Orientation of the Body

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國立台灣大學物理治療學系九十三學年度
/
肌動學

ESSENTIAL TOPI
CS OF HUMAN MOTION


HC
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Sept 11, 2004

3

課程目標


修習本課後
,
學生應可

1.
指出人體的動作平面、動作軸心、

2.
使用人體動作學的詞彙描述動作

3
.
了解位移、速度、加速度間的相關性,及對動作的意義

4
.
分辨直線運動與角動運動間的差別,及人體動作之歸屬


Readings:

1.

Neumann, DA
,
2002
:
pp.4
-
11

2.

Luttgens

& Hamilton 2002:

Chap1
1



Orientation of the Body


A. Reference planes of the body

1. definition
:

to describe planes of human motion in the context of a person standing in the
anatomical position


location

bisecting the body into

sagittal plane (median plane)

vertically from
front to back

right/ left

frontal plane (coronal plane)

vertically from side to side

anterior/ posterior

transverse plane (horizontal plane)

horizontal to the body

upper/ lower


2. cardinal plane: the plane where the center of mass

(COM)

passes through

when an individual
stands in the
anatomic position


B. Axes of
rotation

1. definition
:

the pivot point for an
angular motion
, usually located through the convex member
of the joint


direction

perpendicular to

sagittal axis (anteroposterior axis)

horizontally from front to back

frontal plane

frontal axis (transverse axis)

horizontally from side to side

sagittal plane

vertical

axis

perpendicular to the ground

transverse plane


國立台灣大學物理治療學系九十三學年度
/
肌動學

ESSENTIAL TOPI
CS OF HUMAN MOTION


HC
\
Kines0
4
\
k
Motion
0
4
.doc

Sept 11, 2004

4

2.
Although the three orthogonal axes are depicted as stationary, in reality, each axis of all joints
in human body migrates throughout the range of motion because the articular surfaces of the
joint are

not reciprocally shaped as a perfect sphere









3. longitudinal axis


axis that extends within and parallel to a long bone or body segment



D
escription of
Human M
otion


A
.
Description of

body segments

1. upper extremity (arm): upper arm + forearm + hand

2. lower extremity (leg): thigh + low leg + foot

3. trunk: chest and
upper back + abdomen and low back

4. head and neck



B. Description of motion direction

1.
anterior vs. posterior

--

front vs. back

--

forward vs. backward

2.
medial vs. lateral

--

left vs. right

--

toward vs. away

--

inward vs. outward

3.
superior
vs. inferior

--

upper vs. lower

--

cranial vs. caudal

--

top vs. bottom

--

proximal vs. distal

國立台灣大學物理治療學系九十三學年度
/
肌動學

ESSENTIAL TOPI
CS OF HUMAN MOTION


HC
\
Kines0
4
\
k
Motion
0
4
.doc

Sept 11, 2004

5

C
. Description of motion

1.
kicking: the leg moves forward in the sagittal plane about a frontal axis

2.
turning the head: the head moves around a vertical ax
is in the horizontal plane

3.
diagonal movement: the movement occurs in a plane which is not parallel to any cardinal
planes, for example, ankle motions



Motions O
ccurring

i
n the Body Plane


A. Movements in the sagittal plane about a frontal axis

1. flexi
on: the angle of a joint becomes smaller

2. extension: the angle of a joint becomes larger

3. hyperextension: extension goes beyond the anatomic reference position

4. dorsiflexion/ plantarflexion: used for ankle
or foot
movements

5. forward/ backward bendi
ng: used for trunk movements

6. nutation/ counternutation: used for sacroiliac movements


B. Movements in the frontal plane about a sagittal axis

1. abduction: the distal segment moves away from the midline of the body

2. adduction: the distal segment move
s towards the midline of the body

3. exception: finger or toe movements

4. lateral flexion
: used for neck or trunk movements

5. radial deviation/ ulnar deviation
: used for wrist movements

6.
inversion/ eversion
: used for foot movements


C. Movements in the

transverse plane about a vertical axis

1. external rotation (lateral rotation): the anterior surface of the distal segment moves outwards

2. internal rotation (medial rotation) : the anterior surface of the distal segment moves inwards

3. supination/ pron
ation
: used for forearm or foot movements

4.
abduction/ adduction
: used for foot or toes movements


D. Nonaxial movements

movements in a plane joint, such as the facet joints of the spine



國立台灣大學物理治療學系九十三學年度
/
肌動學

ESSENTIAL TOPI
CS OF HUMAN MOTION


HC
\
Kines0
4
\
k
Motion
0
4
.doc

Sept 11, 2004

6

E. Movements in a combination of planes

1. circumduction: the dist
al segment follows the surface of a cone and the tip of the segment
trace a circular path

2. finger opposition


F. Thumb movements

1. flexion/extension in the palmar plane

2. abduction/ adduction in a plane perpendicular to the palm



Types of Motion


A. D
efinition of motion

1. motion: the act or process of changing place or position with respect to some reference point
(
Luttgens

&

Hamilton
, 2002, p.284)

2.
rest vs. motion:
depend
ing

on the reference point

3. absolute motion vs. relative motion
: depending o
n the reference system

4. Newton

s law

--

Law of Inertia


--

Law of Acceleration


F = ma

--

Law of Reaction


B.
Classification based on

path of motion

1. translatory motion (linear motion, translation)
:
a motion that the object moves as a whole in a
straight path from one place to another

--

linea
r (rectilinear)

motion
: a straight
-
line progression of an object as a whole with all of its
parts moving the same distance in the same direction at a uniform rate of speed

--

curvilinear

motion
: a curved progression of an object

--

circular motion:

a spe
cial form of curvilinear motion, which is the motion when a body
moves along a circumference of a circle






國立台灣大學物理治療學系九十三學年度
/
肌動學

ESSENTIAL TOPI
CS OF HUMAN MOTION


HC
\
Kines0
4
\
k
Motion
0
4
.doc

Sept 11, 2004

7

2. rotary motion (angular motion, r
o
tation):
a motion
that the object moves in an arc about a fixed point


--

angular motion


--

spin

C.
Class
ification based on repetition of motion

1. Single motion
: movement performed only once

2.
Repeated motion
:
same movement pattern that is
done many times in a given time

--

reciprocating motion

--

oscillation

--

pendulum motion


D.
Classification based on
degree of freedom

1.
degree of freedom

(DOF)


a minimum number of kinematic variables required to specified
all positions and orientations of the body segments in a body system i.e.

--

the num
ber of planes in which the segments move

--

the number of the primary axes which the segments possess

2. T
he joint that moves in one plane possesses one axis and has one degree of freedom

3.
For the glenohumeral joint, there are three angular degrees of

freedom and t
hree linear
degrees of freedom.


E.
Classification based on relative segment kinematics

1.
kinematic chain
:

a series of connected segment links

2.
open kinematic chain motion
:

the joint motion with the distal
segment moves free in space, e.g. raising lower
leg or throwing a ball

3.
closed kinematic chain motion
:

the
joint motion with the distal
segment is fixed, e.g. standing up
or squatting down

4.
In Neumann's book,
"
distal
-
on
-
prox
imal segment
kinematics
" and
"
proximal
-
on
-
distal segment kinematics
" were used in stead of open and closed kinematic
chain motion, respectively (Neumann 2002, p.7).

國立台灣大學物理治療學系九十三學年度
/
肌動學

ESSENTIAL TOPI
CS OF HUMAN MOTION


HC
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Kines0
4
\
k
Motion
0
4
.doc

Sept 11, 2004

8

F.
Clas
sification based on presence of muscle contraction

1.
active motion
:

the motion that is caused by muscle contraction

2.
passive motion
:

the motion that is created by sources other than muscle, such as from gravity


G.
Classification based on joint kinematics

1.
osteokinematic movement


mov
ements between 2 bony segments

2.
arhtrokinematic movement


movements between 2 articular surfaces



Kinematic Description of Motion


A. Linear kinematics

1. displacement

(d)
: th
e vector that indicate the distance and direction an object moves from the
reference point

--

amplitude


distance

--

direction

2. velocity

(v)
: rate of change in displacement

--

amplitude


speed

--

direction

3. acceleration

(a)
: rate of change in
veloci
ty

4. relationship between displacement,
velocity, and acceleration

x

= v
0
t + (1/2)at
2


v = v
0

+ at

average velocity = (v
0

+ v) / 2


B. Angular kinematics

1. angular displacement
:



+ (1/2)



t
2

2. angular velocity
:



=
d



/ dt =


0

+


t

3. angular acceleration
:



= d


/ d
t

4. linear and angular
conversion

for a angular motion


=
d

/

r



= v / r



= a /
r

國立台灣大學物理治療學系九十三學年度
/
肌動學

ESSENTIAL TOPI
CS OF HUMAN MOTION


HC
\
Kines0
4
\
k
Motion
0
4
.doc

Sept 11, 2004

9

Factors That Modify Motion


A.
Extrinsic factors

1. g
ravit
ation for
ce

1
g = 9.81 m/s
2

= 32 ft/s
2


weight (
W
)

= m

g = 9.81
m

2
.
c
ontact forces

a
. normal reaction force

b.
friction force

3
.
f
luid force

a.
buoyancy

b.
drag

c.
lift

B.
Intrinsic factors

1.
friction between articular surface
s

a.
minimized by synovial fluid

b.
Synovial membrane is affected in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Patients would
suffer from pain when the affected joints move.

c.
tension of antagonistic muscles, ligaments, fasciae, and capsules

--

Antagonistic structures are tight in pati
ents with joint contracture. The range of motion
decreases in that joint.

d.
anomalies of bone and joint

e. at
mospheric pressure within the joint capsule

f.
presence of interfering muscle bulk or adipose tissues