Sobre interfaces - Knowledge Systems Institute

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19 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

Ambient intelligence: a
walkthrough



S. Levialdi

IEEE Life Fellow


where are we going?


DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

AmI
: Wikipedia’s definition I


originally developed in the late 1990s for the time frame
2010

2020




refers to electronic environments that are
sensitive

and
responsive

to the presence of people



is a vision on the future of consumer
electronics,
telecommunications
and

computing




devices support people in carrying out their everyday life
activities,
tasks
and
rituals
in easy, natural way using
information and intelligence hidden in the network
connecting these devices




devices grow
smaller
, more connected and more
integrated into our environment, the technology
disappears into our surroundings until only the user
interface remains perceivable by users.

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3

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

AmI
: Wikipedia’s definition II


The ambient intelligence paradigm builds upon
ubiquitous computing, profiling practices

and

human
-
centric computer interaction design

and is
characterized by systems and technologies that are:



embedded
: many networked devices are integrated
into the environment


context aware
: these devices can recognize you and
your situational context


personalized
: they can be tailored to your needs


adaptive
: they can change in response to you


anticipatory
: they can anticipate your desires without
conscious mediation.

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4

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

AmI
: ISTAG

European Community Standards



AmI
emphasizes on greater


user
-
friendliness
,


more efficient
services support
,


user
-
empowerment
,


and support for
human interactions



people will be surrounded by
intelligent

and
intuitive

interfaces embedded around everyday objects




us

and an
environment
recognising and responding to
the presence of individuals in an invisible way by year
2010.


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5

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011


What Would You Ask to Your Home if It Were
Intelligent? Exploring User Expectations about Next
-
Generation Homes?

by Bonino and Corno


separation is due to the natural distance between
research and engineered applications or to the
mismatching
of needs and solutions?


user perceptions about what intelligent homes can do


current research solutions or commercially available
systems?


effectively and unobtrusively infer human activities in
their environments



rst label and decompose activities as sequences of
actions with certain probabilities


then use these prede

ned activity models for
recognition and prediction




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6

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

Seamless integration


Physical world


Virtual world


Networking persons to objects to other
persons


Connections may be


Pre
-
established


Personally controlled


Varying in time


Varying with context


The ambient
is

the interface



Karich, 2011

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7

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

the human senses

sight

touch

hearing

taste

smell

balance &

acceleration

temperature

kinesthetic sense

pain

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8

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

exploiting the human senses

Interacting with



1.
humans
-

face
-
to
-
face communication

2.
computers


hand/eye utilization

3.
devices


generally tactile/sight

4.
appliances


mostly via touch

5.
environments


this is the
challenge

of
ambient intelligence




página
9

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

Smart homes


Safe environment for people


Catering for special needs (senile dementia)


diagnosing interesting situations and


possibly advising the carer when intervention
is required


message can be generated automatically and


sent to carer (who may live remotely)


Existing smart homes:


Domus, Aware Home, MavHome, Gator Tech
Smart Home
.


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10

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

3 technologies

(
the claims)

convergence of


• Ubiquitous Computing


(chips everywhere)


3rd paradigm 1 X, 1 1,X Y


• Ubiquitous Communications



(info exchange from/to everywhere)


PAN

Personal Area Networks


VAN

Vehicle Area Networks


MAN

Metropolitan Area Networks

• Intelligent User Friendly Interfaces


(variety of humane interfaces)

f
lexible,
u
sable,
a
ccessible

página
11

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

AmI

sample applications

1.
Touch and gesture
-
based interfaces

2.
Haptics and biometrics based navigation;

3.
3D human activity recognition and monitoring;


4.
Interacting through 3D displays;

5.
Machine learning in behavior understanding;

6.
Real
-
time, de
-
centralized media
-
processing
achitectures

7.
Human
-
centered and location
-
aware multimedia

8.
Sensor perception and context awareness

9.
System personalization



Applications
: Online browsing for heritage, e
-
learning and
collaborative education, tourism and e
-
commerce,
autonomous navigation,

security and surveillance, mobile navigation.




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12

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

Optimistic view

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

NTT: a vision for 2050


AmI

is seen as a “carrier of
memories”


Decrease anxiety


global warming

Increase mental stability


educational issues

Yoshinobu Tonomura

E. Maeda

NTT Labs, Japan


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14

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

AmI
: global communication

Allow communication with


Machines


Persons


Objects


Nature


Universe…


NTT Labs, Japan

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15

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

MIT: fluid interfaces…



rethink the human
-
machine interactive
experience


more immersive, intelligent & interactive
interfaces


systems which are more responsive to
people’s
needs

& actions


Pattie Maes

MIT leads 53 projects

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

challenges in
Just
-
in
-
time

information


likely
relevant

to the user

Challenges in:


user profiling


detecting context of user


recommendation algorithms



offered
unobtrusively

Challenges in:


Subtle interfaces


Require
minimal user effort

to access

Challenges in:


Natural, “on
-
the
-
move” interfaces


safeguards the user’s
privacy


Pattie Maes, 2005

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17

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

approaches


Integrating the rich content of the digital world
into our everyday physical existence





Integrating the rich content of the analog world
into our ever
-
growing number of gadgets,
devices, computers, …


Pattie Maes

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18

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

invisible media


augment objects


sensitive, informative,


focus of our attention

to provide relevant content



Engine
-
info

página
19



F5

Ctr 1

Move to the right.

Check the pulley.

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

ReachMedia

On
-
the
-
move Interaction with Augmented Objects


Wireless
RFID reader
wristband reads tags in objects held
by user


Touching an object results

in a menu of services and

information




Assaf Feldman, Sajid Sadi, 2005

página
20

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

SubTextile

Sadi & Mihkak, 2005/9

enabling technology

for I/O fabrics +
applications

in furniture & everyday
objects


Anti
-
snoring, alarm clock,

snooze, etc

página
21

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

From ink to digital data

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22

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

Intelligent “
Quickies



Quickies
’ enriches the experience of using

sticky notes by linking
hand
-
written

sticky
-
notes to the
mobile
phones,

digital calendars, task
-
lists, e
-
mail and

instant messaging clients.

Augmenting sticky
-
notes,‘
Quickies
’ leverages

existing patterns of behavior,
merging

paper
-
based sticky
-
note usage with the user's

informational experience.

AI, Natural Language Processing (NLP),

RFID, and ink recognition technologies can

make it possible to create intelligent

sticky notes that can be searched, located,

can send reminders and messages…

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23

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

University of Ottawa


an integrated approach to
AmI


two precursory laboratories:



1984



MCRLab
:
Multimedia Communications
Research Laboratory



2002

-

DISCOVER
:
Distributed Collaborative
Virtual Environments Research Laboratory

Nicolas D. Georganas

página
24

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

MCRLab I


vision of human
-
centred research:


"
i have aims
" meaning: interactive Hapto
-
Audio
-
Visual Environments for Ambient Intelligent Media
Systems



Environments


Multimedia Security (Watermarking) and Tele
-
Surveillance


Ambient Intelligence


Collaborative Virtual Environments

Nicolas D. Georganas

página
25

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

MCRLab II

página
26

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

DISCOVER


3D Physical Modelling and Animation


Distributed and Collaborative Virtual
Environments


Intelligent Sensor Networks and
Ubiquitous Computing


Multimedia Computing and
Communications


Tele
-
Haptics


página
27

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

GUIs

spoken

dialogue

gestural

multimodal

facial

expressions

haptic

biometric

signals

página
28

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

AmI

@ Ikerlan

Humans surrounded by
intelligent

interfaces

supported by computing and

networking technology embedded in

everyday objects such as
furniture, clothes,

vehicles, roads and smart materials





enabling and facilitating participation by the

individual


in society, social business

communities, and in the administration and

management of all aspects of their lives.



Rosa Iglesias, 2009


página
29

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

Ikerlan

Present research lines on
AmI
:




Embedded systems for
AmI


Advanced management systems


Design of mechanical systems


Mass personalization of products and
continuous innovation

Ikerlan

página
30

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

Work


Home


Health


Entertainment


Transportation


AmI

impact map

software

sensors

electronics

communications

microsystems

Ikerlan’s view

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31

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

Smart materials

IKERLAN
-
IK4 develops the first
solar module
in plastic in Spain

Smart
windows

Piezoelectric device generates

electricity from
footsteps

Ikerlan

página
32

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

Applied technology

Virtual butler

Wall display

Integrated

multimodal interaction

Ikerlan

página
33

Corning Glass

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

Killjoy view

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

Brin’s vision: 2 cities

City of control
-

CoC


deployment of radio frequency identification tags
(RFID) have become not just commonplace but
ubiquitous



objects, spaces and, even people are
tagged

and
given a unique number


notions of
public

and
private

have begun to dissolve


every item you buy at the supermarket is being
tracked

and potentially data
-
mined


your movements are watched, not by the use of
crude cameras but by
tags

embedded in your
gadgets or in your clothes or even under your skin




David Brin


from


A

Tale of Two Cities”

página
35

Sean Dodson


DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

Brin’s vision: 2 cities

City of trust
-

CoT


on the surface, very similar to CoC


pervasive systems are embedded but more
control is given to users


citizens may switch off surveillance cameras


Mark Weiser’s quote: future of information
society is to consider it “an utility”


ubicomp should be visible even if integrated




página
36

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

Shenzhen

2010


pop.10,357,938 (47.8%)




a blueprint of
CoC

is already here


a string of small existing fishing villages


China’s first special economic zone

iPods, laptops, sneakers, cars are made


200.000

surveillance cameras


closed circuit


2.000.000
CCTV’s will be installed


an all
-
seeing system national
-
wide


everybody

is tracked!


Naomi Klein

página
37

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

CoC

or
CoT
?

página
38

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

the world is changing


from humans with
tools

for information handling



to information
spaces


4
levels
for introducing new technologies:


1.
code

to implement distributed, global systems

2.
node

servers log, store & track vast data
amounts

3.
link

to ensure digital connectivity

4.
network

a policy: control, security, safety

Rob Van Kranenburg, 2008

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39

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

Rob’s ideas I


Buildings, cars, houses
become information
spaces


Objects and places are “
augmented
” with info
processing


as electricity is today


In a mediated environment it is not clear what
is
mediated

and what
mediates


What
connectedness

do we
really

want?


The environment has become the
interface

Jakob Weehjert

página
40

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

Rob’s observations on
AmI


No more
public



only
audience


No
forgetting



no memory loss in digital
territory (right or wrong?)


There are no more humans


only
information
spaces


From intelligence to
EX
telligence


Submersed in
information spaces


Personal
agency

will be lost


página
41

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

An example of
AmI

implementation

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

Song
-
Do City


South Korea

Digital Life
:

Public recycling bins that use RFID to credit recyclers

every time they toss in a bottle;

pressure
-
sensitive floors in the homes of older people

that can detect a fall and

contact help;

phones that store health

records and can

be used to pay

for prescriptions...


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43

Cisco Connected Town

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

A prediction:


The most profound technologies are
those that disappear.


They weave themselves into the

fabric of everyday life until they are

indistinguishable from it.



T. Weiser
,
1991

página
44

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

limitations


AmI aims at
hiding

computing
technology


Avoiding citizens to modify, expand,
play…


No
creativity

is allowed


“children cannot change lines of
code”: a metaphor for the
AmI

scenario


David Brin

página
45

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

Two initiatives

Hive
&
Bricolab

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

Hive
Networks I

Miami University, 207


is an organization that is liberating commonly
available embedded computers for use by digital
artists


transcends the
boundaries

between engineering
and art


a work of art as well as a
platform

for other artists to
create works.


It combines the element of
content


with the element of
networking
.

Wolfgang Hauptfleisch, Alexei Blinov, Cieron Edwards

página
47

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

Hive Live
Social

networking platform


HiveLive

is

a platform with a lot of standard
social
networking

functionality


gives ordinary users the ability to
control
the modules
deployed within a social network


social networks often incorporate many Web 2.0 tools that
could stand alone elsewhere, such as blogs, forums, and
wikis


with most platforms, the network
administrator
determines
how these tools are deployed on the site: drop in a forum
here, add a wiki there, and so on


the network users for the most part then have
equal access
to these predefined areas of interaction


página
48

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

HL
S platform I


HiveLive introduces
customizable

components they call

Hives
”.



Network users can choose to add their own
hives

to an
existing social network, configure the type of hive (blog,
forum, wiki, etc.), and then determine who within the network
gets to use them (everyone or just a subset of friends and
colleagues).



Want to join with friends to run a blog about a shared interest?



Create a new blog
hive

that everyone can see but only a few
can edit. Want to collaborate on a project with team members
using a wiki?


página
49

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

HL
S platform II


Create a
wiki hive

that only a few people can access at all



The
HiveLive platform

is flexible enough so that you don’t
even have to create a hive that’s easily categorized. If you
just want to share a string of items with friends, you can
create a blog
-
like page with a variety of data types.



Users can also create their own
hives

by copying other hives
with a few buttonclicks.



HiveLive

was self
-
funded for its first couple of years but
raised $1.6M from institutional angels towards the end of
2006. They’re calling their product the “
LiveConnect
Community Platform
.”







página
50

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

Hive
Networks: facilities


Each
Hive

device is capable of
gathering
content (through webcams, microphones,
sensors) and
disseminating
it (web server,
audio/video live streams, bluetooth, wlan).


At the same time each
Hive

device also acts as
a node in the network, which means that it is
capable of storing and forwarding data.


página
51

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

Bricolab


Stems from the metaReciclagem or



metarecyling
” idea


Mouvement de réappropriation des objets, qui se bricole
lui même



bringing people together with new technologies
and distributed connectivity,


unlike the dominant focus of IT industry on
security, surveillance and monopoly of
information and infrastructures



página
52

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

Bricolab
: a shared network



A distributed network for global and
local development of generic
infrastructures incrementally developed
by communities.


A global platform to investigate the new
loop

of



open content,


software and


hardware for community applications
,

R. Pontone

página
53

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

≠ towns

página
54

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

AmI
: where to?


possible forms of connectivity:



people to people (voluntary)



people to machines (still voluntary)



objects to people (unintended)



ambient to people (uncalled)


página
55

DMS
-

Florence
-

2011

The bottom line:


we need
control

over connectivity to ensure:



Safety



Privacy



Creativity




Two movements, support the above:


Hivenetworks


Bricolab


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56