Introductory Thermodynamics - Center for Polymer Studies - Boston ...

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27 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Introductory Thermodynamics

Virtual Molecular Dynamics Institute

Boston University 2002


Linda Culp

Thorndale HS

lculp@thorndale.txed.net


Kathi Hopkins

Robinson HS

kathopkins@aol.com


Introduction


Students will discover energy relationships
& concepts through observation,
experimentation, and application using
Simulab and traditional wet labs.


Abstract molecular concepts are
quantitatively modeled using graphics,
charts, and data lists with variables that can
be manipulated.

Our Goal


Students will gain an understanding of
energy relationships through multiple
learning modes.


Major Concepts


Energy


Potential energy


Kinetic energy


System dynamics


Total energy


Temperature


Law of conservation
of energy



Energy transfer &
pathways


Exothermic and
endothermic reactions.


Heat


Volume


Work


Heat capacity

State Curriculum
Standards


Adheres to TEKS (Texas Essential Knowledge & Skills)
objective for chemistry, physics, & biology.
http://www.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter112/ch112c.html



Assessed by TAKS (Texas Assessment of Knowledge &
Skills)



Follows guidelines of Advanced Placement chemistry,
physics, biology

Intended Audience


Entry level 1
st

year chemistry or physics students


10
th

grade.


Extensions appropriate for Advanced Placement
or Honors Chemistry and Biology


Placement in Curriculum


Basic concepts of energy required in all
sciences


Replace traditional unit


Both wet lab and Simulab.


Prior experience:


Math and reading skills of a typical 9
th

& 10
th

grade
student.


SMD and Excel or Graphical Analysis

Adjustments/Adaptations


Unit proceeds from basic to advanced
concepts.


Advanced levels proceed to enthalpy and
Hess’s Law.


Without computers, teachers may utilize
wet labs, overhead projectors, graph paper,
and graphing calculators.

Time


7


50 minute class periods.



Minimal preparation for computer activities



Preparation of demonstrations & wet labs


varies with situation
-

10 to 15 minutes.

Electronic Equipment
-
optional


PC or Mac


CBL with probes


Graphing calculators


Computer lab to accommodate groups of 2
-
3
students


Data projector to show Simulab demonstrations


VMDL software & Simulab files


Overhead projector


Graphing program: ex: Excel or Graphical
analysis

Teaching Resources


Wet Labs:


Baggie Reaction


Production of Gas in a
syringe


Specific Heat of Metals


Balloon Experiment


Calcium metal


Ammonium
thiocyanate labs




SimuLabs:


VMDL software &
Simulab files


SMD
States of Matter

“Experiment 1A”


SMD player
“temperature.smd”


SMD player “reaction”


SMD “Simulab
Icebreaker”

References



Chemistry

by Steven Zumdahl (4
th

edition) Houghton
Mifflin Co, Boston, Mass. 1997


Flinn Scientific
http://www.flinnsci.com/

(source for chemicals)


Modern Chemistry

Holt Rinehart & Winston, 1993


Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.
Chemical Demonstrations

(Vol 3)
The University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, WI 1989


TAKS
http://www.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter112/ch112c.html


TEKS

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter112/ch112c.html


Virtual Dynamics Laboratory Manuals & Software, Center
for Polymer Studies, Boston University, 2002.


Objectives:


Students will be able to:


Day 1:


Observe changes in energy


Identify different forms of energy


Interpret energy relationships with SMD software


Day 2:



Discover relationships between potential & kinetic
energy


Collect data through computer simulations to
determine the effects of temperature upon energy


Graphically record & analyze collected data to
predict trends



Objectives:


Day 3


Analyze computer models in open systems


Prepare & observe effects of gas production


Compare the SMD models of expanding gases to
experimentally obtained data.


Formulate an hypothesis relating work & energy.


Day 4


Calculate specific heat values


Day 5


Determine specific heat of known metals


Compare experimentally obtained specific heats
with actual values.


Identify unknown metal using experimentally
obtained data.


Objectives:


Day 6


Deduce the effects of high heat capacity of
water on surrounding materials


Day 7


Compare and contrast exothermic and
endothermic reactions


Design and defend a concept map of terms
within the unit.



Unit Timeline &
Instructional Outline


Day One:

Mini Lab



Baggie Reaction

Discussion



Concepts & observations

SMD
-
Player



Intro to simple E, KE, & PE



Day Two:

Discussion



Reflect on prior concepts

Instructions



“Experiment 1a Simulab”

Classwork



Data table & class average graph

Debrief



Simulab results & connections

Unit Timeline


Day Three
:

Discussion


Connections with Law of Conservation




of energy.

SMD Player


Expanding gases, work & conservation




of Energy

Min
-
Lab


Production of gas in syringe

Debrief


Connections between mini lab &





Simulab


Day Four:


Modeling


Problem
-
solving


Assignment


Heat capacity problems


Pre
-
Lab


Specific heat of metals

Unit Timeline


Day 5:

Mini Activity

Expanding gases

Discussion


Connections to prior concepts

Lab



Specific heat of metals

Debrief


Reflect & make connection



Day 6:



Mini Activity


Balloon Experiment


SMD Activity


Virtual Modeling


Debrief


Reflect & make connections

Unit Timeline


Day 7


Mini Lab


Calcium metal/ammonium





thiocyanate


Debrief


Reflect & Make connections


Activity


Concept Map


Presentations


Student presentations

Assessments


Learning journals or lab book record


Student participation rubric


Problem
-
solving assignment showing
accurate work


Lab report rubric


Concept map & presentation

Extensions


Biology


Observe the changes in the potential energy
of a molecule as it moves through a membrane.



See pot_energy
-
membrane.umv



Links:


http://scifun.chem.wisc.edu/HOMEEXPTS/FIREBALL
OON.html


www.science.demon.co.uk/handbook/18.htm


http://bradley.bradley.edu/~campbell/demo.html