Routers and Routing Basics

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Developed May 2007

Routers and Routing Basics


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1






This course focuses on the following advanced IP addressing techniques: variable length
subnet masking (VLSM); intermediate routing protocols such as RIP v2, single
-
area
OSPF, and EIGRP; command
-
line interface configuration of switches; Ethernet
swit
ching; virtual LANs (VLANs);

spanning tree protocol (STP); and VLAN trunking
protocol (VTP). Students wi
ll be required to apply lessons

and
should be able to explain
how and why a particular strategy is used. This course has been designed to require lab
ac
tivities as well as covering curriculum content. Lab activities will focus on 2
-
router
labs. A case study on structured cabling is required, but format and timing should be
determined by
access to the labs

along with a sequence of over 40 e
-
labs. This is t
he third
course in a set of four courses that will assist the student in obtaining Cisco Certified
Network Associate (CCNA). The certified individual can perform the following tasks:
install and configure Cisco switches and routers in multiprotocol interne
tworks using
LAN and WAN interfaces; provide Level 1 troubleshooting service; improve network
performance and security;

and

perform entry
-
level tasks in the planning, design,
installation, operation, and troubleshooting of Ethernet and TCP/IP network.

Pre
requisite:
Networking
Basics




Table of Contents



WANs and Routers

................................
................................
..................
2


Introduction to Routers

................................
................................
............
2


Configuring a Router

................................
................................
...............
2


Learning About Other Devices

................................
................................
3


Managing Cisco IOS Software

................................
................................
3


Routing and Routing Protocols

................................
................................
4


Distance and Vector Routing Protoco
ls

................................
...................
4


TCP/IP Suite Error and Control Messages

................................
..............
5


Basic Router Troubleshooting

................................
................................
.
5


Intermediate TCP/IP

................................
................................
................
6


Access Control Lists

................................
................................
...............
7


Acronyms

................................
................................
................................
.
8

Routers and Routing Basics


Developed May 2007

Routers and Routing Basics


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Routers and Routing

Basics

Content Guideline


(The student will be able to . . .)


Unit One

WANs and Routers


1.

Ident
ify and describe

W
ANs
.

a.

Define r
elationship

and role of
routers in a WAN
.

b.

Define r
elationship and role of
routers
in
LANs and WANs
.

2.

Review the
approach

and procedures

for access to
,

and use of the

hands
-
on labs
.

3.

Identify and describe

the purpose of routers
.

a.

Identify the

physical characteristics

of a router
.

b.

Identify the
external connections

of routers
.

c.

Identify and explain m
anagement port connections
.

d.

Define c
onnecting console interfaces
.

e.

Define c
onnecting LAN interfaces
.

f.

Define c
onnecting WAN interfaces
.


Unit Two

Introduction to Routers


1.

Configure

Cisco I
nternet
O
perating System

s
oftware
.

a.

Define the

purpose of Cisco IOS software
.

b.

Explain r
outer user interface
.

c.

Differentiate r
outer user interface modes
.

d.

Define
Cisco IOS software features
.

e.

Explain the o
perat
ion of Cisco IOS software
.

2.

Initialize and u
nderstand
r
outer
s
tartup
.

a.

Explain i
nitial startup of Cisco routers
.

b.

Define the purpose of the r
outer LED indicators
.

c.

Explain the purpose of the
initial router bootup
.

d.

Establish a c
onsole session
.

e.

Define and use a
r
outer login
.

f.

Define and use e
nhanced editing commands
.

g.

Explain r
outer command history
.

h.

Define c
ommand line errors
.

i.

Explain the purpose of the
show version command
.


Unit Three

Configuring a Router


1.

Apply basic r
outer
c
onfiguration
.

a.

Define
C
ommand
L
ine
I
nt
erface

command modes
.

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Routers and Routing Basics


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b.

Explain how to configure

a router name
.

c.

Explain how to set up and configure

router passwords
.

d.

Examine and explain

the show commands
.

e.

Configure

a serial interface
.

f.

Make

configuration changes
.

g.

Configure

an Ethernet interface
.

2.

Apply
Inte
rmediate Router Configuration
s
.

a.

Explain the i
mportance of configuration standards
.

b.

Explain i
nterface descriptions
.

c.

Configure

interface description
.

d.

Define l
ogin banners
.

e.

Configure

MOTD
.

f.

Define h
ost name resolution
.

g.

Configure

host tables
.

h.

Explain the purpos
e and value of c
onfiguration backup and documentation
.

i.

Back

up configuration files
.


Unit Four

Learning A
bout Other Devices


1.

Discover and c
onnect

to
n
eighbors
.

a.

Define and explain

C
isco
D
iscovery
P
rotocal
.

b.

Describe i
nformation obtained with CDP
.

c.

Im
plement,
monitor, and maintain the

CDP
.

d.

Create

a network map of the environment
.

e.

Disable

CDP
.

f.

Troubleshoot

CDP
.

2.

Acquire

i
nf
orm
ation about remote d
evices
.

a.

Define the purpose the
Telnet

connection
.

b.

Establish and verify

a Telnet connection
.

c.

Disconnect and suspend

Teln
et sessions
.

d.

Establish an a
dvanced Telnet operation
.

e.

Conduct a
lternate connectivity tests
.

f.

Troubleshoot

IP address issues
.


Unit Five

Managing Cisco I
OS

Software


1.

Understand and apply

r
outer
b
oot
sequence and v
erification
.

a.

Define the s
tages of the router p
ower
-
on boot sequence
.

b.

Describe h
ow a Cisco device locates and loads IDS
.

c.

Use

the boot system command
.

d.

Define a c
onfiguration register
.

e.

Troubleshoot an
IO
S boot failure
.

2.

Manage

the Cisco File System
.

a.

Define the purpose and use of the
IO
S file system overvi
ew
.

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Routers and Routing Basics


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b.

List and identify
IO
S naming conventions
.

c.

Manage

configuration files using TFTP
.

d.

Manage

configuration file using copy
-
and
-
past
e
.

e.

Manage

IO
S images using TFTP
.

f.

Manage

IO
S images using X

modem
.

g.

Manage e
nvironmental variables
.

h.

Conduct a f
ile system verifi
cation
.


Unit Six

Routing and Routing Protocols


1.

Identify
, define and
setup

static r
outing
.

a.

Define

routing
.

b.

Define s
tatic route operation
.

c.

Configure

static routes
.

d.

Configure

default route forwarding
.

e.

Verify

static route configuration
.

f.

Troubleshoot

static r
oute configuration
.

2.

Identify, define and set

up

d
ynamic
ro
uting
.


a.

Define

routing protocols
.

b.

Define a
utonomous systems
.

c.

Explain the purpose of
routing protocol
s

and autonomous systems
.

d.

Identify

the classes of routing protocols
.

e.

List

vector routing protocol
features and
give
examples
.

f.

Link static

routing protocol features and examples
.

3.

Identify, define and set

up

r
outing
p
rotocols.

a.

Define and decide p
ath determination
.

b.

Set up r
outing configuration
.

c.

Set up and apply r
outing protocols
.

d.

Differentiate between
IGP

and

EGP
.


Unit Seven

Distance Vector Routing Protocols


1.

Identify, define and setup

dist
ance
v
ector
r
outing
.

a.

Identify

vector routing updates
.

b.

List and explain d
istance vector routing loop issues
.

c.

Define

a maximum count
.

d.

Eliminate

routing loops through spli
t horizon
.

e.

Define r
oute poisoning
.

f.

A
voiding routing loops with triggered updates
.

g.

Prevent

routing loops with hold
-
down timers
.

2.

Identify, define and setup

RIP
.

a.

Explain the
RIP routing process
.

b.

Configure

RIP
.

c.

Use

the IP

classless command
.

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Routers and Routing Basics


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5

d.

List and explain c
o
mmon RIP configuration issues
.

e.

Verify

RIP configuration
.

f.

Troubleshoot

RIP update issues
.

g.

Prevent

routing updates through an interface
.

h.

Set up l
oad balancing with RIP
.

i.

Set up l
oad balancing across multiple paths
.

j.

Integrate

static routes with RIP
.

3.

Identify,
define and setup

IGRP
.

a.

Identify
IGRP features
.

b.

Identify
IGRP metrics
.

c.

Identify
IGRP routes
.

d.

List
IGRP stability features
.

e.

Configure

IGRP
.

f.

Migrate

RIP

configuration

to IGRP
.

g.

Verify

IGRP configuration
.

h.

Troubleshoot

IGRP
.


Unit Eight

TCP/IP Suite Error and Co
ntrol Messages


1.

Understand and
implement

TCP/IP error m
essage
.

a.

Define
ICMP
.

b.

Explain e
rror reporting and error correction
.

c.

Define
ICMP message delivery
.

d.

Explain and list some common reasons for an

u
nreachable network
.

e.

Use

ping to test destination reachabili
ty
.

f.

Detect

excessively long routes
.

g.

Define
the purpose of
e
cho messages
.

h.

Explain and list some common reasons for an

unreachable message
.

i.

Understand and implement m
iscellaneous error reporting
.

2.

Understand and
implement

TCP/IP suite c
ontrol
m
essages
.

a.

Define

control messages
.

b.

Define
ICMP redirect/change requests
.

c.

Implement c
lock synchronization and transit time estimation
.

d.

Understand and implement i
nformation requests and reply message formats
.

e.

Define a
ddress mask requirements
.

f.

Define r
outer discovery message
.

g.

Define r
outer solicitation message
.

h.

Define c
ongestion and flow control messages
.


Unit Nine

Basic Router Troubleshooting


1.

Examine

and understand
the
r
outing
t
able
s
.

a.

Explain show IP

route command
.

b.

Determine

the gateway of last resort
.

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Routers and Routing Basics


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c.

Determine

the route
source and destination
.

d.

Determine

L2 and L3 addresses
.

e.

Determine

the route administrative distance
.

f.

Determine

the route metric
.

g.

Determine

the route next hop
.

h.

Determine

the last route update
.

i.

Observe multiple paths to destination
.

2.

Understand and apply

n
etwo
rk
t
esting
.

a.

Explain

network testing
.

b.

Use
a structured approach to troubleshooting
.

c.

Test

by OSI layers
.

d.

Apply L
ayer 1

troubleshooting using indicators
.

e.

Apply L
ayer 3 troubleshooting using ping
.

f.

Apply
Layer 7 troubleshooting using Telnet
.

3.

Troubleshoot

r
outer

i
ssues
.


a.

Troubleshoot

Layer
1

using show interface
.

b.

Troubleshoot Layer 2 using show interface
.

c.

Troubleshoot using show cdp
.

d.

Troubleshoot using traceroute
.

e.

Troubleshoot routing issues
.

f.

Troubleshoot using show controllers serial
.

g.

Troubleshoot

to debug
.


Uni
t Ten

Intermediate TCP/IP


1.

Understand
TCP o
peration
.

a.

Define
TCP operation
.

b.

Define s
ynchronization process or
3
-
way handshake
.

c.

Define and explain d
enial
-
of
-
service attacks
.

d.

Define w
indowing and window size
.

e.

Define s
equencing numbers
.

f.

Define p
ositive ACK
.

g.

De
fine
UDP operation
.

2.

Understand
t
ransport
layer p
orts
.

a.

Explain m
ultiple conversations between hosts
.

b.

Identify p
orts for services
.

c.

Identify p
orts for clients
.

d.

Identify p
ort numbering and well
-
known port

s numbers
.

e.

Give

an

e
xample of multiple sessions between

hosts
.

f.

Compare

MAC addresses, IP addresses, and port

numbers
.

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Routers and Routing Basics


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Unit Eleven

Access Control Lists (ACLs)


1.

Understand and
utilize
ACL f
undamentals
.

a.

Define

ACLs
.

b.

Explain h
ow ACLs work
.

c.

Create
ACLs
.

d.

Define t
he function of a wildcard mask
.

e.

Verify

ACLs
.

2.

Understa
nd and apply
ACLs.

a.

Understand and apply

s
tandard ACLs
.

b.

Understand and apply

e
xtended ACLs
.

c.

Understand and apply

n
amed ACLs
.

d.

Understand and apply

p
lacing ACLs
.

e.

Understand and apply

f
irewalls
.

f.

Restrict

virtual terminal access
.

3.

Successfully complete the Case
Study on Rou
ting
.


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ACRONYMS



Acronym

S
pelled Out


AC

alternating current

ACK

acknowledgement of message

ACL

access control list

ACPI

advanced configuration and power interface

ACT

activity

ADSL

asymmetrical digital subscriber line

AGP

accelerated

graphics port

AMD

advanced micro devices

AMR

audio modem riser

APIPA

automatic private internet protocol addressing

APM

advanced power management

ARP

address resolution protocol

ASR

automated system recovery

AT

advanced technology

ATA

advanced tec
hnology attachment

ATAPI

advanced technology attachment packet interface

ATM

asynchronous transfer mode

ATX

advanced technology extended

BIOS

basic input/output system

BNC

Bayonet
-
Neill
-
Concelman or British Navel Connector

BRI

basic rate interface

BT
X

balanced technology extended

CCD

charged coupled device

CD

compact disc

CDP

Cisco discovery protocol

CD
-
ROM

compact disc
-
read
-
only memory

CD
-
RW

compact disc
-
rewritable

CDFS

compact disc file system

CLI

command line interface

CMOS

complementary met
al
-
oxide semiconductor

CNR

communication network riser

COM1

communication port 1

CPU

central processing unit

CRIMM

continuity
-
rambus inline memory module

CRT

cathode
-
ray tube

DAC

discretionary access control

DB
-
25

serial communications D
-
shell conne
ctor, 25 pins

DB
-
9

9 pin D shell connector

DC

direct current

DDOS

distributed denial of service

DDR

double data
-
rate

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DDR RAM


double data
-
rate random access memory

DDR SDRAM


double data
-
rate synchronous dynamic random access
memory

DFS

distributed fi
le system

DHCP

dynamic host configuration protocol

DIMM

dual inline memory module

DIN

Deutsche Industrie Norm

DIP

dual inline package

DLT

digital linear tape

DLP

digital light processing

DMA

direct memory access

DNS

domain name service or domain na
me server

DOS

disk operating system or denial of service

DPMS

display power management signaling

DRAM

dynamic random access memory

DSL

digital subscriber line

DVD

digital video disc or digital versatile disc

DVD
-
RAM

digital video disc
-
random access m
emory

DVD
-
ROM

digital video disc
-
read only memory

DVD
-
R

digital video disc
-
recordable

DVD
-
RW

digital video disc
-
rewritable

DVI

digital visual interface

ECC

error correction code

ECP

extended capabilities port

EEPROM

electrically erasable programmabl
e read
-
only memory

EFS

encrypting file system

EGP

exterior gateway protocol

EIDE

enhanced integrated drive electronics

EISA

extended industry standard architecture

EMI

electromagnetic interference

EMP

electromagnetic pulse

EPROM

erasable programmable

read
-
only memory

EPP

enhanced parallel port

ERD

emergency repair disk

ESD

electrostatic discharge

ESDI

enhanced small device interface

EVGA

extended video graphics adapter/array

EVDO

evolution data optimized or evolution data only

FAT

file allocati
on table

FAT12

12
-
bit file allocation table

FAT16

16
-
bit file allocation table

FAT32

32
-
bit file allocation table

FDD

floppy disk drive

FERPA

Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act

Fn

Function (referring to the function key on a laptop)

FPM

fast
page
-
mode

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FRU

field replaceable unit

FTP

file transfer protocol

FQDN

fully qualified domain name

GB

gigabyte

GDI

graphics device interface

GHz

gigahertz

GUI

graphical user interface

GPRS

general packet radio system

GSM

global system for mobile com
munications

HAL

hardware abstraction layer

HCL

hardware compatibility list

HDD

hard disk drive

HDMi

high definition media interface

HPFS

high performance file system

HTML

hypertext markup language

HTTP

hypertext transfer protocol

HTTPS

hypertext tra
nsfer protocol over secure sockets layer

I/O

input/output

ICMP

internet control message protocol

ICS

internet connection sharing

ICR

intelligent character recognition

IDE

integrated drive electronics

IDS

intrusion detection system

IEEE

Institute of E
lectrical and Electronics Engineers

IGP

interior gateway protocol

IGRP

interior gateway routing protocol

IIS

Internet Information Services

IMAP

internet mail access protocol

IOS

Internet operating system

IP

internet protocol

IPCONFIG

internet protocol
configuration

IPP

internet printing protocol

IPSEC

internet protocol security

IPX

internetwork packet exchange

IPX/SPX

internetwork packet exchange/sequenced packet exchange

IR

infrared

IrDA

Infrared Data Association

IRQ

interrupt request

ISA

indus
try standard architecture

ISDN

integrated services digital network

ISO

Industry Standards Organization

ISP

internet service provider

KB

kilobyte

LAN

local area network

LBA

logical block addressing

LC

Lucent connector

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LCD

liquid crystal display

LDAP


lightweight directory access protocol

LED

light emitting diode

LIP or LiPoly

lithium
-
ion polymer

Li
-
on

lithium
-
ion

LPD/LPR

line printer daemon / line printer remote

LPT

line printer terminal

LPT1

line printer terminal 1

LPX

low profile extended

LV
D

low voltage differential

MAC

media access control

MAN

metropolitan area network

MAPI

messaging application programming interface

Mb

megabit

MB

megabyte

MBR

master boot record

MBSA

Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer

MCR

multivariant curve resol
ution

MFD

multi
-
function device

MFP

multi
-
function product

MHz

megahertz

MicroDIMM

micro dual inline memory module

MIDI

musical instrument digital interface

MIME

multipurpose internet mail extension

MLI

multiple link interface

MMC

Microsoft managem
ent console

MMX

multimedia extensions

MOTD

message of the day

MP3

Moving Picture Experts Group Layer 3 Audio

MPEG

Moving Picture Experts Group

MSCONFIG

Microsoft configuration

MSDS

material safety data sheet

MUI

multilingual user interface

NAS

netwo
rk
-
attached storage

NAT

network address translation

NetBIOS

networked basic input/output system

NetBEUI

networked basic input/output system extended user interface

NFS

network file system

NIC

network interface card

NiCd

nickel cadmium

NiMH

nickel me
tal hydride

NLI

not logged in or natural language interface

NLX

new low
-
profile extended

NNTP

network news transfer protocol

NTFS

new technology file system

NTLDR

new technology loader

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12

NWLINK

Netware Link

OCR

optical character recognition

OEM

origi
nal equipment manufacturer

OMR

optical mark recognition

OS

operating system

OSI

operating system interconnection

OSR

original equipment manufacturer service release

PAN

personal area network

PATA

parallel advanced technology attachment

PC

personal co
mputer

PCI

peripheral component interconnect

PCIe

peripheral component interconnect express

PCIX

peripheral component interconnect extended

PCL

printer control language

PCMCIA

Personal Computer Memory Card International Association

PDA

personal digit
al assistant

PGA

pin grid array

PGA2

pin grid array 2

PIN

personal identification number

PKI

public key infrastructure

PnP

plug and play

POP

post office protocol

POP3

post office protocol 3

POST

power
-
on self test

POTS

plain old telephone service

PPP

point
-
to
-
point protocol

PPTP

point
-
to
-
point tunneling protocol

PRI

primary rate interface

PROM

programmable read
-
only memory

PS/2

Personal System/2 connector

PSTN

public switched telephone network

PVC

permanent virtual circuit

PXE

preboot execu
tion environment

QoS

quality of service

RAID

redundant array of independent (or inexpensive) discs

RAM

random access memory

RAS

remote access service

RBAC

role
-
based access control or rule
-
based access control

RDRAM

RAMBUS® dynamic random access memo
ry

RF

radio frequency

RFI

radio frequency interference

RGB

red green blue

RIMM

RAMBUS® inline memory module

RIP

routing information protocol

RIS

remote installation service

RISC

reduced instruction set computer

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13

RJ

registered jack

RJ
-
11

registered
jack function 11

RJ
-
45

registered jack function 45

RMA

returned materials authorization

ROM

read only memory

RS
-
232 or RS
-
232C

recommended standard 232

RTC

real
-
time clock

SAN

storage area network

SATA

serial advanced technology attachment

SC

subsc
ription channel

SCSI

small computer system interface

SCSI ID

small computer system interface identifier

SD

card secure digital card

SDRAM

synchronous dynamic random access memory

SEC

single edge connector

SFC

system file checker

SGRAM

synchronous gr
aphics random access memory

SIMM

single inline memory module

SLI

scalable link interface or system level integration or scanline
interleave mode

SMB

server message block or small to midsize business

SMTP

simple mail transport protocol

SNMP

simple netw
ork management protocol

SoDIMM


small outline dual inline memory module

SOHO

small office/home office

SP

service pack

SP1

service pack 1

SP2

service pack 2

SPDIF

Sony
-
Philips digital interface format

SPGA

staggered pin grid array

SPX

sequenced packa
ge exchange

SRAM

static random access memory

SSH

secure shell

SSID

service set identifier

SSL

secure sockets layer

ST

straight tip

STP

shielded twisted pair

SVGA

super video graphics array

SXGA

super extended graphics array

TB

terabyte

TCP

transmi
ssion control protocol

TCP/IP

transmission control protocol/internet protocol

TDR

time domain reflectometer

TFTP

trivial file transfer protocol

UART

universal asynchronous receiver transmitter

Developed May 2007

Routers and Routing Basics


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14

UDF

user defined functions or universal disk format or uni
versal
data format

UDMA

ultra direct memory access

UDP

user datagram protocol

UL

Underwriter’s Laboratory

UNC


universal naming convention

UPS

uninterruptible power supply

URL

uniform resource locator

USB

universal serial bus

USMT

user state migrati
on tool

UTP

unshielded twisted pair

UXGA

ultra extended graphics array

VESA

Video Electronics Standards Association

VFAT

virtual file allocation table

VGA

video graphics array

VoIP

voice over internet protocol

VPN

virtual private network

VRAM

video

random access memory

WAN

wide area network

WAP

wireless application protocol

WEP

wired equivalent privacy

WIFI

wireless fidelity

WINS

windows internet name service

WLAN

wireless local area network

WPA

wireless protected access

WUXGA

wide ultra ext
ended graphics array

XGA

extended graphics array

ZIF

zero
-
insertion
-
force

ZIP

zigzag inline package