# UHB2422 - Chapter 3x - 2422-penang - home

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30 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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1

3.METHODOLOGY

2

ELEMENTS

IN

‘METHODOLOGY’

Respondents

of

the

Study

Research

Procedure

Data

Collection

Methods

Data

Analysis

Introduction

Conclusion

3

purpose/objectives of

the

research

issue/problem investigated

methods used i.e.

qualitative,

quantitative,

or

both;

the

instruments used

i.e.

questionnaire,

observation,

interview, and/or experimentation.

population

and

sample/respondents

i.e.

sample

size,

gender,

location

step
-
by
-
step

how

data

were

collected

how

results

were

obtained

from

the

collected data

summary

of

the

chapter

Introduction

DataCollection

Methods

Respondentsof

the

Study

Research

Procedure

DataAnalysis

Conclusion

4

DATA
COLLECTION

5

TABLE FOR DETERMINING NEEDED SIZES OF A RANDOMLY CHOSEN SAMPLE FROM A
GIVEN FINITE POPULATION OF
N

CASES SUCH THAT THE SAMPLE PROPOTION
P

WILL BE
WITHIN
+
.05 OF THE POPULATION PROPOTION
P

WITH 95 PERCENT LEVEL OF CONFIDENCE

N.

S

N

S

N

S

10

15

20

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

100

110

120

130

140

150

160

170

180

190

200

210

10

14

19

28

32

36

40

44

48

52

56

59

63

66

70

73

76

80

86

92

97

103

108

113

118

123

127

132

136

220

230

240

260

270

280

290

300

320

340

360

380

400

420

440

460

480

500

550

600

650

700

750

800

850

900

950

1000

1100

140

144

148

155

159

162

165

169

175

181

186

191

196

201

205

210

214

217

226

234

242

248

254

260

265

269

274

278

285

1200

1300

1400

1600

1700

1800

1900

2000

2200

2400

2600

2800

3000

3500

4000

4500

5000

6000

7000

8000

9000

10000

15000

20000

30000

40000

50000

75000

100000

291

297

302

310

313

317

320

322

327

331

335

338

341

346

351

354

357

361

364

367

368

370

375

377

379

380

381

382

384

Note:

N

is population
size

S

is sample size

1. Krejeie .R.V
and Morgan,
D.W. Determining
sample size for
research.

Educational and
Psychological
Measurement.
1970,30,607
-
610

6

WHAT IS

DATA COLLECTION?

A process of collecting data (primary &
secondary) from different sources

PRIMARY DATA

obtained through
questionnaires, interviews,
observations & experiments

SECONDARY DATA

obtained through

7

COLLECTING SECONDARY DATA

Conducted at the
beginning

of a research
to get a better picture of what you are
going to investigate

Gathered from various written resources
(offline/online)

Used in various sections of research report
esp.
Literature Review

Must be properly cited

8

COLLECTING

PRIMARY DATA

FOUR INSTRUMENTS:

1.QUESTIONNAIRES

2.INTERVIEW

3.OBSERVATION

4.EXPERIMENTS

9

1.QUESTIONNAIRES

A
systematic

compilation of questions
distributed to respondents from which
information is needed

survey, mail,
telephone & internet

10

QUESTIONNAIRE RESEARCH

FLOW CHART

1.
Design Methodology

2.
Determine Feasibility

3.
Develop Instruments

4.
Select Sample

5.
Conduct Pilot Test

6.
Revise Instruments

7.
Conduct Research

8.
Analyze Data

9.
Prepare Report

11

Written Questionnaires

Cost effective

Easy to analyze

Familiar to most people

Reduce bias

Less intrusive

12

Written Questionnaires

The possibility of low response rates

The inability to probe responses

Confounding error

Not suited for some people

UTM

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA

QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN

General Considerations

14

Well
-
defined objectives

are the best way

to assure

a good questionnaire design.

The questionnaire is developed

to

the goals of the study

1

Avoid the temptation to ask questions

because

it would be
"interesting to know".

15

One of the most effective methods
of maximizing response is to
shorten the questionnaire.

To eliminate questions,

"How am I going to use this
information?"

If the information will be used

in a decision
-
making process,

then keep the question... it's important.

If not, throw it out.

2

16

Formulate a plan

for doing the
statistical analysis

during the design stage of the project.

Know
how

every question

will be analyzed.

If you
cannot specify

how you intend to analyze

A question or use the information,

do not use

it in the survey.

3

17

title

that is
short and meaningful

generally perceived to be

more credible

than one without.

4

on the front page of the questionnaire,
provide
purpose
of the research

have an
ending courtesy

confidentiality

18

Include
clear

and
concise

instructions

use short sentences

and basic vocabulary

5

use simple and direct language

one way to

eliminate misunderstandings is to
emphasize crucial words in each item

by using
bold
,
italics

or underlining
.

19

space

for

will provide valuable information not

captured by the response categories

leaving white space makes the

questionnaire look easier

and this increases response

6

20

Keep a questionnaire
interesting

provide variety in the

questioning format

used

group items into coherent
categories

all items should
flow smoothly

from one to the next

7

21

Provide
incentives

If the information you are collecting

is of interest to the respondent,

offer a free
summary report

8

22

Conduct a
pilot study

try

it on representatives of the sample

be present

while a respondent is
completing the questionnaire

any questions posed by the respondents
are
indicative of problems

in the questionnaire

9

UTM

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA

QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN

Qualities of a Good Question

24

on only one dimension

"Were you satisfied with

the quality of our food and service?"

1

25

Accommodates

all possible

What brand of computer do you own?
__

A. IBM PC

B. Apple

2

Do you own an IBM PC? (circle: Yes or No)

Do you own an Apple computer? (circle: Yes or No)

What brand of computer do you own?

(Check all that apply)

__
Do not own a computer

__
IBM PC

__
Apple

__
Other

26

Has no ambiguity

should be only one correct

or appropriate choice

for the respondent to make

3

Where did you grow up?
__

A. country

B. farm

C. city

27

Does not presuppose

a certain state of affairs

Are you satisfied with your

current health insurance? (Yes or No)

4

Are you satisfied with your current health
insurance?

___
Yes

___
No

___
Don't have health insurance

or

You could have a leading question:

“Do you have a health insurance?”

28

Does not offer

negative question

Don't you think students are spending too
much money?

our free brochure?

5

29

to order or rank a series

of more than five items

becomes increasingly difficult as

the number of items increases,

and the answers become less reliable

limiting the number of items to five will

make it easier for the respondent to

6

30

The "Don't Know", "Undecided",
and "Neutral" Response Options

to use a "don't know“ option

for factual questions,

but not for attitude questions.

31

2 TYPES OF QUESTIONS

1. Open
-
ended Questions

2. Close
-
ended Questions

Yes/No

Scale (likert scale)

Listing/Choice

Ranking (most
-

least preferred)

Category (range)

UTM

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA

INTERVIEW

32

33

2.INTERVIEW

A two
-
communication which permits
an exchange of ideas and
information

3 types of interviews:

1.

Structured

2. Semi
-
structured

3. Unstructured

Refer to page 33 to view the process

Preparation for Interview

Choose a setting with little distraction

Explain the purpose of the interview

Explain the format of the interview

Indicate how long the interview usually
takes

Tell them how to get in touch with you
later if they want to

34

Preparation for Interview

Ask them if they have any questions

before you both get started with the
interview

Don't count on your memory to recall

35

Types of Topics in Questions

Behaviors
-

about what a person has done or is
doing

Opinions/values

-

a topic

Feelings

-

note that respondents sometimes respond
with "I think ..." so be careful to note that you're
looking for feelings.

Knowledge

-

to get facts about a topic

Sensory

-

about what people have seen, touched,
heard, tasted or smelled

Background/demographics

-

standard background
questions, such as age, education, etc.

Note that the above questions can be asked in terms of past, present or future.

36

Sequence of Questions

Get the respondents involved in the interview as soon as
possible.

With this
approach, respondents can more easily engage in the interview
before warming up to more personal matters.

Intersperse fact
-
based questions throughout the interview

to avoid long lists of fact
-
based questions, which tends to
leave respondents disengaged.

past or future.

It's usually easier for them to talk about the
present and then work into the past or future.

The last questions might be to allow respondents to
provide any other information they prefer to add and their
impressions of the interview.

37

Wording of Questions

Wording should be open
-
ended
.
Respondents should
be able to choose their own terms when answering
questions.

Questions should be as neutral as possible
. Avoid
wording that might influence answers, e.g.,
evocative, judgmental wording.

Questions should be asked one at a time.

Questions should be worded clearly.

This includes
knowing any terms particular to the program or the
respondents' culture.

This type of
question infers a cause
-
effect relationship that may
not truly exist. These questions may also cause
respondents to feel defensive, e.g., that they have to
justify their response, which may inhibit their
responses to this and future questions.

38

Carrying Out Interview

Occasionally verify the tape recorder (if
used) is working.

Ask one question at a time.

Attempt to remain as neutral as possible.

That is, don't show strong emotional reactions
to their responses. Act as if "you've heard it all
before."

Encourage responses

with occasional nods of

39

Carrying Out Interview

Be careful about the appearance when note
taking.

questions.

Provide transition between major topics
, e.g.,
"we've been talking about (some topic) and now I'd
like to move on to (another topic)."

Don't lose control of the interview
.
This can occur
when respondents stray to another topic, take so
long to answer a question that times begins to run
out, or even begin asking questions to the
interviewer.

40

Immediately After Interview

Verify if the tape recorder, if used, worked
throughout the interview.

Make any notes on your written notes
, e.g., to
clarify any scratchings, ensure pages are
numbered, fill out any notes that don't make
senses, etc.

Write down any observations made during the
interview.

For example, where did the interview
occur and when, was the respondent particularly
nervous at any time? Were there any surprises
during the interview? Did the tape recorder break?

41

42

3.OBSERVATION

To get
firsthand

information

To strengthen existing data

Have an observation guide

(refer to page 39)

43

4.EXPERIMENTS

To test various techniques,
assumptions or products (esp.
in engineering & agriculture)

SAMPLING

Ideally
Whole
population
will be the
best

Selecting small
group of individuals

44

45

SAMPLING & POPULATION

SAMPLING

a group of respondents
who provide information that may be
generalised to general population

POPULATION

a target group to which
the results of a research are applicable

Refer to page 25.

46

TARGET POPULATION

SPECIFIC
POPULATION

SAMPLE

UTM STUDENTS

FIRST YEAR STUDENTS

10% OF THE FIRST
YEAR STUDENTS

SAMPLE & POPULATION

47

RANDOM

Every member of the
population has an
equal probability to be
chosen to participate
in the research

The results would yield
a representative
sample

NON
-
RANDOM

The respondents are
selected based on
certain criteria

The results may be
true only for the group
of respondents and
cannot be generalize

TYPES OF SAMPLING

48

Type

Category

Definition

SIMPLE

Every member has an equal chance to
be selected

STRATIFIED

Sample selected in the same proportion
as existence in the population

CLUSTER

Selection of group sample(or research
is on the group)

SYSTEMATIC

Every
n
th person in a population list is
selected

CONVENIENCE