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1

3.METHODOLOGY

2

ELEMENTS

IN

‘METHODOLOGY’

Respondents


of

the

Study















Research



Procedure




Data


Collection



Methods












Data

Analysis

Introduction
















Conclusion


3



purpose/objectives of

the

research



issue/problem investigated







methods used i.e.

qualitative,

quantitative,

or

both;




the

instruments used

i.e.

questionnaire,

observation,




interview, and/or experimentation.






population

and

sample/respondents

i.e.



sample

size,

gender,

location







step
-
by
-
step

how

data

were

collected







how

results

were

obtained

from

the



collected data







summary

of

the

chapter




Introduction





DataCollection








Methods



Respondentsof







the

Study










Research






Procedure






DataAnalysis










Conclusion

4

DATA
COLLECTION

5

TABLE FOR DETERMINING NEEDED SIZES OF A RANDOMLY CHOSEN SAMPLE FROM A
GIVEN FINITE POPULATION OF
N

CASES SUCH THAT THE SAMPLE PROPOTION
P

WILL BE
WITHIN
+
.05 OF THE POPULATION PROPOTION
P

WITH 95 PERCENT LEVEL OF CONFIDENCE

N.

S

N

S

N

S

10

15

20

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

100

110

120

130

140

150

160

170

180

190

200

210

10

14

19

28

32

36

40

44

48

52

56

59

63

66

70

73

76

80

86

92

97

103

108

113

118

123

127

132

136

220

230

240

260

270

280

290

300

320

340

360

380

400

420

440

460

480

500

550

600

650

700

750

800

850

900

950

1000

1100

140

144

148

155

159

162

165

169

175

181

186

191

196

201

205

210

214

217

226

234

242

248

254

260

265

269

274

278

285

1200

1300

1400

1600

1700

1800

1900

2000

2200

2400

2600

2800

3000

3500

4000

4500

5000

6000

7000

8000

9000

10000

15000

20000

30000

40000

50000

75000

100000

291

297

302

310

313

317

320

322

327

331

335

338

341

346

351

354

357

361

364

367

368

370

375

377

379

380

381

382

384

Note:

N

is population
size

S

is sample size


1. Krejeie .R.V
and Morgan,
D.W. Determining
sample size for
research.

Educational and
Psychological
Measurement.
1970,30,607
-
610

6

WHAT IS

DATA COLLECTION?


A process of collecting data (primary &
secondary) from different sources


PRIMARY DATA



obtained through
questionnaires, interviews,
observations & experiments


SECONDARY DATA



obtained through
reading others’ works

7

COLLECTING SECONDARY DATA


Conducted at the
beginning

of a research
to get a better picture of what you are
going to investigate


Gathered from various written resources
(offline/online)


Used in various sections of research report
esp.
Literature Review


Must be properly cited

8

COLLECTING

PRIMARY DATA


FOUR INSTRUMENTS:

1.QUESTIONNAIRES

2.INTERVIEW

3.OBSERVATION

4.EXPERIMENTS

9

1.QUESTIONNAIRES


A
systematic

compilation of questions
distributed to respondents from which
information is needed


Administered through
survey, mail,
telephone & internet

10

QUESTIONNAIRE RESEARCH

FLOW CHART

1.
Design Methodology

2.
Determine Feasibility

3.
Develop Instruments

4.
Select Sample

5.
Conduct Pilot Test

6.
Revise Instruments

7.
Conduct Research

8.
Analyze Data

9.
Prepare Report

11

Advantages of

Written Questionnaires


Cost effective


Easy to analyze


Familiar to most people


Reduce bias


Less intrusive


12

Disadvantages Of

Written Questionnaires


The possibility of low response rates


The inability to probe responses


Confounding error


Not suited for some people

UTM

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA

QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN

General Considerations

14

Well
-
defined objectives


are the best way

to assure

a good questionnaire design.



The questionnaire is developed

to
directly address

the goals of the study

1



Avoid the temptation to ask questions

because

it would be
"interesting to know".

15

One of the most effective methods
of maximizing response is to
shorten the questionnaire.



To eliminate questions,

read each question and ask,

"How am I going to use this
information?"


If the information will be used

in a decision
-
making process,

then keep the question... it's important.

If not, throw it out.

2

16

Formulate a plan

for doing the
statistical analysis


during the design stage of the project.

Know
how

every question

will be analyzed.



If you
cannot specify


how you intend to analyze

A question or use the information,

do not use

it in the survey.

3

17

Give your questionnaire a
title

that is
short and meaningful



generally perceived to be

more credible


than one without.

4



on the front page of the questionnaire,
provide
purpose
of the research



have an
ending courtesy

clearly state your policy on

confidentiality

18

Include
clear

and
concise

instructions



use short sentences

and basic vocabulary

5



use simple and direct language



one way to

eliminate misunderstandings is to
emphasize crucial words in each item

by using
bold
,
italics

or underlining
.

19

Leave adequate
space

for
respondents to make comments



will provide valuable information not

captured by the response categories



leaving white space makes the

questionnaire look easier

and this increases response

6

20

Keep a questionnaire
interesting



provide variety in the

questioning format

used



group items into coherent
categories




all items should
flow smoothly


from one to the next

7

21

Provide
incentives



If the information you are collecting

is of interest to the respondent,

offer a free
summary report

8

22

Conduct a
pilot study



try

it on representatives of the sample



be present

while a respondent is
completing the questionnaire



any questions posed by the respondents
are
indicative of problems


in the questionnaire

9

UTM

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA

QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN

Qualities of a Good Question

24

Asks for an answer

on only one dimension

"Were you satisfied with

the quality of our food and service?"

1

25

Accommodates

all possible
answers

What brand of computer do you own?
__

A. IBM PC




B. Apple

2

Do you own an IBM PC? (circle: Yes or No)

Do you own an Apple computer? (circle: Yes or No)

What brand of computer do you own?

(Check all that apply)

__
Do not own a computer

__
IBM PC

__
Apple

__
Other

26

Has no ambiguity

should be only one correct

or appropriate choice

for the respondent to make

3

Where did you grow up?
__

A. country

B. farm

C. city

27

Does not presuppose

a certain state of affairs

Are you satisfied with your

current health insurance? (Yes or No)

4

Are you satisfied with your current health
insurance?

___
Yes

___
No

___
Don't have health insurance

or

You could have a leading question:

“Do you have a health insurance?”

28

Does not offer

negative question

Don't you think students are spending too
much money?

Wouldn't you like to receive

our free brochure?

5

29

Does not ask the respondent

to order or rank a series

of more than five items

becomes increasingly difficult as

the number of items increases,

and the answers become less reliable

limiting the number of items to five will

make it easier for the respondent to
answer

6

30

The "Don't Know", "Undecided",
and "Neutral" Response Options


The best advice is probably


to use a "don't know“ option


for factual questions,


but not for attitude questions.

31

2 TYPES OF QUESTIONS

1. Open
-
ended Questions

2. Close
-
ended Questions

Yes/No

Scale (likert scale)

Listing/Choice

Ranking (most
-

least preferred)


Category (range)


UTM

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA


INTERVIEW

32

33

2.INTERVIEW


A two
-
communication which permits
an exchange of ideas and
information


3 types of interviews:


1.

Structured





2. Semi
-
structured





3. Unstructured


Refer to page 33 to view the process

Preparation for Interview



Choose a setting with little distraction


Explain the purpose of the interview


Address terms of confidentiality


Explain the format of the interview


Indicate how long the interview usually
takes


Tell them how to get in touch with you
later if they want to


34

Preparation for Interview


Ask them if they have any questions

before you both get started with the
interview


Don't count on your memory to recall
their answers.


35

Types of Topics in Questions



Behaviors
-

about what a person has done or is
doing


Opinions/values

-

about what a person thinks about
a topic


Feelings

-

note that respondents sometimes respond
with "I think ..." so be careful to note that you're
looking for feelings.


Knowledge

-

to get facts about a topic


Sensory

-

about what people have seen, touched,
heard, tasted or smelled


Background/demographics

-

standard background
questions, such as age, education, etc.


Note that the above questions can be asked in terms of past, present or future.

36

Sequence of Questions



Get the respondents involved in the interview as soon as
possible.



Before asking about controversial matters (such as feelings
and conclusions), first ask about some facts.

With this
approach, respondents can more easily engage in the interview
before warming up to more personal matters.



Intersperse fact
-
based questions throughout the interview

to avoid long lists of fact
-
based questions, which tends to
leave respondents disengaged.



Ask questions about the present before questions about the
past or future.

It's usually easier for them to talk about the
present and then work into the past or future.



The last questions might be to allow respondents to
provide any other information they prefer to add and their
impressions of the interview.


37

Wording of Questions



Wording should be open
-
ended
.
Respondents should
be able to choose their own terms when answering
questions.


Questions should be as neutral as possible
. Avoid
wording that might influence answers, e.g.,
evocative, judgmental wording.


Questions should be asked one at a time.



Questions should be worded clearly.

This includes
knowing any terms particular to the program or the
respondents' culture.


Be careful asking "why" questions.

This type of
question infers a cause
-
effect relationship that may
not truly exist. These questions may also cause
respondents to feel defensive, e.g., that they have to
justify their response, which may inhibit their
responses to this and future questions.

38

Carrying Out Interview



Occasionally verify the tape recorder (if
used) is working.


Ask one question at a time.


Attempt to remain as neutral as possible.

That is, don't show strong emotional reactions
to their responses. Act as if "you've heard it all
before."


Encourage responses

with occasional nods of
the head, "uh huh"s, etc.


39

Carrying Out Interview


Be careful about the appearance when note
taking.

That is, if you jump to take a note, it may
appear as if you're surprised or very pleased about
an answer, which may influence answers to future
questions.



Provide transition between major topics
, e.g.,
"we've been talking about (some topic) and now I'd
like to move on to (another topic)."



Don't lose control of the interview
.
This can occur
when respondents stray to another topic, take so
long to answer a question that times begins to run
out, or even begin asking questions to the
interviewer.


40

Immediately After Interview



Verify if the tape recorder, if used, worked
throughout the interview.



Make any notes on your written notes
, e.g., to
clarify any scratchings, ensure pages are
numbered, fill out any notes that don't make
senses, etc.



Write down any observations made during the
interview.

For example, where did the interview
occur and when, was the respondent particularly
nervous at any time? Were there any surprises
during the interview? Did the tape recorder break?

41

42

3.OBSERVATION


To get
firsthand

information


To strengthen existing data


Have an observation guide


(refer to page 39)

43

4.EXPERIMENTS


To test various techniques,
assumptions or products (esp.
in engineering & agriculture)



SAMPLING

Ideally
Whole
population
will be the
best

Selecting small
group of individuals

44

45

SAMPLING & POPULATION


SAMPLING



a group of respondents
who provide information that may be
generalised to general population


POPULATION



a target group to which
the results of a research are applicable


Refer to page 25.


46

TARGET POPULATION

SPECIFIC
POPULATION

SAMPLE

UTM STUDENTS

FIRST YEAR STUDENTS

10% OF THE FIRST
YEAR STUDENTS

SAMPLE & POPULATION



47

RANDOM


Every member of the
population has an
equal probability to be
chosen to participate
in the research


The results would yield
a representative
sample


NON
-
RANDOM


The respondents are
selected based on
certain criteria


The results may be
true only for the group
of respondents and
cannot be generalize

TYPES OF SAMPLING


48

Type

Category

Definition

SIMPLE

Every member has an equal chance to
be selected

STRATIFIED

Sample selected in the same proportion
as existence in the population

CLUSTER

Selection of group sample(or research
is on the group)

SYSTEMATIC

Every
n
th person in a population list is
selected

CONVENIENCE

Individuals who are readily accessible
for the research

PURPOSIVE

A group of sample selected specifically
by the researcher because they have
the knowledge or experience in certain
issue

TYPES OF SAMPLING