Integrating hypermedia design concepts with a systems analysis and design methodology to develop manufacturing web applications

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Integrating hypermedia design concepts with a systems analysis and
design methodology to develop manufacturing web applications
Department of Industrial &Systems Engineering,Florida International University,Miami,FL 33199,USA.
Many recognize the World Wide Web’s capability to provide a global network and
platform for application support of engineering activities.Most manufacturing
applications on the web were initially designed for other platforms and ported to the
web to take advantage of universal access.Another opportunity provided by the web is
for exploratory access to information through the hyperlinks.However,this later
strength is frequently not exploited by web-based manufacturing applications because the
applications were not developed according to design methodologies that explicitly
address the navigational aspects unique to the web.This article presents a web
application design methodology that explicitly incorporates hypermedia authoring
considerations into a traditional systems analysis and design methodology.The web
application design methodology is illustrated through an example of developing a web-
based manufacturability evaluation system for printed circuit boards.The primary
contribution of this article is the development of a web application design methodology
that considers both hypermedia design issues as well as information system design issues.
Keywords:Design for manufacturing;Manufacturability evaluation;Internet;Web-based
system;Electronics manufacturing;Information system,Hypermedia design
The World Wide Web (hereafter,the web) has evolved
from providing information over the Internet to an
infrastructure supporting large-scale web applications
(Isakowitz et al.1998).The attractiveness of deploying
applications on the web is due to its ability to integrate
companies with their partners,suppliers and customers
regardless of geographical distance,heterogeneity of hard-
ware or differences in time.Moreover,maintenance and
updating the web application is easier since the users access
the application from a thin client.In addition to these
benefits the web also has the potential to provide a novel
approach for users to access information via hypermedia
(Isakowitz et al.1995,Schwabe and Rossi 1995).Hyper-
media organizes complex information by partitioning the
information into nodes and providing links to connect the
information nodes (Isakowitz et al.1995).However,few
manufacturing web applications have actually been de-
signed for the web;rather they were ported to the web from
other client-server platforms.As a result,most manufac-
turing web applications do not take advantage of the
unique paradigm offered by the web for navigating an
information space (Bieber et al.1997).Part of the reason
for the relatively unsophisticated use of the web by
manufacturers has been the rapid emergence of the Internet
as a business platform,the obscurity of hypermedia design
methods,and the lack of appropriate modeling methods
(Bieber 1998,Peng 2002).
A web application is differentiated from traditional
information systems mainly because it is also a hypermedia
application (Isakowitz et al.1998,Lyardet et al.1999).
Int.J.Computer Integrated Manufacturing,Vol.18,No.4,June 2005,329 – 340
International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing
ISSN 0951-192X print/ISSN 1362-3052 online#2005 Taylor & Francis Group Ltd
Many researchers have argued that traditional information
systemdesign methodologies are inadequate for hypermedia
design (Garzotto et al.1993,Isakowitz et al.1995,Schwabe
and Rossi 1995,Ceri et al.2000).Traditional methodologies
for information systems development are insufficient for
web applications because they do not address what is
termed the ‘authoring’ problem encountered when devel-
oping web applications (Huang et al.1999).To address this
shortcoming,authors have developed hypermedia design
methodologies to specify navigation,information and
presentation structures for content rich information spaces.
However,manufacturing web applications generally also
support a business process.Consequently,they exhibit
characteristics of both traditional information systems as
well as hypermedia applications (Isakowitz et al.1998).In
order to develop manufacturing web application with these
characteristics a development method is required that
incorporates hypermedia design principles into traditional
information systems development methods.
This article describes a design methodology that inte-
grates hypermedia design concepts into traditional
information systems development methods to support
web application development.In Section 2 a review of the
latest concepts in developing design for manufacturing
(DFM) systems,hypermedia development methodologies
and web-based manufacturing systems is conducted.
Section 3 presents the web application design methodology
consisting of six phases (requirements analysis,information
modeling,function analysis,composition and navigation
modeling,interface design,and construction).The design
methodology incorporates the latest concepts on DFM
systems and hypermedia design.The design methodology is
illustrated in Section 4 through the analysis and design of a
printed circuit board fabrication manufacturability evalua-
tion system (PCBMES).In Section 5 the conclusions of the
web application design methodology are provided.
2.Literature review
2.1.DFM system design
There have been several efforts to specify generic DFM
shells or frameworks that could be used to customize many
specific DFM tools.Huang and Mak (1997) describe the
requirements for such as generic approach as consisting of
the following components:
(1) Product model:a description of the product data.
(2) Process model:a description of the process data.
(3) Interactions:a description of the interaction be-
tween product elements and process activities.
(4) Worksheets:ability of the system to generate
reports concerning the DFX evaluation.
(5) DFX handbook:the collection of DFX knowledge.
Gupta et al.(1997) also describe what they consider the
essential properties of a manufacturability evaluation
system to be,as the capacity to:(1) determine whether
the design can be manufactured;(2) determine a rating to
characterize the ease (or difficulty) of manufacturing the
design;and (3) identify when the design is not manufac-
turable and then generate feedback to aid the designer in
rectifying the manufacturability problems.The properties
of Gupta et al.(1997) describe what the worksheets
should do and also describe what type of knowledge or
feedback the system should contain.Taken together these
authors describe the basic requirements of a DFMsystem.
The requirements for having product model,process
model and DFM knowledge indicate the need for an
information model for the domain.The worksheet
requirements indicate the need to have some functionality
or work flow.An additional fact,not mentioned by these
authors,is that when the DFMapplication is deployed on
the web one also needs to provide for the navigation of
the product model,process model and DFX knowledge.
In the next section web design methods are reviewed for
the identification of additional system properties required
when the manufacturability evaluation system is deployed
on the web.
2.2.Hypermedia system design
Hypermedia systems provide users with exploratory access
to the information content based on the semantic relation-
ships between the information elements.Hyperlinks are the
mechanisms in web applications that enable non-sequential
access to information by going from one page to another
depending on which link the user clicks.The novel
approach for navigating an information space leads to
two specialized hypermedia design issues:first,how to
organize a large body of information into numerous
fragments (pages);and second,how should the pages relate
to each other.There are several hypermedia design
approaches proscribing how information content should
be organized for user navigation.HDM (Garzotto et al.
1993) and its successors OOHDM (Schwabe and Rossi
1995) and relationship management methodology (RMM)
(Isakowitz et al.1995) adapt database modeling methodol-
ogies and add hypermedia related features to include
navigational design.RMM starts with entity-relational
modeling of the problemdomain.The information model is
divided into slices,which are views on an entity.The slices
are grouped and organized into pages.Navigation access
structures are defined to connect the slices and pages.
OOHDM is similar but starts with an object-oriented
model of the problem domain.In OOHDM navigation is
realized by defining navigation classes over the information
model.Both approaches include a defined development
methodology and associated modeling language.
330 R.E.Giachetti
A more recent hypermedia design model is the web
modeling language (WebML) (Ceri et al.2000).WebML
defines four orthogonal views of data structure,composi-
tion model,navigation model and presentation model.
Each view emphasizes a different aspect of the web
application.The data structure view is constructed using
entity-relationship models.The composition model speci-
fies which pages compose the hypertext and which content
units compose each page.WebML defines several content
units (a subset is shown in table 1) for incorporating the
information into a page.Each content unit is defined on an
entity or set of entities from the data structure view.The
navigation model expresses how the pages and/or content
units are connected.The presentation view describes the
layout and graphical appearance of pages.
The hypermedia design methods described share some
common features.The starting point in each methodology
is development of an information model whether it is by
entity-relationship modeling or object-oriented modeling.
The information model captures the information content
of the proposed hypermedia system.The second phase
involves developing a compositional and navigational
Table 1.WebML content units and brief description (Ceri et al.2000).
Integrating hypermedia design concepts 331
model over the information model.The navigation layer
provides a means for the user to access the information
model.The navigation model consists of nodes and links
between those nodes and is the most salient feature of
hypermedia applications.Nodes are units of information
(Nielsen 1994) or also called information containers
(Schwabe and Rossi 1995) and are implemented as pages
in the web application.Nodes may include portions of
several different entities from the conceptual model.
Nodes are called slices in RMM,navigation classes in
OOHDM and pages in WebML.The types of links
possible have received widespread attention.Most meth-
ods consider navigation links as emanating from semantic
relationships between entities,whether object-oriented or
relational.Consequently,the information model is the
foundation of web applications.Additionally,the user
interface often plays a far greater role in the usability of
the application than in traditional client-server applica-
tions.One reason is the system users are accessing the
application from multiple platforms,connection speeds
and with different experience levels – all of which must be
supported by the application.The hypermedia design
methodologies have a phase for designing the presentation
layer or user interface.
2.3.Related work in web-based manufacturing systems
Many researchers have recognized that the emergence of
the Internet as a reliable platform for deploying manufac-
turing applications.Here the work is separated into those
systems that are primarily content-oriented versus those
that are primarily function-oriented.
Content-oriented web applications provide manufactur-
ing information to the designer.A common example in
manufacturing is web catalogs.Web catalogs provide
information on the parts and/or services offered by the
company.Oftentimes,this includes technical information
required by designers.One example is the web catalog
system described by Liang and O’Grady (1999),which
addresses the problem of component selection for electro-
nics assembly.The designer inputs design requirements and
the system searches for feasible components.An evolu-
tionary search algorithm is mentioned for finding better
solutions.Another example is the web catalog for shaft and
bearings that also provides solid models for CAD/CAM
analysis (Tumkor 2000).In Cebon and Ashby (2000) they
describe a materials and process selection web application
that utilizes existing information model provided by
standards organizations,trade associations and individual
suppliers.These and similar web catalogs require emphasis
of the authoring problem.An information model would
describe the catalog contents and the information model
relationships could then be realized in the navigation model
as contextual links.
Function-oriented sites include workflow that involves
user interaction with the system in order to complete a
task.An example of this type of system is CyberCut
(Smith and Wright 1996),which provides a CAD
interface,process planning analysis and remote control
of a machine tool.The related project manufacturing
advisory service (MAS) (Brown and Wright 1998)
provides a manufacturability analysis of the design
specification inputted through a form.The MAS also
provides online guides to the various processes supported.
CyberCut and the MAS are implemented with Java,
which means the actual program is downloaded into the
client’s computer and run by Java virtual machine.Java
implementations are a way to distribute an application;
the Java applications do not generally make use of the
navigation aspects provided by hypermedia.The online
process guide component of the MAS is implemented in
HTML.The guides are selected from a menu of static
links,indicating navigation design was not a major
The basic requirements for DFM systems were reviewed.
Essentially,DFM systems must provide information and
knowledge to guide the designer to specify manufactur-
able designs.In addition when DFM systems are built
for the web they should take advantage of the
hypermedia aspects of information exploration.Thus,
when building a manufacturing application intended for
the web the system designers must consider both the
authoring problem (Huang et al.1999) as well as
traditional systems analysis and design problems.The
authoring problem is developing the information content
of the site and the navigation between the information
nodes.Clearly application of hypermedia design concepts
for information delivery,navigation and inclusion of
cognitive aspects of the user interface would greatly
benefit the design of web-based manufacturability analy-
sis systems.However,the above-mentioned hypermedia
design methods were intended for content-oriented web
sites.A content-oriented site is primarily for the delivery
of information.While the reviewed hypermedia design
methods are appropriate designing content-oriented sites;
a manufacturability evaluation web application must also
support functions (e.g.evaluation) that are part of an
overall business process.In the next section we present a
systems analysis and design method intended for web-
based manufacturing systems.The distinguishing char-
acteristics of the methodology is that is incorporates
hypermedia design concepts adapted from existing
hypermedia design methodologies as well as a method
for deriving navigation links from the supported work-
332 R.E.Giachetti
3.Web application design method
The hypermedia design methods are primarily for content-
oriented websites that do not provide functionality.While
this approach is appropriate for navigating an information
space;a manufacturability evaluation web application must
also support functions (e.g.evaluation).We adapt the
hypermedia design methods to include analysis for in-
corporating functionality into the web application.In our
approach we use the WebML as the modeling language.
The overall design methodology is shown in figure 1.The
design methodology takes a traditional systems analysis
and design methodology (Dennis and Wixom 2003) that
consists or requirements gathering and system analysis,
design,construction,and implementation and incorporates
hypermedia design method concerns for the navigation
model and interface.The major phases of the methodology
3.1.Requirements analysis
The functional and non-functional requirements of the
system are determined.Functional requirements are
gathered via use case modeling (Jacobson 1992).Non-
functional requirements include the information content
requirements according to usability requirements and
architectural requirements (Huang et al.1999).These are
specified by analysis of the problem domain.
3.2.Information modeling
The information content of the manufacturing domain is
modeled.In our design method the IDEF1x information
modeling approach is used.The reason for using IDEF1x is
its familiarity with manufacturers who used this modeling
technique to develop other computer-integrated manufac-
turing systems.In this phase the entities that represent
objects of interest and the relationships between them are
3.3.Functional analysis
A flow chart is developed to specify the completion of each
use case specified during requirements analysis.
3.4.Compositional and navigation design
The navigation space is a view of the information model
from the user’s perspective.Content units as defined in the
WebML (see table 1) are assigned to pages to form the
compositional model.Each relationship from the informa-
tion model is a potential navigation link.Each step from
the functional analysis defines additional navigation links
in the application.Together,the compositional and
navigation model provides a specification for the imple-
mentation of the web application.
3.5.Interface design
The interface design is separate from the information,
algorithm and navigation design.Interfaces could be
specified using cascading style sheets for easy update and
global consistency.Usability guidelines are needed for
adhering to good form design and sufficient user feedback.
Construction is conversion of the above-mentioned models
into code.The information model is implemented as a
relational database.The algorithms are implemented in the
programming language specified for the application server.
The page compositions and navigation links are con-
structed in HTML and the application language,CFML,to
be described in a later section.
The above description suggests a linear design method,
but in practice many iterations and feedback loops are
common.In the following subsections we describe in detail
application of the design method and modeling to specify a
manufacturability evaluation system for printed circuit
Figure 1.Manufacturing web application design methodol-
Integrating hypermedia design concepts 333
4.Application of web design methodology to build the
The web design methodology is illustrated through the
development of a printed circuit board manufacturability
evaluation system called PCBMES.
4.1.Requirements analysis
The functional requirements of the system are defined with
use case modeling as shown in figure 2.Three functional
requirements of the PCBMES from the designer’s perspec-
tive are to check feasibility of the design,estimate process
yield and estimate cost.The later two requirements
correspond to the competitive areas of the industry and
are useful ratings as suggested by Gupta et al.(1999).The
use case to determine yield has an extension use case to
estimate the total wire length,a necessary input to yield
calculations.Lastly,there is a single use case to acquire
process yield data from a legacy system.PCB contract
manufacturers have existing quality control systems to
collect process data.The manufacturability evaluation
system should use this actual data in making its yield
Non-functional requirements of the system are deter-
mined by analysis of the problem domain in the areas of
and services.For a web system it is important to analyze
performance characteristics of response time to a user
request as well as the total throughput the system can
support.Due to the web’s connectivity it is also important
to analyze security requirements for access to the system,
protection of proprietary data and protection from
nefarious uses.Consideration of these non-functional
requirements should be documented in a format that
allows for requirements traceability to ensure they are
designed into the system.
4.2.Information modeling:printed circuit board
manufacturability model
The next step of the hypermedia design process is to specify
an information model for the domain of interest.The
information model needs to express the complete data
content of the application in terms of entities,their
attributes and the relationships between those entities.In
Giachetti and Alvi (2000) the PCB fabrication process was
modeled using the IDEF0 methodology.Additionally,a
matrix was made relating each design feature to the
fabrication steps in which they are realized.These are
called the manufacturability factors and are defined as
those design features the value of which significantly
influences the fabrication process.Giachetti and Alvi
(2000) specified the above model in EXPRESS.EXPRESS
is a modeling language developed by the international
standards community for the purpose of information
modeling especially with respect to STEP for product
modeling (Wilson and Schenck 1994).EXPRESS models
support super-type and sub-type relationships and are
implemented using object-oriented databases.Here we
utilize a relational information modeling approach since
the application will be built using a relational database.
Mapping from the object-oriented to relational model is
well documented by Stonebraker and Moore (1996).The
IDEF1x model of the manufacturability domain is shown
in figure 3.
The manufacturability factor entity defines each factor
and the units of measurement.To support decision-making
and provide feedback to the design engineer additional
information relevant to DFM is provided.For each
manufacturability factor,information on the methods
how the PCB would fail (i.e.failure modes) if the feature
were not correctly fabricated is listed.The associated effects
of those failures and how they can be resolved is also given.
Other related manufacturability factors are listed.The list
of design function and the list of manufacturing processes
related to the factor are also given.Together this
information provides strong guidance on good design
practice with respect to manufacturability.
To support the functional requirement of estimating
process yield an information model of the process is
created.Process yield is dependent on complex relation-
ships between product geometry,material,manufacturing
equipment and process control settings.Each company has
different capabilities and thus any methodology must be
easily customizable to site-specific data.The frequent
technological advances in both equipment and processing
techniques mean that the model must be easily updated
with actual process capabilities.To accomplish these goals
it is best to integrate the manufacturability evaluation
system with the shop floor quality control system that is
used for statistical process control (SPC).SPC data reflects
Figure 2.Use case model of PCB MES.
334 R.E.Giachetti
actual manufacturing process capabilities of processes and
can be correlated versus design features.The SPC control
chart data is not in a formuseable by the manufacturability
evaluation system.The historic SPC data is correlated
against the design features that determine the yield at that
process.This data is then presented as process yield curves
showing the yield as a function of a design parameter.
4.3.Functional analysis
The required functionality of the web site was captured via
use cases during the requirements analysis phase.For each
use case a procedure or algorithm is developed.As an
example,the use case,estimate the yield of the PCB Design,
is described.
Estimating process yield is accomplished with a yield
model (Giachetti 1999) that correlates yield loss in the
manufacturing process to manufacturability factors deter-
mined during the design process.According to this model,
the first-pass yield of the entire PCB process,assuming no
repairs is:
¼ Y
In this model,the major yield loss steps are identified as
inner layer processing (Y
),lamination (Y
),outer layer processing (Y
) and soldermask (Y
The major yield loss centers closely agree with the
analysis by (Shina 1991).Using the models,the designer
can determine the impact of their PCB design decisions
on process yield.
Utilization of the yield model prior to component layout
and routing requires the designer to estimate both circuit
geometry and total wire length.These design features are not
known prior to routing,but are required to estimate process
yield.To estimate total circuit length the wireability model
of Chiba et al.(1996) is applied.The wireability model is
used to understand the wiring demands of advanced
packaging;here it is adapted to a prediction of the total
wire length for the extension use case of estimate wire length.
Together the yield model and the wireability model are
incorporated into an algorithm shown in figure 4 to
implement the use cases of estimate yield of PCB design
and estimate wire length that were identified in require-
ments analysis.
4.4.Composition and navigation design
The methodology utilizes WebML as the modeling
language (Ceri et al.2000).The WebML units used and
their interpretation are provided in table 1.For each unit it
is possible to specify conditions that constrain the
information displayed.Additionally,there is a correspond-
ing textual description that allows the specification of
which fields from the entity to display.
Development of the compositional mode starts by
determining the content for each node (
example,the manufacturability factor entity in the informa-
tionmodel is viewedone factor at a time inthe compositional
model usingadataunit.Toenable auser togothroughall the
manufacturability factors a scroller unit is provided.
Together these two content units define a single page.
Figure 3.IDEF1x information model of manufacturability domain.
Integrating hypermedia design concepts 335
There are two types of links,contextual links and non-
contextual links.Contextual links are the realization of a
semantic relationship in the information model.Non-
contextual links convey no semantics and are used for
menus and other necessary navigation aids.In this article
we focus on how to derive contextual links from the
information model and the functional analysis.
Contextual navigation links are derived from the
information model.For example,the information model
of figure 3 shows a relationship named ‘leads to’ between
the manufacturability factor and the failure modes.This
relationship is realized as a contextual navigation link
between the manufacturability page and the failure mode
page as shown in figure 5.When the users clicks the link on
the manufacturability page,the application sends the
manufacturability factor selected as a constraint that is
used to dynamically query and display the corresponding
failure modes.Similarly,the other relationships from the
information model are realized in the composition and
navigation model.
Contextual navigation links are also derived from the
functional analysis.In figure 4 the workflow for calculating
the yield was presented.The sequence of process steps is
transformed into web pages and application templates.
figure 6 shows the composition and navigation derived
from the workflow model.Forms are used to gather user
data input.The process steps for ‘calculate estimated wire
length’,‘calculate sub process yield rates’ and ‘calculate
overall yield’ are realized as operational units on applica-
tion templates.An operation unit represents an algorithm.
The user does not view application templates.The server
processes application templates and the results are sent via
the contextual link to the following page.In this case,the
FirstPassYield page.
4.5.Interface design
Interface design considerations primarily involve creating
an interface according to usability guidelines (Nielsen 1994,
Shneiderman 1997).Figure 7 shows the screen shot for the
DesignSpecificationPage of figure 6.Appropriate input
controls for each design value are provided with units.Note
the total line length values may be left empty and estimated
by the application.The command buttons direct the user
towards either the feasibility check or yield estimation.
Clicking on the yield estimation sends the user inputted
values to the yield template and the yield estimates are
presented in the output FirstPassYield Page shown in figure
Consistency of the interface design in terms of fonts,size,
layout,colors and other presentation elements can be
achieved by defining cascading style sheets (CSS) for the
application.This is especially useful for evolving or
changing sites to ensure that later changes conform to
earlier presentation styles.
The target architecture for the design is a three-tiered
architecture consisting of a web server,application server
and database server,as shown in figure 9.In the three-
tiered architecture the web server handles the HTTP
requests and if the request is for a template then control
is transferred to the application server.The application
server used is cold fusion and contains all of the cold fusion
markup language (CFML) templates and modules that
implement the manufacturability evaluation algorithms.
CFML is a tagged-based language that is interpreted on the
server.Oftentimes,CFML templates include SQL for
dynamically generating content from the database.The
application server queries the databases as needed and
incorporates the query results into the cold fusion template.
The template is processed to generate HTML output that is
returned to the web server.The web server sends the
HTML output in reply to the user request.
A typical interaction with the system would be initiated
by a form submission from the designer to the web server.
The web server passes all the CFML tags to the application
server.The application server processes the CFML tags,
queries the database and then returns a pure HTML
Figure 4.Functional analysis of calculate yield use.
336 R.E.Giachetti
Figure 5.Composition diagram showing the contextual links,information units and pages.
Figure 6.Composition diagram showing the process links for manufacturability evaluation.
Integrating hypermedia design concepts 337
document to the web server.The client (designer) receives
the HTML output.
The models generated during the earlier phases provide
the blueprints for the construction of the web application.
Figure 7.Data entry screen for PCB-MES evaluation.
Figure 8.Results of yield evaluation.
338 R.E.Giachetti
The information model is transformed into a database
schema.The database server contains the data model and
all data.The composition and navigation model define the
hypertext.The process model defines algorithms,which are
programmed in the target language,in this case cold fusion.
The hypertext is contained on the web server.The
application server executes any embedded code from the
This article presented a web application design methodol-
ogy and was illustrated by developing a web application for
manufacturability evaluation of PCBs.The primary con-
tribution of the web application design methodology was it
merged hypermedia authoring concepts with traditional
information systems analysis and design concepts.Explicit
consideration of hypermedia design concepts is important
to take advantage of the navigation and hyperlink
capabilities provided by the web.In the example applica-
tion developed it was shown how a navigation design could
be overlayed on the information model of the DFM
domain.The navigation model enables a natural way for
designers to explore the data based on semantic links
between the data elements as well as links derived from the
workflow process.How to derive navigation links from the
workflow process is a secondary contribution of the
methodology since process links are absent from the extant
hypermedia design methodologies that focus on content-
oriented sites.
The system architecture described is a now common
three-tiered architecture.A benefit of the three-tier system
architecture is the protection of proprietary data and
procedures.Since the client only receives HTML output
and all processing is performed on the server side the
business logic and data is not revealed to the client.Further
authorization could easily be provided for additional
security.The architecture also allows for the incorporation
of data from legacy applications.In the example presented
yield data can be obtained from factory floor quality
control systems.This is possible due to the architectural
separation between the data and application layer.
The web application design methodology has wider
applicability than the manufacturability evaluation system
described in this article.The methodology is appropriate
for the development of web applications that have both a
significant content as well as process elements.The web
application design methodology separates information and
function analysis from composition and navigation design.
The model units let the system designers specify the
composition of the pages and the navigation between
them.The navigational contextual links are derived from
the relationships in the information model and the
workflow described by the functional analysis.This
approach provides a strong integration between the
underlying information and functional content of the
application and the navigation layer used to traverse the
site.The web application design methodology will let
designers to go from ad hoc development of web
applications to a systematic approach that promotes good
design practice.
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