ data automatically; 3) monitors trainee performance in order to provide
appropriate performance enhancing remediation; and, 4) is a transpar
ent and platform independent interface for
representing these features across gaming platforms.


PHASE I: Define a platform
-
independent architecture for generating scenarios, complete with After Action Review
capability, and Computer Generated Forces
-
bas
ed behaviors, including speech synthesis/recognition in both English

OSD
-

24

non
-
English contexts and gesture recognition, to convey pre
-
defined Cultural nuances. Architecture must support
introduction of cultural information from a wide range of sources, includin
g but not limited to media, HUMINT and
direct input. A final report will be generated, including system performance metrics and plans for Phase II. Metrics
shall include both measures of effectiveness and measures of performance. Phase II plans should incl
ude key
component technological milestones and plans for at least one operational test and evaluation. Phase I should also
include the processing and submission of any necessary human subjects use protocols.


PHASE II: Develop a prototype system based on
the preliminary design from Phase I. All appropriate engineering
testing will be performed, and a critical design review will be performed to finalize the design. Phase II deliverables
will include: (1.) a working prototype of the system, (2) specificatio
n for its development, and (3) test data on its
performance collected in one or more operational settings. The prototype must demonstrate operational
system/platform independence and the ability to incorporate data sets from multiple media/sources.


PHASE

III: This technology will have broad application in military as well as commercial settings. The military
requires training capabilities that will rapidly enhance its deployed forces abilities to interact with Native
populations. With the increasing tren
ds towards globalization in the market place, commercial sectors also require a
similar capability. The proposed system will provide today’s Warfighters with the ability to quickly learn key socio
-
cultural rules and styles, allowing them to be more effecti
ve in their missions. This system will also allow
commercial workforce personnel to quickly and rapidly integrate into the cultures and societies with which they
typically do business; it will also allow them to open up more opportunities, in new cultures
and societies, faster and
more effectively than ever before possible.


REFERENCES:

1. Kitfield, J. (2009) The Simulated Revolution. Retrieved from
http://www.govexec.com/procure/articles/98top/08a98s17.htm

on 14 Jan 09


2. Lathan, C., Tracey, M., Sebr
echts, M., Clawson, D., & Higgins, G. (2002) Using Virtual Environments as
Training Simulators: Measuring Transfer In: Handbook of Virtual Environments: Design, Implementation, and
Applications (Ed: Kay M. Stanney); Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2002 p. 403
-
414.


3. Kirkpatrick, D.L. (1994). Evaluating Training Programs: The Four Levels. San Francisco, CA: Berrett
-
Koehler.


4. Green, C.S. & Bavelier, S. (2003) Action video game modifies visual

selective attention Nature, 423:534
-
536


5. Greitzer, F., Kuch
ar, O., Huston, K. (2007). Cognitive science implications for enhancing training effectiveness
in a serious gaming context. Journal on Educational Resources in Computing 7(3).


KEYWORDS: Serious Games; Scenario Generation; Training; Computer Generated Forc
es; Feedback.




OSD09
-
IA1


TITLE:
Real
-
time Adversarial Characterization and Adaptive Software Protection

Countermeasures


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems


OBJECTIVE: Develop software protection technology that collects and processes data on attacke
rs in real
-
time or
near real
-
time, and has the ability to adapt to an on
-
going attack.



DESCRIPTION: The ability to adapt to new and evolving cyber threats is important to the long
-
term survival of
software protection. Current software protection techn
ology is static and uniform is its application of
countermeasures to a variety of threats. The same defensive system is used to protect against both novice and
nation
-
state class threats. More importantly, information that could be gathered from the adve
rsary during an attack
and utilized by the software protection system is largely ignored.



OSD
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25

The focus of this research is to develop adaptive software protection technology that adheres to the three tenets of
cyber security [1] and prevents piracy, reverse
engineering, and malicious alteration of critical software applications
and data from nation
-
state threats. One of the main objectives of the work is to characterize both the adversary and
the attempted attack vectors in real
-
time or near real
-
time, and t
o use this information to adapt software defenses.
For example, a targeted attack might be indicative of a nation
-
state class attacker. Compared to a novice attacker
who may use known vulnerabilities and commercially available tools, a nation
-
state class

attacker may use
sophisticated techniques such as custom BIOS or hard disk drive firmware modifications, system management
mode, or unpublished CPU/chipset vulnerabilities to carry out an attack. Detection of such an attack would lead to
responses that a
re likewise more sophisticated, and involve a combination of monitoring, deception, and other
dynamic countermeasures that adapt to the actions of the adversary. If successful, adaptive software protection
technology will allow the applications being prot
ected to remain free from compromise and operational for longer
periods of time than would otherwise be possible.


Research areas of interest include, but are not limited to, (1) attacker behavioral analysis and its use in adaptive
software protection sy
stems, (2) cyber defenses that identify new intruders and mount new defenses depending on
the attack tools and techniques used, (3) intelligent software decoys [2] and other techniques that allow rapid
maneuvers that adapt to the threat, and (4) intelligen
t response mechanisms that allow the collection of attack
information while providing a safe haven for critical applications [3][4]. Both software
-
only and hardware
-
assisted
software protection solutions are appropriate research areas under this topic.


PHASE I:

1) Develop a concept for an adaptive software protection technology.

Operating systems of interest include Linux and Windows.

2) Provide design and architecture documents of a prototype tool that demonstrates the feasibility of the concept.

3)

Develop a simple prototype that demonstrates the feasibility of the concept.


PHASE II:

1) Based on the results from Phase I, refine and extend the design of the adaptive defensive system prototype to a
fully functioning solution.

2) Provide test and e
valuation results demonstrating the ability of the proposed solution to detect, react, and adapt to
a simulated attack.


PHASE III DUAL
-
USE APPLICATIONS: Tools and technologies that enhance the real
-
time response to attacks
for the protection of high
-
valu
e software and intellectual property against piracy and reverse engineering would be
marketable in both the DoD and commercial sectors. Applicable DoD deployment domains include high
performance computing centers, foreign military sales of U.S. weapon sys
tems, and command and control centers.
Commercial systems that are likely to benefit from the technology due to the fact that they are potentially high
-
value
targets include banking and finance, communication centers, and SCADA systems.



REFERENCES:

1.
Software Protection Initiative, The Three Tenets of Cyber Security,
http://spi.dod.mil/tenets.htm


2. Bret Michael, Intelligent Software Decoys, Eiffel Summit, Santa Barbara, CA, July 31, 2001,
http://www.tools
-
conferences.com/tools/usa_2001/program/eiffe
l_summit/decoys
-
tools2001.pdf


3.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Machine_learning


4.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autonomic_Computing



KEYWORDS: Software Protection, cyber defense, adaptive systems, intelligent response, behavioral analysis,
software dec
oys




OSD09
-
IA2


TITLE:
Countermeasures to Covert Access Methods to Reduce Attack Susceptibility and

Ensure Trust


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems



OSD
-

26

OBJECTIVE: Develop software and data protection tools that provide countermeasures to sophisticated
covert
access methods on critical end
-
node computer systems to reduce attack susceptibility and ensure trust.



DESCRIPTION: In order to measure the trustworthiness of network end
-
nodes, one must understand the
susceptibility of the fundamental components
and devices on the computer system to exploitation and how they can
be used to compromise the system. Once these vulnerabilities are understood, countermeasures can be developed to
reduce the inherent susceptibility of the system to attack [1].


Security
researchers have increasingly demonstrated the ability to develop covert and low
-
level exploits in order to
compromise security. As an example, recent demonstration of sophisticated programs that operate transparently to
the operating system and network d
efenses [2] [3] illustrate the threat and ramifications of covert access methods.
Attackers can take advantage of the fact that users of computer systems often assume a certain level of trust in the
running processes, operating system, BIOS, chipset/perip
heral firmware, and other shared resources such as hard
disk drives and memory, in order to achieve their goals. In the case of closed networked systems, covert access can
be initiated in a number of ways, including via malicious insiders, the software or

hardware supply chain, or the
unintentional installation of Trojan horse programs embedded in legitimate applications.


The goal of this research topic is to develop countermeasures to sophisticated covert access methods that are used
for software and da
ta piracy or exfiltration, stealthy execution, malicious alteration of critical information, or control
of network end
-
nodes. Research should focus on understanding sophisticated covert access methods and then
developing techniques that prevent these meth
ods from becoming successful. When it is not possible to eliminate
the risk from those methods completely, consideration should be given to developing detect and react mechanisms
that guard the possible attack paths into the system [1] (e.g., detecting an
d reacting to someone attempting to reflash
the BIOS). Covert access methods of interest include, but are not limited to, (1) System Management Mode (SMM)
exploitation [2][3], (2) BIOS or EFI/UEFI modifications and exploitation, (3) hard disk drive firmwa
re
modifications, (4) PCI Option ROM modifications and exploitation, (5) non
-
traditional covert communications that
allow control signals or critical data exfiltration (e.g., within SMM or via hidden TCP/IP stacks) [4], (6) novel
covert access methods and
data exfiltration techniques used on closed networks [5], (7) covert execution [6] [7], and
(8) parasitic storage used to maintain persistence and avoid detection once covert access is obtained [8].


PHASE I: 1) Research and develop a concept to counter s
ophisticated covert access methods as described above.
Operating systems of interest include Linux and Windows. 2) Provide design and architecture documents of a
prototype tool that demonstrates the feasibility of the concept. 3) Provide a minimal softwar
e prototype
demonstrating one or more countermeasures to covert access methods.



PHASE II: 1) Based on the results from Phase I, refine and extend the design of the covert access defensive system
prototype to a fully functioning solution. 2) Provide test
and evaluation results demonstrating the ability to prevent
covert access



PHASE III DUAL
-
USE APPLICATIONS: The technology developed under this research topic will ensure
computer systems remain trustworthy from both insider and over
-
the
-
wire attacks. Th
e DoD will utilize the
technology developed under this effort to prevent sensitive data and application software from piracy, reverse
engineering, and malicious alteration; and computer systems from intelligence gathering and malicious control.
Commercial

applications include preventing exfiltration of intellectual property and personal information, and the
malicious manipulation of critical software (e.g., software controlling SCADA systems). As a result, the technology
will find use in both the DoD and
commercial sector.



REFERENCES:

1. Software Protection Initiative, The Three Tenets of Cyber Security,
http://spi.dod.mil/tenets.htm



2. Shawn Embleton and Sherri Sparks, “A New Breed of Rootkit: The System Management Mode (SMM) Rootkit,”
Blackhat US
A 2008.


3. Rafal Wojtczuk and Joanna Rutkowska, “Attacking Intel Trusted Execution Technology,” Blackhat Federal
2009.



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27

4. Sherri Sparks and Shawn Embleton, “Deeper Door


Exploiting the NIC Chipset,” Blackhat USA 2008.


5. Eric Filiol, “Passive and Ac
tive Leakage of Secret Data from Non
-
Networked Computers,” Blackhat USA 2008.


6. Dan Tsafrir, Yoav Etsion, and Dror G. Feitelson, “Secretly Monopolizing the CPU Without Superuser
Privileges,”
http://www.cs.huji.ac.il/~dants/papers/Cheat07Security.pdf



7
. Albert
-
Laszlo Barabasi, Vincent W. Freeh, Hawoong Jeong, and Jay B. Brockman, “Parasitic Computing,”
Nature, Vol 412, August 20, 2001,
http://www.nd.edu/~parasite/nature.pdf



8. Kurt Rosenfelfd, Husrev Taha Sencar, Nasir Memon, “Volleystore: A Parasit
ic Storage Framework,”
Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE Workshop in Information Assurance, United States Military Academy, West Point,
NY, June 20
-
22, 2007,
http://isis.poly.edu/~parastore/volleystore.pdf



KEYWORDS: Software Protection, anti
-
piracy, covert ac
cess, covert communications, data exfiltration, system
management mode, firmware exploits, parasitic computing, parasitic storage




OSD09
-
IA
3


TITLE:
Software Protection to Fight through an Attack


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems


OBJECTIVE: Develo
p software protection technology that allows the applications and associated data being
protected to remain operational during an attack.



DESCRIPTION: Current software protection technology attempts to defeat piracy and reverse engineering attacks
by in
voking hard penalties that delete or disable essential security elements once an attack is detected. For example,
upon attack detection, the software protection or anti
-
tamper system may delete cryptographic key material needed
to decrypt a protected appl
ication during loading or runtime. While this approach can be effective in mitigating the
risk of a successful attack, it is not practical for many scenarios where the software must remain in continuous
operation [1].


The focus of this topic is to develo
p software protection that prevents an attack from becoming successful while
allowing the executing software and associated data being protected to remain operational and trustworthy [2]. We
define an attack as an attempt at piracy, reverse engineering, m
alicious alteration, or denial
-
of
-
service (DoS) of
critical software and data that reside on an end
-
node computer system. Research should be directed toward
preventing an attack from becoming successful by invoking increasingly preventative responses as t
he attack
escalates. As an example, if an attacker performs an action that is deemed to be relatively benign (e.g., attempting to
copy a protected application to a directory on the same machine


an action a legitimate user may also perform), a
correspond
ingly benign response could be invoked such as preventing the action from occurring, monitoring the
future actions of the user, and notifying a system administrator of the incident. If the attacker performs more serious
actions and escalates the attack (e
.g., they attempt to copy the application or entire protection system over the
network), then the defensive system might prevent the action, remove the installation of the protection mechanism
or application from the disk, alert administrators, and termina
te the attackers network connection, while allowing the
software to remain running in volatile memory. Only when the attack is deemed to be on the verge of success would
the software or critical material be purged completely from the system to prevent the

attack from becoming
successful.


The defensive system should operate at the hardware and software component layer, as opposed to the network
layer. Unlike a host
-
based intrusion prevention system, detection and response mechanisms considered in this t
opic
should be tied directly to preventing attacks against specific protected applications. The defensive system should be
designed to be out
-
of
-
band to the adversary, and minimize its susceptibility to attack and circumvention. In
addition, the system m
ust be able to distinguish between an actual attacker and a legitimate (and benign) end
-
user
that exhibits behavior that could be mistakenly construed as adversarial. In order to achieve this objective, DoS
attacks against the use of critical operational
software and data, whether self
-
imposed due to the necessity of

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28

invoking hard penalties against the attacker to prevent the capture of critical intellectual property, or directly from
external threats, must be eliminated to the maximum degree possible. Fu
rther research is needed to develop more
sophisticated detect, react, and adapt mechanisms to survive and maintain trustworthiness during an on
-
going attack.
Proposed solutions should address the adherence of the design to the three software protection se
curity tenets [3].


Research areas of interest include, but are not limited to, (1) development of graded attack response mechanisms that
protect critical software and data during operations, (2) technologies that preserve the required operational behavior

of the software and data that is being protected during an attack, (3) software protections that utilize a dynamic
protection boundary which moves critical software and data in and out
-
of
-
band depending on whether an attack is
on
-
going or not (the presump
tion is that a performance gain might be achieved when not in a high security state),
and (4) software behavior characterization technologies in order to determine expected vs. maliciously altered
runtime behavior.


PHASE I: 1) Research and develop a conc
ept for a software protection technology that can remain operational and
trustworthy during an attack. The target operating systems of interest include Linux and Windows. 2) Provide
design and architecture documents of a prototype tool that demonstrates
the feasibility of the concept. 3) Provide a
minimal software prototype demonstrating the feasibility of the concept.



PHASE II: 1) Based on the results from Phase I, refine and extend the design of the defensive system prototype to a
fully functioning s
olution. 2) Provide test and evaluation results demonstrating the ability to “Fight through a
(Simulated) Attack.”



PHASE III DUAL
-
USE APPLICATIONS: The technology being researched and developed under this topic allows
software protections to meet miss
ion critical requirements and remain operational during an attack. This
characteristic would not only benefit DoD weapon and support systems, but also commercial organizations that need
to maximize their uptime (e.g., companies that rely on Internet
-
based

sales).



REFERENCES:

1.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SCADA


2. David S. Albert and Richard E. Hayes, Power to the Edge: Command…Control…in the Information Age, CCRP
Publishing, 2005,
http://www.dodccrp.org


3. Software Protection Initiative, The Three

Tenets of Cyber Security,
http://spi.dod.mil/tenets.htm



KEYWORDS: Software Protection, anti
-
tamper, cyber defense, denial of service, graded response, autonomic
computing




OSD09
-
IA4


TITLE:
Autonomic Knowledge Representation Construction for Software
Protection

Systems


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems


OBJECTIVE: Advance the state of the art in knowledge representation applied to software protection and anti
-
reverse engineering technologies.



DESCRIPTION: This research seeks to develop a syste
m to automatically learn and represent knowledge about the
state of a system running protected software, including its operating environment, hardware, registers, memory, I/O,
and other points of access. This system should be able to use classification te
chniques to construct higher
-
level or
nearly human
-
level knowledge about the state of a system in order to prevent piracy, theft, and reverse engineering
of critical intellectual property. Specifically, this system should address and counter novel reverse

engineering
attack vectors through giving the user added ability to model and understand the operation of the system at a high
level.


The system is intended for defeating novel software reverse engineering attack vectors in an environment such as a
VM,

secure hypervisor, secure enclave, virtual
-
leashing system, etc. It requires a machine learning approach where

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29

the system can improve its ability to detect novel attacks with experience [7]. For any well
-
formed machine
learning problem, an appropriate a
lgorithm can be developed which allows the system to perform classification of its
events and connections, so this research seeks to develop the foundation for hierarchical knowledge construction to
apply learning on the more abstract structures [7]. One
way to approach this is to maintain uncertainty bounds about
the trustworthiness of the software and interactions it has with other components on the system. Then higher
-
level
knowledge representation structures or knowledge structures at different levels

can be developed and employed to
mimic the human’s ability to look at the “big picture” of a set of events and draw quantitative conclusions while
resisting common human decision
-
making errors [1].


An autonomic protection system is needed which can det
ect, react, and adapt to novel attack vectors by being able to
prevent the attacker from trying an attack more than once. Detection and reaction mechanisms based on integrity
checks are defeated easily by skilled attackers. Anomaly detection techniques h
ave the advantage of being able to
detect some types of novel attacks but typically have a high false
-
positive rate, which can cause a self
-
imposed
denial of service [5]. It can be expected that the attack vector will be crafted and targeted to blend in w
ith normal
system operation. Reaction and adaptation to attacks should remove the critical portions of the system from the
attacker’s reach and reducing the scope of system vulnerability. Adaptation mechanisms should impose graded
responses ranging from
full operation to limited privilege operation or no operation, depending on the level of
knowledge and uncertainty about attacks.



PHASE I: 1) Investigate and design an architecture for autonomic knowledge representation construction in an
environment s
upporting software protection. 2) Provide architectural and design documents of a prototype system
that demonstrates the feasibility of the concept.



PHASE II: 1) Based on the results from Phase I, refine and extend the design of the prototype system to
a fully
functioning protection solution.

2) Provide an analysis demonstrating the robustness of the product to a set of arbitrary novel or previously un
-
prepared
-
for attacks and the system’s ability to detect, react, and adapt to such attacks. This should

account for the
levels of uncertainty that the system maintains about the information used to make the classification decision.



PHASE III DUAL
-
USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Tools and technologies for the protection of information
systems against novel attacks
are marketable and sought after in both the government’s anti
-
reverse engineering and
anti
-
malware efforts, and in the security interests of commercial sectors. Specifically, a technology that could be
deployed and learn its operating environment from int
eractions would have great value to those needing to deploy
autonomic defense systems to protect against everything from cheating in online games to intercepting sensitive
communications and data in financial and medical information systems. Additionally,

reverse engineering
technologies are also employed regularly in efforts to reverse engineer and study malware. Cyber security is a
growing concern in the US and the ability to automatically sense an operating environment for percepts to employ
autonomic
knowledge representation and attack detection would be beneficial to many security products.



REFERENCES:

1. Zeng, Y., Zhong, N. On Granular knowledge Structures, In: Progress of Advanced Intelligence: Proceedings of
2008 International Conference on
Advanced Intelligence, Posts and Telecommunications Press, Beijing, China,
October 18
-
22, 2008, 28
-
33.


2. Degabriele, J. P., Pym, D. Modeling Task Knowledge Structures in Demos 2000. HP Laboratories HPL
-
2008
-
94.


3. Colin Williams, Tad Hogg. Exploi
ting the deep structure of constraint problems. Artificial Intelligence. 70, 73
-
117 (1994).


4. Taylor, M. E., Matuszek, C., Klimt, B., and Witbrock, M. Autonomous Classification of Knowledge into an
Ontology. 20th International FLAIRS Conference, Key

West, Florida, May 2007.


5. Armstrong, D.; Frazier, G.; Carter, S.; Frazier, T. A controller
-
based autonomic defense system. Proceedings of
the DARPA Information Survivability Conference and Exposition (DISCEX’03). Page(s): 21
-

23 vol.2.



OSD
-

30

6. Ko,
C. System health and intrusion monitoring: technology description. Proceedings of the DARPA Information
Survivability Conference and Exposition (DISCEX’03). Page(s): 27
-

29 vol.2


7. Mitchell, T. "Machine Learning", McGraw Hill, 1997.


KEYWORDS: Machin
e learning, autonomic defense, cyber defense, computer security mechanism, novel attack
vector, anomaly detection, trust, knowledge representation, detect react adapt process




OSD09
-
IA5


TITLE:
Developing Cyber Situation Awareness for Enterprise Health


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems


OBJECTIVE: Develop and demonstrate key technological enablers for effective development of situation awareness
and enterprise health of cyber networks


DESCRIPTION: Over the last several decades, the both the defense

and commercial sectors have developed a wide
variety of new sensor and platform types and operational concepts such as networked centric operations and the
global grid. Easing access to data from cyber networks and organizing them to support understandin
g and action has
yet to be achieved. New technology solutions are needed to support the edge users who must operate across
multiple domains and communications paths and to protect and manage the security of our networks and to allow
our mission
-
critical s
ystems to fight through when threatened or degraded by a cyber conflict. Providing situation
awareness for and determining the overall health of a cyber network remains an issue.


Previous research in information assurance and network management addresse
d traditional

intrusion detection and information fusion as shown in references 5 and 6. New methodologies and approaches are
needed for the next generation of cyber situation awareness for surveillance of the network, node
-
based assessment,
dynamic and
autonomic response to attacks including reconfiguration, recovery, and reconstitution while allowing
mission
-
critical systems to continue to function.


This research seeks advancements in four interconnected science and technology areas: (1) Research the k
nowledge
required from cyber networks to support distributed cooperative decision making as well as appropriate
corresponding knowledge representations


presenting the right information to the cyber network operator; (2)
Development of methods to provide
autonomic and dynamic resource management, enterprise health, and course of
action selection; (3) Resolving situation understanding issues when multiple sensors may be sensing the same
situation but presenting different results; and (4) Generating support

for anticipatory and predictive awareness. The
researcher shall consider factors such as: a work centered design approach, a representative military mission
scenario, a principled approach to identify the needed sensor suite to support situation awarenes
s, distributed
decision making, and machine
-
based knowledge representation.


Proposed methodologies must be capable of executing on commercial
-
off
-
the
-
shelf desktops or workstations and be
platform independent. Graphical output should comply with open,
industry, international standards such as
OpenGL, Java libraries, etc. in lieu of proprietary graphical products.


Phase I activity shall include: 1) Design and develop a methodology to portray situation awareness and enterprise
health for a representative

military scenario using cyber sensing technologies, 2) a proof
-
of
-
feasibility demonstration
of key enabling concepts.


Phase II: The researcher shall develop and demonstrate a prototype that implements the Phase I methodology and
incorporates actual cyb
er sensor data, sensor and situation models, knowledge representations, resource
management, course of action selection, and predictive awareness support. The technology development shall have
a goal of technology readiness level (TRL) 6 at the end of Pha
se II. The researcher shall also detail the plan for the
Phase III effort.


Phase IIII Dual Use Commercialization:


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31

Military application: Situation awareness for the GIG and cyber networks. DoD components and Department of
Homeland Security can benefit fr
om this research.

Commercial application: Diverse sensing applications (e.g., environmental monitoring, disaster preparedness and
response, agricultural management) have experienced rapid expansion in recent years.


REFERENCES:

1. Endsley, M.R. Theor
etical underpinnings of situation awareness: A critical review. In Endsley, M.R. and
Garland, D.J. (Eds.) (2000) Situation Awareness Analysis and Measurement. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
Associates.


2. Klein, G. (1997). An overview of naturalistic d
ecision making applications. In C. E. Zsambok & G. Klein (Eds.),
Naturalistic decision making (pp. 49
-
60). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.


3. Sensor Web,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sensor_Web
\



4. M. Talbert and G. Seetharaman, “When Sensor
Webs Start Being Taken Seriously…,” Proceedings of the IEEE
International Conference on Sensor Networks, Ubiquitous, and Trustworthy Computing (SUTC ’06), Taichung,
Taiwan. June 2006.




5. Lippmann, Richard, Engin Kirda,and Ari Trachtenbergi (Eds.), “ P
roceedings of Recent Advances in Intrusion
Detection 11th International Symposium, RAID 2008”, Cambridge, MA, USA, September 15
-
17, 2008,
Proceedings, Springer,
http://www.springerlink.com/content/978
-
3
-
540
-
87402
-
7



6. Proceedings of DARPA Information S
urvivability Conference and Exposition (DISCEX) April 2003, IEEE
Computer SocietyPress, 2003,
http://intl.ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=1194867&isnumber=26875



KEYWORDS: layered sensing, situation awareness, distributed decision making, sen
sor resource management,
sensor web, secure sensor




OSD09
-
SP1


TITLE:
Cloud Analytic Tools


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems


OBJECTIVE: Provide an Analytic Tool for use with a Cloud computing environment that will use basic set of
functions that s
pan the range of analytic activity.


DESCRIPTION: Cloud computing is emerging as the computational and storage paradigm for ultra
-
scale data and
analytics. A cloud is a pool of virtualized, commodity computer resources accessible via a Web
-
based interface

in
conjunction with a highly automated mechanism for managing those resources. Upon this infrastructure, a
computational framework brings analytics to the data, effectively implementing a key tenant of cloud computing


ingest data once, move data rarely,

and re
-
use data often. Thus cloud enables the rapid configuration and allocation
of vast computational resources while supporting massively parallel processing over petabytes of distributed data to
deliver both agility and power at scale.


Google, the pro
genitor of cloud, and others have proven the extraordinary capability of cloud for specific
applications within certain well defined domains (e.g. web search/index). Within the Intelligence Community (IC),
substantial cloud computing initiatives already un
derway are poised to do similarly, tailoring cloud for specific
objectives. Considered more broadly however, as an enterprise wide platform for the IC, several aspects of cloud are
in need of further research and development. Principal among these is the c
loud analytic tool set.


Analysts working high op
-
tempo missions down range tell us the most rapid time scale is not of the data or the
mission, rather it is the frequency with which they must change the way they view and manipulate the data. For
these war
fighters, sophisticated tools built nationally are obsolete the day they get deployed. What they clamor for
are basic, elemental tools that they can apply in diverse contexts and compose into workflows that help them do

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32

their job easier and faster.


This S
BIR seeks to develop an analytic tool set designed to operate within cloud computing infrastructure, on cloud
data. In addition to being cloud
-
native, the set of tools should reflect a basis
-
set of functions that together span the
range of analytic activit
y. Each tool should capture / enable a basic element of analytic activity while presenting
minimal dependencies on other elements or on application specifics. By developing a complete set of cloud
-
native
tools that may be used independently or composed int
o workflows to build analytic product, this SBIR aims to
provide the warfighter with the means to harness the full power of cloud in the face of rapid change.


PHASE I: The proposal for Phase I should identify the major components and architecture via a c
ognitive model.
In phase I, the hardware architecture will be investigated for both feasibility, and cost to implement. The software
design shall be generated leveraging both COTS products as well as defining areas where internal development will
be need
ed. Cost shall be estimated and a cost effective course shall be provided.


PHASE II: In Phase II, development of the cloud analytical tool prototype shall be conducted and integration with
select data pools shall be provided for demo purposes.


PH
ASE III DUAL
-
USE COMMERCIALIZATION: .Ownership of a Cloud Analytic Tool which this research has
shown to be at a cost
-
effective grain size should position the company well for further business using Cloud type
architecture for data handling for both DoD
and commercial industrial customers.


REFERENCES:

1. Armbrust, Michael, Armando Fox, Rean Griffith, Anthony D. Joseph, Andrew Konwinski, Gunho Lee, David A.
Patterson, Ariel Rabkin, Ion Stoica, and Matei Zaharia. Above the Clouds: A Berkeley View of Clou
d. Tech. no.
UCB/EECS
-
2009
-
28. 10 Feb. 2009. UC Berkley. 5 Mar. 2009
http://www.eecs.berkeley.edu/Pubs/TechRpts/2009/EECS
-
2009
-
28.pdf



2. BigTable & Hbase A Distributed Storage System for Structured Data. Issue brief. Apache Software Foundation.
6 Mar.
2009
http://wiki.apache.org/hama
-
data/attachments/Presentations/attachments/BigTable_and_Hbase.pdf



3. Borland, John. "Cloud Computing''s Perfect Storm?" Technology Review. 07 Aug. 2008. 5 Mar. 2009
http://www.technologyreview.com/computing/21180/



4.
Schmidt, Eric. "Google''s CEO on the Power of Clouds." Editorial. Business Week 13 Dec. 2007. 13 Dec. 2007.
Business Week. 6 Mar. 2009
http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/07_52/b4064052938160.htm



5. Tequlap, Serdar. "Cloud Computing Tools For M
anaging Amazon, Google Services." Information Week. 05
Nov. 2008. 5 Mar. 2009
http://www.informationweek.com/news/hardware/grid_cluster/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=211800196



KEYWORDS: KEYWORDS: Cloud Computing, Ingest Data, Google, Intelligence Communit
y, Analytic activity




OSD09
-
SP2


TITLE:
High
-
performance, Large Scale Data Handling in Tactical Environments


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems


OBJECTIVE: Development of techniques to maximize management performance of large volumes of topically
re
levant data for tactically relevant decision environments.


DESCRIPTION: Across the US Government and within DoD information sharing poses challenges for data
management and dissemination by Services and Agencies developing solutions. Achieving greater

process
flexibility to meet diverse user needs requires improved understanding of data management and organization
methods and the related data handling discipline required to enable rapid, accurate, and consistent, machine
-
based
storage, registration, an
d retrieval of large volumes of disparate data from multiple sources at multiple nodes. Data

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33

sources under consideration include disparate real
-
time sensor and archival sources with multiple dimensions, and
very high rates and volumes. The challenge is t
o create a distributed storage capability that retains logical integrity
of the separate data sources, while supporting multiple parallel and asynchronous functions of storage, search, and
retrieval for multiple (machine
-
based) users.


Data design consid
erations to enable efficient and disciplined management structures may include such diverse
issues as formal ontologic methods, machine
-
based registry and tagging control, uncertainty capture, and
representation mechanisms to support human understanding an
d supervision. Data management issues should
include: i.) tagging of data to provide reference information such as metadata for capture of source contextual
information, pedigree for maintaining traceability of process actions and flow, and data normaliza
tion to account for
non
-
commensurate units; ii.) replication and /or synchronization of data for appropriate redundancy in support of
various purposes such as: failure recovery, efficient access by diverse and distributed users, transparency, etc.; iii.)
d
ata discovery mechanisms (by category and content) to enable efficient search and retrieval of large data volumes
utilizing automated indexing, classification, and relationships of diverse (multi
-
media) data. Solution approaches
should not be system speci
fic but should emphasize broad utility for DoD and beneficial metrics for enterprises
engaged with large (order of petabytes) data volumes.


PHASE I: The Phase I effort should identify and demonstrate the feasibility of novel organizational techniques
a
pplicable to management of large volume, distributed, virtual database operations. Selected techniques should
maximize overall efficiency of the virtual database in terms of its ability to store, search, and retrieve large volumes
of domain specific data.

Under phase I, the organizational approach and supporting techniques should be designed
in detail with sufficient supporting critical article test, analysis, or modeling to justify performance expectations.
The design should be accompanied by tradeoff a
nalyses, identification of relevant performance metrics, and
modeling and simulation to characterize performance expectations under routine and stressed conditions.


PHASE II: The Phase II development should address implementation of full scale capabili
ty for laboratory test and
evaluation in a government provided reference implementation. The design approach, along with analysis of test
results, will be documented.


PHASE III DUAL
-
USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Design practices developed for a high performa
nce, large scale
data handling capability, in support of the persistent storage needs and query demands of tactical level users, will
have great demand within DoD as well as other governmental agencies and network interactive commercial users.


REFERENC
ES:

1. “DoD Net Centric Data Strategy”, DOD CIO Memo May 09, 2003


2. “Data Sharing in a Net
-
Centric Department of Defense”, DODD 8320.2 December 2, 2004


3. “Net
-
Centric Enterprise Solutions for Interoperability” (NESI):
http://nesipublic.spawar.navy.
mil





OSD09
-
SP3


TITLE:
Automated Scene Understanding


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems


OBJECTIVE: Provide a technology that automatically infers the relationship between objects in a scene consistent
with operator supplied context.


DESCRIPTION:
A modular architecture that ingests imagery, performs image processing, including identification
of objects within the scene and inferring the relationship between the objects, that performs inference and outputs
plain text to an operator describing the co
ntent of the scene.


The Department of Defense has a limited number of analysts to examine data while simultaneously producing vast
quantities of sensor data requiring analysts. In addition imagery needs to be indexed, stored, and retrieved on
demand to

support warfighting functions. The automated capability to examine an image, identify the relevant

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34

objects within the scene, infer the relationship between the objects, and present a plain text synopsis for the operator
would (a) cue operators, and (b) a
llow imagery to be indexed and searched efficiently through conventional
techniques employed on the World Wide Web. With the objects in an image and their relationship defined, it is
possible to reconstruct the essential elements and structure of the scen
e from the plain text augmented with
additional data to achieve compression.


Challenges for this topic include 1) developing methods that translate context into actionable terms in order to 2)
interpret the relationship between objects that have been ide
ntified in the scene, 3) produce a plain text
representation of the scene that is consistent with context and the objects, 4) development of metrics to assess the
plain text representation, 5) develop understanding, within a fixed context, of the impact of

incorrect object
identification upon the plain text description of the scene, 6) development of a capability to synthesize images from
the plain text description.


The focus of this effort is two
-
fold and involves the development of algorithms leading to
automated understanding
of the scene, and a modular architecture for the system implementing the algorithms. A modular architecture would
enable the system to be rapidly upgraded when lower level image processing or image identification algorithms are
dev
eloped.


The OSD is interested in innovative R&D that involves technical risk. Proposed work should have technical and
scientific merit. Creative solutions are encouraged.


PHASE I: Complete a feasibility study and research plan that establishes the
proof of principle of the approach for
creating plain text interpretations that are consistent with the plain text interpretations of human beings that
employees a modular architecture. Identify the critical technology issues that must be overcome to ach
ieve success.
Prepare a revised research plan for Phase 2 that addresses critical issues.


PHASE II: Produce a prototype system that is capable of producing plain text interpretations, in a variety of
contexts, that are consistent with the plain text de
scriptions of human beings. The prototype should lead to a
demonstration of the capability. Test the prototype in at least two environments with two different contexts.
Demonstrate a capability to construct an image from the plain text description of th
e scene and identify additional
meta data so that the difference between the synthesized and actual scene is minimized against an appropriate metric
defined by the proposer.


PHASE III: Produce a system capable of deployment in an operational setting of in
terest. Test the system in an
operational setting in a stand
-
alone mode or as a component of larger system. The work should focus on capability
required to achieve transition to program of record of one or more of the military Services. The system shoul
d
provide metrics for performance assessment.



REFERENCES:

1. L.
-
J. Li and L. Fei
-
Fei. “What, where and who? Classifying event by scene and object recognition .” IEEE Intern.
Conf. in Computer Vision (ICCV). 2007.


2. Sivic, J. , Russell, B. C. , Zisse
rman, A. , Freeman, W. T. and Efros, A. A.

“Unsupervised Discovery of Visual
Object Class Hierarchies”, Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
(2008)


3. Timor Kadir and Michael Brady. International Journal of Comput
er Vision. 45 (2):83
-
105, November 2001.


4. Aharon Bar
-
Hillel, Tomer Hertz, Daphna Weinshall: Object Class Recognition by Boosting a Part
-
Based Model.
CVPR (1) 2005: 702
-
709.


5. A. Torralba, K. P. Murphy, W. T. Freeman and M. A. Rubin, “Context
-
based vis
ion system for place and object
recognition”, IEEE Intl. Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV), Nice, France, October 2003.


KEYWORDS: scene understanding, scene description, object recognition, image reconstruction, scene context



OSD
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35



OSD09
-
SP4


TITLE:
Desi
gning Large Data Handling Architectures


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems


OBJECTIVE: Design innovative architectures to assemble large amounts of data, automate understanding of content
and alert operators to critical events. Explore DoD current arch
itectures with modular applications and discoverable
services. Investigate means for orchestrating services across an enterprise. Show methods to adapt to changing
environments, expand the sensor types, add new data sources and support multiple data model
s.


DESCRIPTION: In the Global War on Terror (GWOT) the need exists to monitor at risk individuals and groups.
The data sources to achieve this goal have grown exponentially along with networks, storage capacity and computer
processing. Open and standa
rds based architectures are needed to efficiently assemble large amounts of data.
Greater information sharing strategies promotes agile information sharing [1]. It advocates Service Orientated
Architectures (SOA) with 3
-
layer designs that separate data fr
om processing applications and the presentation. The
automation of handling of large amounts of data can be achieved by use of metadata, alignment of vocabularies, use
of rules for data sharing governance, and defined business processes.



Architecture c
onsiderations arise regarding where and how to assemble information efficiently [2]. Sensor data can
be 1) stored in a large data archive for retrieval and extraction, 2) kept at an aggregation node (gateway), or 3)
remain close to smart sensor and trigge
rs provided for data distribution. A common ontology or mapping methods
provide a means to distribute, assemble and evaluate multiple sources of content by machine
-
based processes [3].


The DoD GIG strategy relies on managing data with Communities of Int
erest (COI) rather than standardization
across the enterprise. Since most sensor
-
collected data are correlated by geographic and time it is apparent that this
metadata needs to be specified. Less apparent, the monitoring of individuals and groups that ar
e often not collocated
and communicate by a variety of asynchronous means requires attribute descriptions. This enables correlation
through use of triplets (entity, relation, and object). For example, imagery can provide association of a person to
equipm
ent to a place. A semi
-
structured document can associate people to concepts, places or organizations. A
semantic net can be built from information components extracted from documents or corpus [4].


The OSD is interested in innovative R&D that involves te
chnical risk. Proposed work should have technical and
scientific merit. Creative solutions are encouraged.


PHASE I: Complete a plan and detailed approach for investigating large data handling architectures. Explore use of
the DoD data sharing strateg
y to offer a means to discover at risk individuals and groups. Analyze architecture
assembly methods including storage location (e.g. local, regional, and central), data abstraction levels (e.g. raw,
metadata, and summary), and process control (e.g. centr
al and decentralized computing).


PHASE II: Produce a prototype system that is capable of evaluating distributed data sharing environments. The
prototype system should assemble information by automated means, provide performance metrics and offer
visual
ization. The capability should support experimentation through scripted data inputs/outputs or event driven
simulation. Identify appropriate test variables and make trade
-
off studies. The prototype should focus on a specific
operator environment and use
appropriate data.


PHASE III: Produce a system capable of deployment in an operational setting. Show how the system improves
capability of entity and relationship discovery. Test the system in an operational setting in a stand
-
alone mode or as
a componen
t of larger system. The work should focus on capability required to achieve transition to program of
record of one or more of the military Services. The system should adhere to open standards and use registered COI
vocabulary and ontologies where feasibl
e.


REFERENCES:

1. DoD Net
-
Centric Data Strategy, CIO/NII, May, 2003.
http://www.defenselink.mil/cio
-
nii/docs/Net
-
Centric
-
Data
-
Strategy
-
2003
-
05
-
092.pdf




OSD
-

36

2. Handbook of Multisensor Data Fusion, by David Hall and Jim Llinas, (see Chapter 4), CRC publisher
s, 2001.


3. Semantic Web Technologies


Tends and Research in Ontology
-
based Systems, by John Davies, R. Studer and P.
Warren, Wiley publisher, October 2007.


4. “Text Mining through Entity Based Information Extraction”, Lipika Dey, M. Abulaish, Jahiruddi
n and G.
Sharma, IEEE Web Intel and Intel Agent Technology, 2007.


KEYWORDS: service orientated architectures, net
-
centric, data sharing, ontology




OSD09
-
SP5


TITLE:
Discovery of Human Activity from Video


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems


OBJECTIVE
: Automated analysis of surveillance data would greatly empower our own forces. Large numbers of
video sensors exist in urban environments. Technology is needed to recognize human activity, perform context
analysis and interpret criminal or terrorist beh
avior. Of particular value for understanding behavior, is context
analysis using individual and environment interactions over a sliding window of time.


DESCRIPTION: In the Global War on Terror (GWOT) the need exists to monitor at
-

risk individuals and gr
oups.
Video data analysis requires human interpretation and is not supportable except on a very limited basis. Cameras
have become very prevalent in urban areas for surveillance but due to the large volumes of data are limited to
forensic assessment afte
r crimes or attacks have occurred. Existing systems can detect objects (e.g. people) and text
(e.g. license plates) but are very limited in performing contextual analysis. Technology is needed to automate
understanding of human behavior using contextual
information. Contextual information is obtained by observing
interactions in space and time. Observations can be through single or multiple sensors (e.g. audio and video) and
organic capabilities or from external sources (e.g. reported news).


Large da
ta handling research is needed to enable tactical (edge) decisions and provide predictive vs. forensic use of
sensors. There technology needs for the GWOT to protect citizens with the following systems: 1) Wide Area
Surveillance (WAS) systems that provid
e imagery of moving platforms, and 2) Urban camera systems can provide
imagery of people or groups. Progress with Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) systems has lagged behind that
of text based search engines [1]. However, advanced have taken place with

automated entity detection and tracking
(platforms and people). What is called for in this research topic is technology to automate the understanding of
human activities. The observed interaction of entities with objects in the environment can indicate
behavior and
used to infer cognitive processes (human thoughts and emotional states).


Information needs to be shared in a net
-
centric environment to support a number of users. The Visual Data Fusion
(VDF) model provides a framework for computation. Thi
s involves human inputs of concepts of interest followed
by computation of contexts, relevance, data fusing and final output to human for visualization [2]. The VDF or
other model can be used to decompose the problem and obtain a solution. A cognitive pr
ocess is needed that 1)
prepare data for perception and 2) display information for human utilization. Architectures have been developed to
gain understanding of behavior based on blackboards or agent systems. Feedback is required to insure output is
releva
nt to user needs and overall system performance improves.


The OSD is interested in innovative R&D that involves technical risk. Proposed work should have technical and
scientific merit. Creative solutions are encouraged.


PHASE I: Review work done in
video (time series of audio and imagery) interpretation. Complete a plan and
develop an architecture for interpreting behavior from video images. Provide an approach for analysis of either
surveillance imagery or camera video and clarify the role of huma
n and computer. Identify data sets to be used,
relevant data features, relevant context sources, appropriate data models (ontology), algorithms to be used,
performance metrics and testing procedures to validate system.



OSD
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37

PHASE II: Produce a prototype syste
m that is capable of automating the interpretation of behavior and alerting
operators to significant events. The system should have potential of operating in distributed, data sharing
environments. The prototype should parse video information, interpret
human behavior and offer visualization. The
capability should support search for operator review and feedback for product refinement. Work should focus on a
specific operational environment and relevant activity.


PHASE III: Produce a system capable of d
eployment in an operational setting. Show how the system improves
video monitoring using performance metrics. Test system in an operational environment in either a stand
-
alone
mode or as a component of larger system. The work should focus on capability
required to achieve transition to
program of record of one or more of the military Services. The system should adhere to open standards where
feasible. Explore commercial applications of products developed.


REFERENCES:

1. DoD Net
-
Centric Data Strategy,
CIO/NII, May, 2003.
http://www.defenselink.mil/cio
-
nii/docs/Net
-
Centric
-
Data
-
Strategy
-
2003
-
05
-
092.pdf



2. Concepts, Models, and Tools for Information Fusion, (Chapter 12), by Eloi Bosse, Jean Roy and Steve Wark,
Artech publisher, 2007.


KEYWORDS: KEYWORD
S: image processing, behavior, data fusion, cognitive science




OSD09
-
SP6


TITLE:
Semantic Wiki for Page Alerting


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems


OBJECTIVE: Provide technology to dynamically assemble large amounts of data, automate understanding o
f
content and alert operators to critical events. Use semantic web to provide wiki pages for distributed collaborative
assessments.


DESCRIPTION: A potential strategy for handling large amounts of data is to evaluate once and in real time whether
the lat
est data point represents a change or is consistent with the current understanding of an entity (person, place,
group and event). In the Global War on Terror (GWOT) entities of interest include at risk individuals and groups. It
is desired to understand
entities based on a set of information fields, coded as an ontology, and visualized as a wiki
page. It is hoped that threat entities can be monitored, data sources updated, content clustered, relevance classified,
and alerting provided to operators so tha
t appropriate actions can be taken. The handling of large amounts of data
will require automated computer based processes.


To achieve the strategy described above, data must be coded in a way that enables discovery of explicit entity links
and implicit en
tity relationships. The DoD Global Information Grid (GIG) provides a bandwidth efficient means to
share data across an enterprise. The semantic web provides a means for handling of large amounts of data using
tags, schema and content descriptions (e.g. X
ML, RDF, and WSDL). A common ontology or mapping methods
provide a means to distribute, assemble and evaluate multiple sources of content by machine
-
based processes. Data
grounding is needed to provide linking between semantic and syntactic description l
evels [1]. Over time, contextual
understanding can be gained of entity behavior, motivation and cognitive processes. This is important for making
time critical threat assessments.


Topic challenges include 1) automated data tagging showing entity relation
ships through links and context, 2)
creation of dynamic semantic entity wiki pages, 3) development of rule based page change detection, and 4)
automated warfighter alerting of significant events. The determination of significant events requires interpreta
tion
of observed activities. Studies of cognition provide a means to understand mental states, reasoning, emotions, and
decision
-
making. Representing cognitive states can involve formal logic, rules, concepts (words), analogies, images
and neural connect
ions [2].


The OSD is interested in innovative R&D that involves technical risk. Proposed work should have technical and

OSD
-

38

scientific merit. Creative solutions are encouraged.


PHASE I: Complete a feasibility study and research plan for achieving an envi
ronment for entity relationship and
context discovery (e.g. contextual RDF). Select one or more methods for collecting data and showing a proof of
concept. Outline how data features are to be coded, data is to be modeled, and entity states expressed on d
ynamic
wiki pages. Identify an approach for use rule based change detection and operator alerts of time critical events.


PHASE II: Produce a prototype wiki system that is capable of dynamically ingesting information in a shared
environment. The prototyp
e system should assemble information by automated means and offer visualization tools.
The capability should provide automated operator alerts of significant threat events. Warning should be timely,
achieved by continuous updating, and triggered by prede
fined criteria. The prototype should focus on a specific
operator environment and use appropriate data.


PHASE III: Produce a system capable of deployment in an operational setting. Show how the system improves
capability of entity and relationship disco
very. Test the system in an operational setting in a stand
-
alone mode or as
a component of larger system. The work should focus on capability required to achieve transition to program of
record of one or more of the military Services. The system should
provide metrics for performance assessment. It
should have a means for retrospective analysis to determine effectiveness of time sensitive analysis and make
process improvements.


REFERENCES:

1. Semantic Web Technologies


Tends and Research in Ontology
-
based Systems, by John Davies, R. Studer and P.
Warren, Wiley publisher, October 2007.


2. Model Driven Architecture and Ontology Development, by Dragan Gasevic, Dragan Djuric and Vladan
Devedzic, Springer publisher, 2006.


KEYWORDS: wiki websites, sema
ntic web, data sharing, cognitive science




OSD09
-
SP7


TITLE:
Novel Distributed Processing Environments


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems


OBJECTIVE: Development of methods for achieving distributed processing of large data volumes with multiple
dis
tributed processing/analysis nodes and users.


DESCRIPTION: The DoD mission and approaches for future solution development creates new challenges for
processing of large data volumes that emanate from multiple distributed locations, have high arrival r
ates,
asynchronous arrival times, and content that is non
-
deterministic. There is a need to develop estimation techniques
applicable to distributed processing nodes, that incorporate workflow management, process coordination, and
functional partitioning t
o achieve integrated information and analytic products that are self
-
consistent (subject to
available data constraints), complete (under theoretical constraints of process optimality), and supportive of decision
maker goals for accuracy and timeliness. Cu
rrent practice is to perform estimation processing for distributed data
sources containing measurements of common areas/activities at a centralized location. Such centralized processing
may not always be feasible, and is likely to be less efficient than (
potential) distributed solutions that take advantage
of future network topologies.


This effort seeks to develop methods for achieving theoretically sound, distributed processing (number of nodes >4)
of diverse (multi
-
media) data types in pursuit of deci
sion maker needs to abstract data content into higher levels of
inference or estimation about objects (e.g. detection, kinematics, identification, tracking) or object relationships and
intent. Related to these common concerns about object or situation spe
cific estimation, is an interest in methods for
synthesizing data mining solutions (e.g. discovery of previously unknown models, behaviors, or trends) on a
distributed basis. Considerations should include theoretical consistency, optimality estimation, sc
alability, error
bounding, computational efficiency, parameterized constraint satisfaction (e.g. time, precision, completeness), and

OSD
-

39

performance evaluation (e.g. expected outcomes, marginal values) including intermediate and end
-
product metrics.
It should

be recognized that using emerging commercial technology for DoD solutions is a prime motivator for the
search for distributed processing solutions. There are many complications that stem from the dynamic nature of
possible network configurations and from

the asynchronous and non
-
deterministic nature of the resulting large data
volumes. These issues include allocation of specific data to processing nodes and functions; allocation of processing
functions to network nodes as a function of capacity, network
communication latencies, potential for data
contamination (repetitive use of the same, or dependent, data), and others. Solutions offered under this topic need to
show that realistic operating environment constraints have been considered.


PHASE I: The

proposal for Phase I should outline a theoretically sound approach to performing distributed
processing of asynchronous, non
-
deterministic data across multiple distributed nodes. The Phase I effort will focus
on development and validation of the proposed

approach using appropriate analytic techniques in conjunction with
modeling and simulation. The design solution for distributed processing must be shown to be computationally
feasible under nominal operational environment constraints of communications ca
pacity and latency. The
distributed performance solution will be referenced to a centralized solution and factors influencing performance
(positively and negatively) will be characterized.


PHASE II: The Phase II development will produce a distributed
system prototype that demonstrates distributed
processing of asynchronous measurement data from distributed sources to achieve consistent estimation (e.g. motion
tracking). The demonstration will include modeling, simulation, and test articles as appropri
ate of a representative
distributed environment, including data sources, communication effects, and processing nodes. The scale of the
prototype must be sufficiently large to enable exploration of distributed processing performance metrics. The Phase
II
effort will include experimentation to evaluate and confirm distributed processing performance and to identify
significant influencing parameters.


PHASE III DUAL
-
USE COMMERCIALIZATION: The community of organizations and individuals currently
employing
centralized processing solutions within DoD as well as other government agencies and commercial
activities is extremely large. Availability of distributed processing solutions will create new opportunities for
configuring network environments to achieve e
fficiencies in information production, computational loading,
network topology, and other issues yet to be identified. Development of such distributed capability will enable
military and commercial users of networked environments to eventually realize the

full potential of commercial
technology flexibility.


REFERENCES:

1. “DoD Net Centric Data Strategy”, DOD CIO Memo May 09, 2003


2. Liggins, ME; Hall, DL; Llinas, J; “Handbook of Multisensor Data Fusion, Second Edition”, CRC Press, Boca
Raton, FL, ch
apter 17, 2008.




OSD09
-
W01


TITLE:
Modeling Energetic Materials at the Meso Scale


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Materials/Processes, Weapons


OBJECTIVE: Develop and implement in software, models of composite energetic materials that are based

upon the
physical and chemical properties of constituent particles, binders, and their interfaces.



DESCRIPTION: Over the years, energetic materials modeling was conducted at the engineering level, with
emphasis on safety (quantity
-
distance relationshi
ps) or performance. In recent years, many additional needs for the
modeling of energetic materials have emerged (novel energetic material systems, Insensitive Munitions compliance,
hazard class reduction, reliable initiation, and survivable explosives). En
gineering models of bulk properties are
necessary, but insufficient to address these emerging needs. In order for researchers to develop quality energetic
materials via data
-
based designs, they require tools that will provide insights to the physical and c
hemical processes
these materials undergo when they are exposed (intentionally or unintentionally) to a variety of thermal and
mechanical loads (heat, shock, bullets/fragments, initiators, etc.). Example areas of interest: 1) describing meso
-

OSD
-

40

scale features

and the changes they undergo as a result of composition, particle size, morphology, processing
parameters and exposure to handling and operational conditions (IM threats, explosive loading, etc.); 2) describing
sensitivity, strength, and energy release as

a function of meso
-
scale features and environmental conditions (P,T); 3)
describing the chemical and kinetic energy transfer between reaction gasses, reaction particulates, and the
environment; or 4) innovative user interfaces or tool enhancements to seam
lessly tie any of the tools above to
existing models and software tools. Examples of the featural changes of interest include: void collapse,
delamination/pullout of particles from the binder, crush
-
up/deformation/melting of crystals, collision or friction
al
sliding between similar crystals, dissimilar crystals, and binder.


PHASE I: The proposal for Phase I should identify a specific element(s) to be modeled & the technical approach to
developing the model. This proposal should identify the approach to
theory and software integration and identify the
key input properties required and the diagnostic approach to obtaining them.


PHASE II: In Phase II, the models will be developed and implemented in a computer
-
based tool, key input
properties will be det
ermined (by theory or experiment), and the capability to provide insights to the response of a
material to a set of realistic insults will be demonstrated.


PHASE II DUAL USE APPLICATION:

Military Application: Military application includes formulation o
f explosives and data
-
based design of new
energetic materials.

Commercial Application: The principles could be applied to the development of any composite materials exposed
to significant thermal or mechanical insults (composite sports equipment, concre
te structures in earthquakes).



RELATED REFERENCES:

1. Baer, M.R. 2000 Computational modeling of heterogeneous reactive materials at the mesoscale. Shock
compression of condensed matter

1999 (eds. Furnish, M.D. Chhabildas, L.C. & Hixson, R.S.), pp. 27

33,
Melville, NY: American Institute of Physics
.



2. Baer, M.R. & Trott, W.M. 2002 Mesoscale descriptions of shock
-
loaded heterogeneous porous materials. Shock
compression of condensed matter

2001 (eds. Furnish, M.D. Thadhani, N.N. & Horie, Y.), pp. 713

7
16, Melville,
NY: American Institute of Physics
.



3. Chang H & Nakagaki M. 2001 Modeling of particle dispersed composite with meso
-
scale delamination or sliding.
Nippon Kikai Gakkai Zairyo Rikigaku Bumon Koenkai Koen Ronbunshu, pp 563
-
564(2001)


4. Bourn
e, N.K. 2002 On the collapse of cavities. Shock Waves 11, 447

455
.



5. Baer, M.R., Kipp, M.E. & van Swol, F. 2000 Micromechanical modeling of heterogeneous energetic materials.
Proc. 11th Int. Detonation Symp. (eds. Short, J.M. & Kennedy, J.E.), pp. 788

7
97, Arlington, VA: Office of Naval
Research.


6. Espinosa, H.D. & Zavattieri, P.D. 2000 Modeling of ceramic microstructures: dynamic damage initiation and
evolution. Shock compression of condensed matter

1999 (eds. Furnish, M.D. Chhabildas, L.C. & Hixson,

R.S.),
pp. 333

338, Melville, NY: American Institute of Physics.


KEYWORDS: Modeling, Mesoscale, Energetic




OSD09
-
W02


TITLE:
Mechanical Characterization of Energetic Materials


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes, Weapons


OBJECTIVE: Develop experi
mental and diagnostic techniques for characterizing the mechanical response of high
explosives as a function of the environment typical for a hard target penetrating warhead.



OSD
-

41

DESCRIPTION: Mechanical property data is lacking for most explosive materials c
urrently used, or slated for use
in penetrating warheads. The degree to which the explosive in a penetrator compresses and subsequently rebounds
can have profound influence on the operability or survivability of the fuze. If the explosive column compress
es to
the point it is no longer in contact with the fuze, the warhead may fail to detonate when the fuze initiates. If the
explosive column rebounds with sufficient velocity, it has the potential to severely damage the fuze. Premature
initiation of the h
igh explosive may also result from a combination of pressure and shear loads in the explosive as it
deforms under impact. Due to difficulties instrumenting ballistic experiments, for safety and practical reasons, the
only reasonable way to evaluate the ex
plosive response in a penetration event is through numerical simulation. The
accuracy of these numerical simulations is reliant on having constitutive models based on valid experimental data
gathered in pressure, temperature, and loading rate regimes repr
esentative of what the in situ material might
experience. There is a requirement for diagnostic and experimental techniques for characterizing these materials,
developing constitutive models capable of predicting the behavior of interest, and incorporatin
g these models into an
appropriate explicit hydrocode.


PHASE I: Design appropriate experimental and diagnostic techniques for characterizing the material over the range
of pressures, temperatures and strain rates of interest. Temperature is determined
from the operational conditions,
typically
-
60 oC to 60 oC. Calculations indicate that the pressure range of interest is up to approximately 40,000 psi
with strain rates on the order of 102
-
103. Advanced diagonistic techniques that have not been applied
to
characterization of energetic materials should be considered, for example acoustic emission, digital image
correlation, and new strain and stress measurement techniques. Conduct safety analysis to qualify device(s) for use
with explosives and energetic

materials.


PHASE II: Develop and implement the designs and techniques from Phase I. Characterize a representative
material, such as a polymer bonded explosive (PBX) simulant, over a selected range of conditions. Identify
appropriate constitutive mode
ls for replicating the material behavior and implement these models into an appropriate
explicit finite element or hydrocode. Design validation experiments for these models.


PHASE III DUAL
-
USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Mechanical properties characterization
is required for all new
materials under development. Improvements in characterization techniques would be applicable for universities
with materials science departments and companies that perform mechanical characterization. This technology is
specifical
ly applicable to the study of a wide variety of energetic materials and propellants. Instrumentation
techniques may be applicable to a wide variety of pressure and temperature sensitive materials, including polymers,
concrete, and geologic materials. The

application of such technologies to geologic materials should be of great
interest to the oil and mining industries. The processes developed for characterizing these materials could be
applied to characterization of materials such as shock absorbing mate
rials used in transportation and biological
material response to shock.


REFERENCES:

1. Wiegand, D. A., Pinto, J. and Nicolaides, N., J. Energetic Materials, 9, 19
-
80 (1991).


2. Pinto, J. and Wiegand, D. A., J. Energetic Materials 9, 205
-
263, (1991).


3. Funk, D. J., Laabs, G. W., Peterson, P. D and Asay, B. W., Shock Compression of Condensed Matter 1995,
Woodbury, New York, 1996, pp145
-
148.


4. Ward, I. M. and Hardley, D. W., An Introduction to the Mechanical Properties of Solid Polymers, John Wil
ey &
Sons, New York (1993), pp 234
-
236.


5. Wiegand, D. A. , Reddingius, B., Mechanical Properties of Confined Explosives, J. Energetic Materials, 23, 75
-
98 (2005).


KEYWORDS: confinement, pressure, mechanical properties, explosives, polymers




OSD09
-
W0
3


TITLE:
Utilizing Medical Imaging Technology for Generation of Mesoscale


OSD
-

42

Computational Descriptions


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Materials/Processes, Weapons


OBJECTIVE: Develop and implement in software techniques for taking the output of co
mmercially available
medical imaging devices, such as XCMT, and converting it into computational descriptions suitable for use in
Lagrangian and Eulerian hydrocodes.


DESCRIPTION: Mesoscale simulations are frequently regarded as ones where the mesh or m
aterial description is
resolved down to the level where individual constituants are treated with separate continuum level material
descriptions. For the case of a traditional energetic material, this would imply resolving the description down to the
energe
tic crystal level or smaller. One difficulty in conducting such analyses is generating a representative
description of the material for use in the analysis codes. One such technique which shows promise is through the use
of medical imaging devices, such as

X
-
ray Computed Microtomography (XCMT) to generate detailed scans of the
matrix material. Use of the XCMT for this purpose would allow for nondestructive examination of material samples.
This would be vital for subsequent use of the samples in material pro
perty tests, and post test examination. Such a
tool would be of great use for validation of mesoscale modeling techniques and damage mechanics studies.


PHASE I: The proposal for Phase I should identify a specific element(s) to be modeled & the technica
l approach to
developing the model. This proposal should identify the approach to theory and software integration and identify the
key input properties required and the diagnostic approach to obtaining them.


PHASE II: In Phase II, the models will be de
veloped and implemented in a computer
-
based tool, key input
properties will be determined (by theory or experiment), and the capability to provide insights to the response of a
material to a set of realistic insults will be demonstrated.


PHASE III DUAL
USE APPLICATIONS:

Military Application: Military application includes formulation of explosives and data
-
based design of new
energetic materials.

Commercial Application: The principles could be applied to the development of any composite materials ex
posed
to significant thermal or mechanical insults (composite sports equipment, concrete structures in earthquakes).


RELATED REFERENCES:

1. Baer, M.R. 2000 Computational modeling of heterogeneous reactive materials at the mesoscale. Shock
compression
of condensed matter

1999 (eds. Furnish, M.D. Chhabildas, L.C. & Hixson, R.S.), pp. 27

33,
Melville, NY: American Institute of Physics


2. Baer, M.R. & Trott, W.M. 2002 Mesoscale descriptions of shock
-
loaded heterogeneous porous materials. Shock
compressio
n of condensed matter

2001 (eds. Furnish, M.D. Thadhani, N.N. & Horie, Y.), pp. 713

716, Melville,
NY: American Institute of Physics


3. Chang H & Nakagaki M. 2001 Modeling of particle dispersed composite with meso
-
scale delamination or sliding.
Nippon Ki
kai Gakkai Zairyo Rikigaku Bumon Koenkai Koen Ronbunshu, pp 563
-
564(2001)


4. Bourne, N.K. 2002 On the collapse of cavities. Shock Waves 11, 447

455,


5. Baer, M.R., Kipp, M.E. & van Swol, F. 2000 Micromechanical modeling of heterogeneous energetic mater
ials.
Proc. 11th Int. Detonation Symp. (eds. Short, J.M. & Kennedy, J.E.), pp. 788

797, Arlington, VA: Office of Naval
Research.


6. Espinosa, H.D. & Zavattieri, P.D. 2000 Modeling of ceramic microstructures: dynamic damage initiation and
evolution. Shock

compression of condensed matter

1999 (eds. Furnish, M.D. Chhabildas, L.C. & Hixson, R.S.),
pp. 333

338, Melville, NY: American Institute of Physics.


KEYWORDS: imaging, mesoscale



OSD
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43



OSD09
-
W04


TITLE:
Modeling Energy Deposition Mechanisms at the Meso Scale


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes, Weapons


OBJECTIVE: Develop and implement models and software tools to describe the chemical and kinetic energy
transfer between reaction gasses and reaction particulates and the transfer of energy from reaction gas
ses and
reaction particulates to the target environment.


DESCRIPTION: The interaction of energy deposition mechanisms, including dynamic mechanisms such as shock
compression and chemical mechanisms and reactive heat release is a complex phenomenon that c
hallenges
modeling efforts. This is due in part to the rather stiff spatial and temporal conditions inherent in these highly
nonlinear and fast transient processes. Energy deposition can be spatially localized with a wide range of time scales
(fluid dynami
c, activation and reaction scales) that require extremely fine spatial and time discretization.
Furthermore, to enable computations within reasonable times, spatial and temporal adaptivity of the mesh is
essential and parallel computation is imperative.


In particular the following issues represent the required modeling/software development efforts:

1. Interaction of particles embedded in a condensed phase with imposed shock conditions.

2. Interaction of particles with compressible flow in gases.

3. Rea
ctive processes in the gas phase and its effect on the particles and vice versa.


Included in a model that addresses these issues are fluid mechanical interactions (forces due to particle
-
fluid
interactions) and energetic interactions (heat transfer, heat

release due to reactions and phase change).


A further challenge to the model in systems that are employed in real
-
world applications is the interaction of energy
bearing flows with “targets” or other incidental obstacles. Here the main question is the e
ffect of a flow containing
energy
-
bearing or energy
-
releasing material when a target is encountered. In many applications, it is necessary to
calibrate or design the delivery of energy to targets in a pre
-
determined and controlled manner. To do this, one m
ust
accurately model the dynamics of energetic flows and flow
-
interface interactions.


PHASE I: The proposal for Phase I should identify specific chemical reaction models and the technical approach to
developing the models. This proposal should also ident
ify an approach to convert the chemical energy released
during reactions to kinetic energy and models to transfer this energy to embedded particulates as well as target
structures. This proposal should identify the approach to theory and software integrati
on and identify the key input
properties required and the diagnostic approach to obtaining them.


PHASE II: In Phase II, the models will be further developed and implemented in a computer
-
based tool, key input
properties will be determined (by theory or e
xperiment), and the capability to provide insights to the response of a
material to a set of realistic insults will be demonstrated.


PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS:


Military Application: Military application includes formulation of explosives and data
-
based design of new
energetic materials


Commercial Application: This technology should be applicable to the commercial space based industry in the
modeling of the combustion of rocket fuels during the transition from the earth’s surface to the vacuum of

space. In
addition the approached developed from this research should be applicable in modeling turbulences in the plasma
carried by the solar wind . Based on data from the Voyager spacecraft it has been verified that the non
-
linear
characteristics of

plasma turbulence differs significantly from the dynamic fluids proposed model by the Andrey
Kolmogorov in 1941. Of course, commercial users of energetic materials would share the same benefits as those
from the military industry. Applications in the com
mercial power industry include design and simulation of
fluidized bed combustion systems.



OSD
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44

REFERENCES:

1. Udaykumar, H. S., Mittal, R., and Shyy, W. (1999). "Computation of solid
-
liquid phase fronts in the sharp
interface limit on fixed grids." J. Comput.

Phys., 153(2), 535
-
574.


2. Baer, M.R. 2000 Computational modeling of heterogeneous reactive materials at the mesoscale. Shock
compression of condensed matter

1999 (eds. Furnish, M.D. Chhabildas, L.C. & Hixson, R.S.), pp. 27

33,
Melville, NY: American In
stitute of Physics


3. Chang H & Nakagaki M. 2001 Modeling of particle dispersed composite with meso
-
scale delamination or sliding.
Nippon Kikai Gakkai Zairyo Rikigaku Bumon Koenkai Koen Ronbunshu, pp 563
-
564(2001)


4. Benson, D. J. and Conley, P., “Eule
rian finite
-
element simulations of experimentally acquired HMX
microstructures,” Modeling Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng., Vol. 7, pp. 333
-
354 (1999).


5. Bowden, P. and Yoffe, A.D., “Initiation and growth of explosions in liquids and solids,” Cambridge Universit
y
Press, Cambridge (1952).


6. Conley, P. A., “Eulerian hydrocode analysis of reactive micromechanics in the shock initiation of heterogeneous
energetic material,” Ph.D. Thesis, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Univ. of Calif., San Diego (1999).


7. Khas
ainov, A., Borisov, A. A., Ermolaev, B. S. and Korotkov, A. I., “Two phase visco
-
plastic model of shock
initiation of detonation in high density pressed explosives,” Seventh Symposium (International) on Detonation,
Naval Surface Weapons Center, NSWC MP 82
-
334 (1981).


8. Liu, W.
-
K., Hao, S., Belytschko, T., Li, S. and Chang, C. T., “Multi
-
scale methods”, International Journal for
Numerical Methods in Engineering, Vol
.

47, No. 7, (2000).


9. Menikoff, R. and Sewell, T. D., “Constituent properties of HMX ne
eded for meso
-
scale simulations,” Manuscript
available at
http://t14web.lanl.gov/Staff/rsm/Papers/HMXMeso/Html/HMX.html


(2001).


10.
Tran, L., and
Udaykumar
,
H.S., Simulation of collapse of voids and energy localization in an energetic material
I: The in
ert case. J. Propulsion and Power, 2006. 22(2): p. 5270
-
5283.


11. Aarnes, J., Krogstad, Stein; Lie, Knut
-
Andreas, A hierarchical multiscale method for two
-
phase flow based upon
mixed finite elements and nonuniform coarse grids. Multiscale Modeling and Si
mulation, 2006. 5(2): p. 337
-
363.


12. Delgado
-
Buscalioni, R.a.C., PV, Continuum
-
particle hybrid coupling for mass, momentum, and energy transfers
in unsteady fluid flow.


Physical Review E (Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics), 2003. 67(4): p
. 46704
-
1
-
13.


13. Powers, J., Review of multiscale modeling of detonation. Journal of Propulsion and Power, 2006. v 22(6): p.
1217
-
29.


14. Bdzil, J.B., Aslam, TD, Henninger, R and Quirk, JJ, High Explosives Performance Los Alamos Science, 2003.
28: p.
96
-
110.


KEYWORDS: mesoscale, level set, multi
-
scale modeling, chemical reaction models




OSD09
-
W05


TITLE:
Reactive Material Dynamic Response & Energy Release


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes, Weapons


OBJECTIVE: The objective of this effort is to
develop a fundamental understanding of the processes and
mechanisms that control energy release for reactive material systems subjected to dynamic stimulation. A

OSD
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45

multidisciplinary initiative capitalizing on modeling and validating the mechanics, materials
science, physics and
chemistry to identify and characterize these processes, and develop the capability to predict the response of
macroscopic events based upon these microscopic processes is desired. The goal is to exploit this understanding to
achieve ma
ximum performance characteristics in ordnance systems while maintaining the capability to survive
fragment explosive launch of fragments composed of metal/metal, metal/metal oxide or metal/polymer reactive
materials.


DESCRIPTION: Reactive Materials (RM) r
epresent a technology of enormous importance to the DoD which
provides revolutionary enhancements to munitions lethality, effectiveness, safety, and survivability for broad
applicability in weapons. RM are non
-
explosive solid ingredients (such as metals an
d/or metal oxides and/or
polymers) which do not detonable, but can release large amounts of chemical energy very rapidly. These materials
provide energy exceeding those of conventional explosives by greater than 5x in targets and when used to replace
kinet
ic energy projectiles and provide new mechanisms for defeat of specific targets. However, a fundamental
understanding of the microscopic and mesoscopic processes that control how RM response to mechanical
stimulation and energy release efficiencies and rat
es are not well understood or modeled. This understanding is
essential so that RM properties can be tailored to influence macroscopic responses.


Research will focus on model development and validation of both theoretical and experimental chemistry, physic
s,
mechanics, and materials science to determine the mechanisms at the appropriate time and length scales that control
RM dynamic response and energy release. This includes investigations to characterize simulation of multi
-
component reactive systems using

real micro
-
mechanical parameters and chemistry. Experimental techniques will
be required to validate models and these must be applied to determine parameters and coefficients required to
calibrate and predict behavior at the appropriate time scales.


PHA
SE I: Define: (1) fundamental material, constitutive, and failure properties of selected RM ingredients and
formulations in the appropriate strain rate regimes and time/length scales, as a function of metal type, particle size,
and polymer properties; (2)
assess the effects of intrinsic and constitutive properties, defect size and concentration to
control phenomena such as shear banding, localized heating, diffusion, mixing, and onset of failure; (3) develop
theories for understanding the fundamental physic
s and chemistry leading to energy release; and (4) develop
specifications for tools or programs that show how these and other phenomena control energy release rates
combustion efficiency and partition into thermal and mechanical energy.


PHASE II: The res
ults of the Phase I study and assessment of data along with experimental tests required to support
tool and model development will be performed and mechanical models will be calibrated. Hydrocode simulations
and models based on an iterative process will be

explored and run with these material models to validate their
predictive ability against further experiments. Details of the models and tools will be made available to interested
DoD researchers.


PHASE III DUAL
-
USE COMMERCIALIZATION:

Military Applicatio
n: Military application includes formulation of explosives and data
-
based design of new
energetic materials and warhead concepts.

Commercial Application: A simulation capability of this kind can be effectively applied to design new materials
with speciall
y tailored mechanical properties for modeling of ceramics during manufacturing, or for use in
evaluating ceramic materials/structural responses as components of larger systems (cars, machinery, aircraft, etc.).


REFERENCES:

1. Ames, R.G., “Vented Chamber
Calorimetry for Impact
-
Initiated Energetic Materials”, AIAA Aerospace Sciences
Meeting, Reno, NV, January, 2005.


2. Ames, R.G.; “Quantitative Distinction between Detonation and Afterburn Energy Deposition Using Pressure
-
Time Histories in Enclosed Explos
ions”, in Proceedings of the 13th International Detonation Symposium, Norfolk,
Virginia, July 2006 .


3. Baer, M.R. 2000 Computational modeling of heterogeneous reactive materials at the mesoscale. “Shock
compression of condensed matter

1999” (eds. Furnis
h, M.D. Chhabildas, L.C. & Hixson, R.S.), pp. 27

33,
Melville, NY: American Institute of Physics.


OSD
-

46


4. Delgado
-
Buscalioni, R.a.C., PV, “Continuum
-
particle hybrid coupling for mass, momentum, and energy transfers
in unsteady fluid flow”. Physical Review E,
2003. 67, 46704
-
1
-
13.


5. Powers, J., “Review of multiscale modeling of detonation”. Journal of Propulsion and Power, 2006. 22, 1217
-
29.


6. Bdzil, J.B., Aslam, TD, Henninger, R and Quirk, JJ, “High Explosives Performance” Los Alamos Science, 2003.
28, 9
6
-
110.


KEYWORDS: KEYWORDS: Reactive Materials, Modeling and Simulation, Structure PropertyRelationships,
Energy Release Mechanisms




OSD09
-
W06


TITLE:
Mechanical Properties and Constitutive Relations of Reactive Material

Formulations


TECHNOLOGY AREAS:
Materials/Processes, Weapons


OBJECTIVE: Develop, test, and validate appropriate models for the material properties and constitutive relations
for reactive materials formulations. The focus is on materials consisting of pressed metallic powders that might

be
used as reactive shell casings, soft
-
target kinetic rounds, or ingredients in explosive formulations.


DESCRIPTION: The use of metallic reactive materials (RM) has the possibility to yield significant enhancements
in the lethality of conventional ordn
ance. The total energy release of metallic combustion in air can be on the order
of five times that of conventional high
-
explosives, the typical drawback being that this combustion occurs too
slowly to significantly enhance the initial blast wave. A promin
ent application for these reactive material
formulations is as a replacement for metal structural elements in warhead casings and related components. For such
applications it is critical that the mechanical properties of prospective materials be well chara
cterized and cast into a
form suitable for large
-
scale continuum simulations. Relevant properties would include yield and ultimate strengths
under static and dynamic loading, constitutive relations in a form usable by common hydrocodes, compaction
behavior

of porous reactive materials under shock loading, etc. This topic would thus include relevant experimental
testing of mechanical properties, fitting these experiments to known material model forms, and verifying these
mechanical properties in continuum or

mesoscale level simulations.


PHASE I: Identify relevant reactive materials formulations of interest to the DoD and the key material properties
that are linked to lethality. Determine suitable constitutive and equation
-
of
-
state models that would accurate
ly treat
the materials’ behavior and are also available in relevant modeling tools. Determine what experimental data is
needed to parameterize these models.


PHASE II: Experimental tests will be performed and mechanical models will be calibrated to this d
ata. Hydrocode
simulations will be run with these material models to validate their predictive ability against further experiments.
Details of the models will be made available to interested DoD researchers.


PHASE III DUAL
-
USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Pressed

metallic powder formulations have a range of uses
beyond those relevant to the military; a systematic approach to their properties would be of interest to a much larger
community. Mechanical properties can be published in suitable academic journals.


REFE
RENCES:

1. Ames, R.G., “Vented Chamber Calorimetry for Impact
-
Initiated Energetic Materials”, AIAA Aerospace Sciences
Meeting, Reno, NV, January, 2005


2. Ames, R.G.; “Quantitative Distinction between Detonation and Afterburn Energy Deposition Using Pre
ssure
-
Time Histories in Enclosed Explosions”, in Proceedings of the 13th International Detonation Symposium, Norfolk,
Virginia, July 2006



OSD
-

47

3. Baer, M.R. 2000 Computational modeling of heterogeneous reactive materials at the mesoscale. “Shock
compression
of condensed matter

1999” (eds. Furnish, M.D. Chhabildas, L.C. & Hixson, R.S.), pp. 27

33,
Melville, NY: American Institute of Physics


4. Delgado
-
Buscalioni, R.a.C., PV, “Continuum
-
particle hybrid coupling for mass, momentum, and energy transfers
in unst
eady fluid flow”. Physical Review E, 2003. 67, 46704
-
1
-
13.


5. Powers, J., “Review of multiscale modeling of detonation”. Journal of Propulsion and Power, 2006. 22, 1217
-
29.


6. Bdzil, J.B., Aslam, TD, Henninger, R and Quirk, JJ, “High Explosives Perform
ance” Los Alamos Science, 2003.
28, 96
-
110.




OSD09
-
W07


TITLE:
Hybrid Energetic Materials System


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes, Weapons


OBJECTIVE: Develop physics
-
based models and computational tools for hybrid organic and inorganic energetic
material systems for use in precision munitions, micro munitions, and unmanned air systems (UAS).


DESCRIPTION: Inorganic energetic materials have been proposed as one way to increase the energy output of
future weapons and/or create variable weapon effec
ts. Because they offer high energy density (2
-
5X TNT), high
mass density (3
-
10X TNT), and tunable reaction rates, they have the potential for game
-
changing capabilities in
warfighting for all components of the US military, by: (1) improving the effectiven
ess of existing weapons; (2)
providing equivalent lethality in smaller weapons; and/or (3) providing low collateral damage solutions for urban
targets and chemical/biological agent targets. In spite of these appealing attributes, inorganic systems has be
en very
slow to transition to inventory weapons due to a lack of understanding of the fundamental chemistry/physics of
shock
-
induced inorganic reactions, and the inability to model the coupling and output of hybrid organic and
inorganic energetic material

systems.


Exploratory computational tools and database software are required to scope out, in a systematic way, the potentials
of hybrid explosive systems. Areas of interest include (1) hybrid concepts and models to assess the coupling of
detonation wave
s to inorganic materials which may or may not include oxidizers, (2) tools and databases to assess
hybrid systems in which conventional explosives serve as a means for dispersal and initiation of inorganic materials
and creation of working fluids, (3) use
of alloys and materials with nanoscale features, and (4) user interfaces or
tools to tie any of the above tools, concepts, and databases to existing models and software tools. Effects of interest
include (1) enhanced blast, including solid fuel air explos
ives (FAEs), (2) tailorable effects, and (3) generation of
very high
-
temperature, high
-
velocity fluids and non
-
ideal plasmas.


Since these tools are envisioned as scoping tools at this stage, a massive computational requirement is not desirable.
The phras
e “computational tools” is used in a very broad sense, and need not be limited to large scale codes. It
includes “functions specifying bounds, domains, and scaled relationships,” “look
-
up tables,” “correlation functions,”
etc.


PHASE I: The proposal for

Phase I should identify a specific concept(s) to be modeled and the data base to evaluate
the concept(s). This proposal should include the physical theory to support the concept, notional prototype software
and its use, and identify the key input propert
ies required and the diagnostic approach to obtaining them.


PHASE II: In Phase II, the prototype material systems will be developed and implemented in a computer
-
based
tool, key input properties and components will be determined (by theory or experiment)
, and the capability to
evaluate system level performance under a set of realistic conditions will be demonstrated.


PHASE III DUAL
-
USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Military application includes formulation of explosives and
data
-
based design of new hybrid energet
ic systems. The principles could be applied to the development of hybrid
materials for pyrotechnics, and civil and underwater demolitions.


OSD
-

48


REFERENCES:

1. N.N. Thadhani et al. (eds.), Multifunctional Energetic Materials, MRS Symposium Proceedings, Vol. 8
96, 2006.


2. R.A. Graham, et al., “Prediction of Violent Mechanochemical Processes,” SAND Report, SAND97
-
0038, 1997.


3. R.A. Graham, et al., “Pressure measurements in chemically reacting powder mixtures with the Bauer
piezoelectric polymer gauge,” Shoc
k Waves, vol. 3, 79 (1993).


4. US patents: 5000093, 494957, and 3119332.


5. F. Zhang, “Detonation in Solid Particle
-
Gas Flow” Special Issue of J. of Propulsion and Power, Vol. 22, No.6,
2006.


6. D. Grady, “Dynamic Fragmentation of Solids,” in Shock W
ave Science and Technology Reference Library, Vol.
3, Solids II, Springer, 2009.


7. S.S. Batssanov and Yu. A. Gordopolov, “Solid
-
State Detonation Velocity Limits,” Combustion, Explosion, and
Shock Waves, Vol. 43, 587 (2007).


8. I. O. Moen, “Report on
the AFOSR Workshop on FAE III,” AFOSR
-
77
-
3207, Jan 1979.


9. D. D. Dlott, “Thinking big (and small) about energetic materials,” Mat. Sci. and Tech., vol. 22, 463 (2006).


10. “Workshop on Frontiers in Nanoenergetics”, at the REEF/U of Florida, Oct 2008.

A copy of presentations
slides is available by request to the FIRE/REEF.