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[SUBMITTAL INFORMATION]


<Insert project name and location>

<Insert Submittal Date>

CONCRETE PAVING

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IF THE HIDDEN GUIDE SPECIFICATION CONVENTIONS DO NOT APPEAR PRECEEDING THIS

NOTE, TURN THEM ON AS FOLLOWS.


FOR MICROSOFT WORD 2000 and 2003
, CLICK ON SHOW/HIDE ICON IN
MENU BAR OR CHOOSE

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HIDDEN TEXT.


FOR MICROSOFT WORD 2007,
CLICK ON MICROSOFT OFFICE ICON LOCATED IN UPPER LEFT

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THEN CLICK

ON DISPLAY. CHECK THE HIDDEN TEXT BOX.


FOR MICROSOFT OFFICE 2010,
CLICK ON FILE BUTTON LOCATED IN UPPER LEFT CORNER OF

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THE GUIDE SPECIFICATION CONVENTIONS SHOULD NOW BE VISIBLE IN THE DOCUMENT.

(Delete this note before printing.)

SECTION
32

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CONCRETE PAVING

(Edited from DeCA June 201
2

Design Criteria)

PART 1
-

GENERAL

1.1

SUMMARY

A.

Section Includes:

1.

Driveways and roadways.

2.

Parking lots.

3.

Curbs and gutters.

4.

Sidewalks and walkways.

5.

Exterior equipment pads.

B.

Related Sections:

1.

Division 01 Section

Sustainab
le Design Requirements

for
recycled content of steel
products.

2.

Division 31 Section Earthwork for subgrade preparation, grading and subbase course.

3.

Division 32 Section Concrete Paving Joint Sealants for joint sealants.

1.2

DEFINITIONS

A.

Cementitious Materials:

1.

Po
rtland cement alone or in combination with one or more of blended hydraulic cement,
expansive hydraulic cement, fly ash and other pozzolans, ground granulated blast
-
furnace slag, and silica fume.

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B.

Standard Specification:

1.

<
Insert specification designations and name of DOT
>
.

2.

Measurement and payment provisions in the Standard Specifications do not apply.

1.3

SUBMITTALS

A.

Product Data:

1.

For each type of manufactured material and product indicated.

B.

LEED Submittals:

1.

Product Data for Credit

MR

4.1

[and Credit

MR

4.2]
: For products having recycled
content, documentation indicating percentage
s by weight of postconsumer and
preconsumer recycled content. Include statement indicating costs for each product
having recycled content.

2.

Design Mixtures for Credit

ID

1.1: For e
ach concrete mixture containing fly ash as a
replacement for portland cement or other portland cement replacements. For each
design mixture submitted, include an equivalent concrete mixture that does not contain
portland cement replacements, to determine
amount of portland cement replaced.

C.

Design Mixes:

1.

For each concrete pavement mix. Include alternate mix designs when characteristics of
materials, project conditions, weather, test results, or other circumstances warrant
adjustments.

D.

Material Test Reports
:

1.

From a qualified testing agency indicating and interpreting test results for compliance of
the following with requirements indicated, based on comprehensive testing of current
materials:

a.

Cementitious materials and aggregates.

b.

Admixtures.

E.

Sustainable Desi
gn Submittals:

1.

Product Data:

a.

For products having recycled content, documentation indicating percentages by
weight of post
-
consumer and pre
-
consumer recycled content. (Credit MR

4.1

)
Include statement indicating costs for each product having recycled conte
nt.

F.

Submittal List


Reference

Submittal Item

Quantity

A
c
tion


1.3A

Product Data

X

R


1.3B

LEED Submittals

X

I


1.3C

Design Mixes

X

R


1.3D

Material Test Reports

X

I

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1.3E

Sustainable Design Submittals

X

I


X

Submit quantity specified in Division 01 Section

Administrative Requirements.


R

Review each submittal, mark to indicate action taken, and return.


I

Submittal is for information or record purposes only. No action will be taken
.

1.4

QUALITY ASSURANCE

A.

Installer Qualifications:

1.

An experienced installer who h
as completed pavement work similar in material, design,
and extent to that indicated for this Project and whose work has resulted in construction
with a record of successful in
-
service performance.

B.

Manufacturer Qualifications:

1.

Manufacturer of ready
-
mixed c
oncrete products complying with ASTM

C

94 requirements
for production facilities and equipment.

C.

Testing Agency Qualifications:

1.

An independent testing agency, acceptable to authorities having jurisdiction, qualified
according to ASTM

C

1077 and ASTM

E

329 t
o conduct the testing indicated. Personnel
conducting field tests shall be qualified as ACI Concrete Field Testing Technician, Grade
1, according to ACI CP
-
1 or an equivalent certification program.

D.

Source Limitations:

1.

Obtain each type or class of cementit
ious material of the same brand from the same
manufacturer's plant and each aggregate from one source.

E.

ACI Publications:

1.

Comply with ACI

301, "Specification for Structural Concrete," unless modified by the
requirements of the Contract Documents.

F.

Concrete T
esting Service:

1.

Engage a qualified independent testing agency to perform material evaluation tests and
to design concrete mixes.

G.

Preinstallation Conference:

1.

Conduct conference at Project site to comply with requirements of Division

01 Section
Administrativ
e Requirements.

a.

Before submitting design mixtures, review concrete pavement mixture design and
examine procedures for ensuring quality of concrete materials and concrete
pavement construction practices. Require representatives, including the following,
of
each entity directly concerned with concrete pavement to attend conference:

1)

Contractor’s superintendent.

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2)

Independent testing agency responsible for concrete design mixtures.

3)

Ready
-
mix concrete producer.

4)

Concrete pavement sub
-
contractor.

1.5

PROJECT CONDITIONS

A.

Traffic Control: Maintain access for vehicular and pedestrian traffic as required for other
construction activities.

PART 2
-

PRODUCTS

2.1

FORMS

A.

Form Materials:

1.

Plywood, metal, metal
-
framed plywood, or other approved panel
-
type materials to provide
full
-
depth, continu
ous, straight, smooth exposed surfaces.

2.

Use flexible or curved forms for curves of a radius 50 feet or less.

B.

Form
-
Release Agent:

1.

Commercially formulated form
-
release agent that will not bond with, stain, or adversely
affect concrete surfaces and will not i
mpair subsequent treatments of concrete surfaces.

2.2

STEEL REINFORCEMENT

A.

Recycled Content: Provide steel reinforcement with an average recycled content of steel so
postconsumer recycled content plus one
-
half of preconsumer r
ecycled content is not less than
[25]

<Insert number>

percent.

B.

Plain
-
Steel Welded Wire Fabric:

1.

ASTM

A

185, fabricated from as
-
drawn steel wire into flat sheets.

C.

Joint Dowel Bars:

1.

Plain steel bars, ASTM

A

615, Grade

60. Cut bars true to length with ends sq
uare and
free of burrs.

D.

Tie Bars:

1.

ASTM

A

615, Grade

60, deformed.

2.3

CONCRETE MATERIALS

A.

General:

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1.

Use the same brand and type of cementitious material from the same manufacturer
throughout the Project.

B.

Portland Cement:

1.

ASTM

C

150, Type

I or II, meeting the req
uirements of the State or Local DOT Standard
Specifications.

2.

Fly Ash: In accordance with State or Local Standard Specifications.

C.

Aggregate:

1.

ASTM

C

33, uniformly graded, from a single source as follows:

a.

Fine Aggregate in accordance with State or Local DOT S
tandard Specification
Section.

b.

Course Aggregate in accordance with State or Local DOT Standard Specifications,
AASTHO Grading No. 467.

c.

Maximum Aggregate Size: 100% passing 2 inch sieve.

d.

Do not use fine or coarse aggregates containing substances that cause
spalling.

D.

Water:

1.

Potable and complying with ASTM

C

94.

2.4

ADMIXTURES

A.

General:

1.

Admixtures certified by manufacturer to contain not more than 0.1 percent water
-
soluble
chloride ions by mass of cement and to be compatible with other admixtures.

B.

Air
-
Entraining Ad
mixture:

1.

ASTM

C

260.

2.5

CURING MATERIALS

A.

Absorptive Cover:

1.

ASHTO

M

182, Class

2, burlap cloth made from jute or kenaf, weighing approximately 9
oz. /sq. yd. dry.

B.

Moisture
-
Retaining Cover:

1.

ASTM

C

171, polyethylene film or white burlap
-
polyethylene sheet.

C.

Water
:

1.

Potable.

D.

Evaporation Retarder:

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1.

Waterborne, monomolecular film forming, manufactured for application to fresh concrete.

E.

Clear Waterborne Membrane
-
Forming Curing Compound:

1.

ASTM

C

309, Type

1, Class

B.

2.6

RELATED MATERIALS

A.

Expansion
-

and Isolation
-
Joint
-
Filler

Strips:

1.

ASTM

D

1751, asphalt
-
saturated cellulosic fiber.

B.

Pavement
-
Marking Paint:

1.

Latex, waterborne acrylic emulsion; lead and chromate free, ready mixed; complying with
FS

TT
-
P
-
19528, with drying time of less than 45 minutes.

2.

Color: As indicated.

2.7

CONCRET
E MIXES

A.

General:

1.

Prepare design mixes, proportioned according to ACI

301, for each type and strength of
normal
-
weight concrete determined by either laboratory trial mixes or field experience.

2.

Use a qualified independent testing agency for preparing and rep
orting proposed mix
designs for the trial batch method.

3.

Proportion mixes to provide concrete with the following properties:

a.

Compressive Strength (28 Days): 3,500 psi.

b.

Flexural Strength (14 Days): 675 psi (pavements only).

c.

Maximum Water
-
Cementitious Materia
ls Ratio: 0.45.

d.

Slump Limit: 4 inches.

4.

Cementitious Materials: Limit percentage, by weight, of cementitious materials other than
portland cement in concrete as follows:

a.

Fly Ash: 25 percent.

5.

Add air
-
entraining admixture at manufacturer's prescribed rate

to result in concrete at
point of placement having an air content as follows within a tolerance of plus or minus 1.5
percent:

a.

Air Content: 5.5 percent.

2.8

CONCRETE MIXING

A.

Ready
-
Mixed Concrete:

1.


Comply with requirements and with ASTM

C

94.

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2.

When air temperatu
re is between 85 deg

F and 90 deg

F, reduce mixing and delivery
time from 90 minutes to 75 minutes; when air temperature is above 90 deg

F, reduce
mixing and delivery time to 60 minutes.

B.

Project
-
Site Mixing:

1.

Comply with requirements and measure, batch, and

mix concrete materials and concrete
according to ASTM

C

94. Mix concrete materials in appropriate drum
-
type batch
machine mixer.

a.

For mixers of 1 cu. yd. or smaller capacity, continue mixing at least one and one
-
half minutes, but not more than five minute
s after ingredients are in mixer, before
any part of batch is released.

b.

For mixers of capacity larger than 1 cu. yd., increase mixing time by 15 seconds
for each additional 1 cu. yd.

c.

Provide batch ticket for each batch discharged and used in the Work, indi
cating
Project identification name and number, date, mix type, mix time, quantity, and
amount of water added.

PART 3
-

EXECUTION

3.1

PREPARATION

A.

General:

1.

Verify that subgrade is dry and in suitable condition to support paving and imposed loads.

2.

Pr
oof
-
roll subbase using heavy, pneumatic
-
tired rollers to locate areas that are unstable
or that require further compaction.

3.

Notify Contracting Officer writing of any unsatisfactory conditions. Do not begin paving
installation until these conditions have b
een satisfactorily corrected

3.2

EDGE FORMS AND SCREED CONSTRUCTION

A.

Set, brace, and secure edge forms, bulkheads, and intermediate screed guides for pavement to
required lines, grades, and elevations. Install forms to allow continuous progress of work and
so
forms can remain in place at least 24 hours after concrete placement. Clean forms after each
use and coat with form release agent to ensure separation from concrete without damage.

3.3

STEEL REINFORCEMENT

A.

General:

1.

Comply with CRSI's "Manual of Standard Practic
e" for fabricating reinforcement and with
recommendations in CRSI's "Placing Reinforcing Bars" for placing and supporting
reinforcement.

2.

Clean reinforcement of loose rust and mill scale, earth, ice, or other bond
-
reducing
materials.

3.

Arrange, space, and sec
urely tie bars and bar supports to hold reinforcement in position
during concrete placement. Maintain minimum cover to reinforcement.

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4.

Install welded wire fabric in lengths as long as practicable. Lap adjoining pieces at least
one full mesh, and lace spli
ces with wire. Offset laps of adjoining widths to prevent
continuous laps in either direction.

3.4

JOINTS

A.

General:

1.

Construct construction, isolation, and contraction joints and tool edgings true to line with
faces perpendicular to surface plane of concrete.
Construct transverse joints at right
angles to building, unless otherwise i
n
dicated.

2.

When joining existing pavement, place transverse joints to align with previously placed
joints, unless otherwise indicated.

B.

Construction Joints:

1.

Set construction joints at

side and end terminations of pavement and at locations where
pavement operations are stopped for more than one
-
half hour, unless pavement
terminates at isolation joints.

2.

Continue reinforcement across construction joints, unless otherwise indicated. Do no
t
continue reinforcement through sides of pavement strips, unless otherwise indicated.

3.

Use a bonding agent at locations where fresh concrete is placed against hardened or
partially hardened concrete surfaces.

C.

Expansion Joints:

1.

Form expansion joints of pref
ormed joint
-
filler strips abutting concrete curbs, catch
basins, manholes, inlets, structures, walks, other fixed objects, and where indicated.

2.

Locate expansion joints
in sidewalks

at intervals of 50 feet, unless otherwise indicated.

3.

Locate expansion joint
s in curbs
and
in
curb and gutter
at all radius points.

4.

Extend joint fillers full width and depth of joint.

5.

Terminate joint filler less than 1/2 inch or more than 1 inch below finished surface if joint
sealant is indicated.

6.

Place top of joint filler flush
with finished concrete surface if joint sealant is not indicated.

7.

Furnish joint fillers in one
-
piece lengths. Where more than one length is required, lace or
clip joint
-
filler sections together.

8.

Protect top edge of joint filler during concrete placement w
ith metal, plastic, or other
temporary preformed cap. Remove protective cap after concrete has been placed on
both sides of joint.

D.

Dowel Bars And Supports:

1.

Install dowel bars and support assemblies at joints where indicated. Lubricate or asphalt
-
coat one
-
half of dowel length to prevent concrete bonding to one side of joint.

E.

Contraction Joints:

1.

Form weakened
-
plane contraction joints, sectioning concrete into areas as indicated.
Construct contraction joints for a depth equal to at least one
-
fourth of the co
ncrete
thickness, as follows:

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a.

Grooved Joints: Form contraction joints after initial floating by grooving and
finishing each edge of joint with groover tool to the following radius. Repeat
grooving of contraction joints after applying surface finishes. E
liminate groover
marks on concrete surfaces.

1)

Radius: 1/4 inch.

b.

Sawed Joints: Form contraction joints with power saws equipped with shatterproof
abrasive or diamond
-
rimmed blades. Cut 1/8
-
inch wide joints into concrete when
cutting action will not tear,
abrade, or otherwise damage surface and before
developing random contraction cracks.

Sawed contraction joints will not be
allowed in sidewalk pavements.

F.

Edging:

1.

Tool edges of pavement, gutters, curbs, and joints in concrete after initial floating with an
edging tool to the following radius. Repeat tooling of edges after applying surface
finishes. Eliminate tool marks on concrete surfaces.

a.

Radius: 1/4 inch.

3.5

CONCRETE PLACEMENT

A.

General:

1.

Inspection: Before placing concrete, inspect and complete formwork in
stallation,
reinforcement steel, and items to be embedded or cast in. Notify other trades to permit
installation of their work.

2.

Remove snow, ice, or frost from subbase surface and reinforcement before placing
concrete. Do not place concrete on frozen sur
faces.

3.

Moisten subbase to provide a uniform dampened condition at the time concrete is placed.
Do not place concrete around manholes or other structures until they are at the required
finish elevation and alignment.

4.

Comply with requirements and with recom
mendations in ACI

304R for measuring, mixing,
transporting, and placing concrete.

5.

Do not add water to concrete during delivery, at
p
roject site, or during placement.

6.

Deposit and spread concrete in a continuous operation between transverse joints. Do
not p
ush or drag concrete into place or use vibrators to move concrete into place.

7.

Consolidate concrete by mechanical vibrating equipment supplemented by hand
-
spading,
rodding, or tamping. Use equipment and procedures to consolidate concrete according
to recom
mendations in ACI

309R.

a.

Consolidate concrete along face of forms and adjacent to transverse joints with an
internal vibrator. Keep vibrator away from joint assemblies, reinforcement, or side
forms. Use only square
-
faced shovels for hand
-
spreading and con
solidation.
Consolidate with care to prevent dislocating reinforcement, dowels, and joint
devices.

8.

Screed pavement surfaces with a straightedge and strike off. Commence initial floating
using bull floats or darbies to form an open textured and uniform su
rface plane before
excess moisture or bleed water appears on the surface. Do not further disturb concrete
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surfaces before beginning finishing operations or spreading dry
-
shake surface
treatments.

9.

Curbs and Gutters: When automatic machine placement is use
d for curb and gutter
placement, submit revised mix design and laboratory test results that meet or exceed
requirements. Produce curbs and gutters to required cross section, lines, grades, finish,
and jointing as specified for formed concrete. If results

are not approved, remove and
replace with formed concrete.

10.

Slip
-
Form Pavers: When automatic machine placement is used for pavement, submit
revised mix design and laboratory test results that meet or exceed requirements.
Produce pavement to required thic
kness, lines, grades, finish, and jointing as required for
formed pavement.

a.

Compact subbase and prepare subgrade of sufficient width to prevent
displacement of paver machine during operations.

11.

When adjoining pavement areas are placed in separate pours, do
not operate equipment
on concrete until pavement has attained 85 percent of its 28
-
day compressive strength.

12.

Cold
-
Weather Placement: Comply with ACI

306.1 and as follows. Protect concrete work
from physical damage or reduced strength that could be caused

by frost, freezing
actions, or low temperatures.

a.

When air temperature has fallen to or is expected to fall below 40 deg F, uniformly
heat water and aggregates before mixing to obtain a concrete mixture temperature
of not less than 50 deg F and not more th
an 80 deg F at point of placement.

b.

Do not use frozen materials or materials containing ice or snow.

c.

Do not use calcium chloride, salt, or other materials containing antifreeze agents or
chemical accelerators, unless otherwise specified and approved in mix
designs.

13.

Hot
-
Weather Placement: Place concrete according to recommendations in ACI

301 and
as follows when hot
-
weather conditions exist:

a.

Cool ingredients before mixing to maintain concrete temperature at time of
placement below 90 deg

F. Chilled mixing w
ater or chopped ice may be used to
control temperature, provided water equivalent of ice is calculated to total amount
of mixing water. Using liquid nitrogen to cool concrete is Contractor's option.

b.

Cover reinforcement steel with water
-
soaked burlap so st
eel temperature will not
exceed ambient air temperature immediately before embedding in concrete.

c.

Fog
-
spray forms, reinforcement steel, and subgrade just before placing concrete.
Keep subgrade moisture uniform without standing water, soft spots, or dry ar
eas.

3.6

CONCRETE FINISHING

A.

General:

1.

Wetting of concrete surfaces during screeding, initial floating, or finishing operations is
prohibited.

B.

Float Finish:

1.

Begin the second floating operation when bleed
-
water sheen has disappeared and the
concrete surface has s
tiffened sufficiently to permit operations. Float surface with power
-
driven floats, or by hand floating if area is small or inaccessible to power units. Finish
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surfaces to true planes. Cut down high spots, and fill low spots. Refloat surface
immediatel
y to uniform granular texture.

a.

Medium
-
to
-
Fine
-
Textured Broom Finish (Sidewalks, Curb, Curb and Gutter,
Concrete Pads): Draw a soft bristle broom across float
-
finished concrete surface
perpendicular to line of traffic to provide a uniform, fine
-
line textur
e.

b.

Medium
-
to
-
Coarse
-
Textured Broom Finish (Ramps and Truck Dock Pavement):
Provide a coarse finish by striating float
-
finished concrete surface 1/16 to 1/8 inch
deep with a stiff
-
bristled broom, perpendicular to line of travel.

3.7

CONCRETE PROTECTION AND CUR
ING

A.

General:

1.

Protect freshly placed concrete from premature drying and excessive cold or hot
temperatures. Comply with ACI

306.1 for cold
-
weather protection and follow
recommendations in ACI

305R for hot
-
weather protection during curing.

2.

Begin curing afte
r finishing concrete, but not before free water has disappeared from
concrete surface.

B.

Evaporation Retarder:

1.

Apply evaporation retarder to concrete surfaces if hot, dry, or windy conditions cause
moisture loss approaching 0.2 lb/sq. ft. per hour before and

during finishing operations.
Apply according to manufacturer's written instructions after placing, screeding, and bull
floating or darbying concrete, but before float finishing.

C.

Curing Methods:

1.

Cure concrete by moisture curing, moisture
-
retaining
-
cover c
uring, curing compound, or a
combination of these as follows:

a.

Moisture Curing: Keep surfaces continuously moist for not less than seven days
with the following materials:

1)

Water.

2)

Continuous water
-
fog spray.

3)

Absorptive cover, water saturated, and kept conti
nuously wet. Cover
concrete surfaces and edges with 12
-
inch lap over adjacent absorptive
covers.

b.

Moisture
-
Retaining
-
Cover Curing: Cover concrete surfaces with moisture
-
retaining
cover for curing concrete, placed in widest practicable width, with sides an
d ends
lapped at least 12 inches, and sealed by waterproof tape or adhesive.
Immediately repair any holes or tears during curing period using cover material
and waterproof tape.

c.

Curing Compound: Apply uniformly in continuous operation by power spray or
r
oller according to manufacturer's written instructions. Recoat areas subjected to
heavy rainfall within three hours after initial application. Maintain continuity of
coating and repair damage during curing period.

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3.8

PAVEMENT TOLERANCES

A.

Comply With Toleranc
es Of ACI

117 And As Follows:

1.

Elevation: 1/4 inch.

2.

Thickness: Plus 3/8 inch, minus 1/4 inch.

3.

Surface: Gap below 10
-
foot long, unleveled straightedge not to exceed 1/4 inch.

4.

Joint Spacing: 6 inches from plan location.

5.

Contraction Joint Depth: Plus 1/4 i
nch, no minus.

6.

Joint Width: Plus 1/8 inch, no minus.

3.9

PAVEMENT MARKING

A.

General:

1.

Do not apply pavement
-
marking paint until layout, colors, and placement have been
verified with the Contracting Officer.

2.

Allow concrete pavement to cure for 28 days and be dry
before starting pavement
marking.

3.

Sweep and clean surface to eliminate loose material and dust.

4.

Apply two coats of paint with mechanical equipment to produce pavement markings of
dimensions indicated with uniform, straight edges. Apply at manufacturer's
r
ecommended rates to provide a minimum wet film thickness of 15 mils.

3.10

FIELD QUALITY CONTROL

A.

Testing Agency:

1.

Engage a qualified independent testing and inspection agency to sample materials,
perform tests, and submit test reports during concrete placement ac
cording to
requirements specified in this Article.

B.

Testing Services:

1.

Testing shall be performed according to the requirements contained in Division 01 and
the following:

a.

Sampling Fresh Concrete: Representative samples of fresh concrete shall be
obtained a
ccording to ASTM

C

172, except modified for slump to comply with
ASTM

C

94.

b.

Slump: ASTM

C

143; one test at point of placement for each compressive
-
strength test, but not less than one test for each days pour of each type of
concrete. Additional tests wil
l be required when concrete consistency changes.

c.

Air Content: ASTM

C

231, pressure method; one test for each compressive
-
strength test, but not less than one test for each days pour of each type of air
-
entrained concrete.

d.

Concrete Temperature: ASTM

C

106
4; one test hourly when air temperature is 40
deg

F and below and when 80 deg

F and above, and one test for each set of
compressive
-
strength specimens.

e.

Flexural Test Specimens: AASHTO T 177; one set of four standard test beams for
each flexural strength t
est. Beams shall be molded and stored for laboratory
-
cured
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test specimens unless field
-
cured test specimens are required. Compression Test
Specimens: ASTM

C

31; one set of four standard cylinders for each compressive
-
strength test, unless otherwise indi
cated. Cylinders shall be molded and stored for
laboratory
-
cured test specimens unless field
-
cured test specimens are required.

f.

Compressive
-
Strength Tests: ASTM

C

39; one set for each day's pour of each
concrete class exceeding 5 cu. yd., but less than 2
5 cu. yd., plus one set for each
additional 50 cu. yd. One specimen shall be tested at 7 days and two specimens
at 28 days; one specimen shall be retained in reserve for later testing, if required.

g.

Flexural Test Tests: One set for each day’s pour of pavin
g areas only. Two
specimens shall be tested at 14 days; two specimens will be reserved for later
testing, if required. When frequency of testing will provide fewer than five
compressive
-
strength tests for a given class of concrete, testing shall be
condu
cted from at least five randomly selected batches or from each batch if fewer
than five are used.

h.

When strength of field
-
cured cylinders is less than 85 percent of companion
laboratory
-
cured cylinders, current operations shall be evaluated and corrective
p
rocedures shall be provided for protecting and curing in
-
place concrete.

i.

The compressive strength level of concrete will be considered satisfactory if
averages of sets of three consecutive compressive
-
strength test results equal or
exceed specified compres
sive strength and no individual compressive
-
strength
test result falls below specified compressive strength by more than 500 psi.

C.

The flexural strength level of concrete pavements will be considered satisfactory if the average
strength of the two beams tes
ted equals or exceeds the specified flexural strength and neither
of the beams falls below specified flexural strength by more than 50 psi. If the first two beams
do not meet these requirements, the remaining two beams will be tested and the average of
st
rength of all four beams will be considered. Test Result Reports:

1.

Test results shall be reported in writing to Contracting Officer, concrete manufacturer,
and Contractor within 24 hours of testing. Reports of compressive
-
strength tests shall
contain Proje
ct identification name and number, date of concrete placement, name of
concrete testing agency, concrete type and class, location of concrete batch in pavement,
design compressive strength at the time specified, concrete mix proportions and
materials, comp
ressive or flexural breaking strength, and type of break for all tests.

D.

Nondestructive Testing:

1.

Impact hammer, sonoscope, or other nondestructive device may be permitted by
Contracting Officer but will not be used as the sole basis for approval or rejectio
n.

E.

Additional Tests:

1.

Testing agency shall make additional tests of the concrete when test results indicate
slump, air entrainment, concrete strengths, or other requirements have not been met, as
directed by Contracting Officer. Testing agency may conduct
tests to determine
adequacy of concrete by cored cylinders complying with ASTM

C

42, or by other
methods as directed.

2.

Additional testing and inspecting, at Contractor's expense, will be performed to determine
compliance of replaced or additional work with
specified requirements.

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3.11

REPAIRS AND PROTECTION

A.

General:

1.

Remove and replace concrete pavement that is broken, damaged, or defective, or does
not meet requirements in this Section.

2.

Drill test cores where directed by Contracting Officer when necessary to dete
rmine
magnitude of cracks or defective areas. Fill drilled core holes in satisfactory pavement
areas with portland cement concrete bonded to pavement with epoxy adhesive.

3.

Protect concrete from damage. Exclude traffic from pavement for at least 14 days af
ter
placement. When construction traffic is permitted, maintain pavement as clean as
possible by removing surface stains and spillage of materials as they occur.

4.

Maintain concrete pavement free of stains, discoloration, dirt, and other foreign material.
Sweep concrete pavement not more than two days before date scheduled for Substantial
Completion inspections.

END OF SECTION