Year 12 Psychology Semester 2

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1










Year 12 Psychology


Semester 2

Area of Study 2: Memory

By
Anastasia

Frantseva
,
Belinda

Kirwan
,

Catherine

Hanse
n
,
Matthew
Holt
and Maryanne
Caridakis











Subject
:
Learning are
a:

Psychology 2


Seminar Leader:
Karen Marangio

Assessment:
Assignment 2


Resource
Booklet

Date Due:
25
th

October
, 2010


2


Contents Page


1.

Mechanism of Memory Formation:

1.1

Role of neuron in memory formation i
nformed by
the
w
ork of E. Richard Kandel

1.2

Roles of the hippocampus and t
emporal Love

1.3

Consolidation theory

1.4

Memory
Decline Over the Lifespan

1.5

Amnesia resulting from brain trauma and neurodegenerative d
iseases Including
dementia and
Alzheimer’s disease


2.

Comparison of Models for Explaining Human Memory:

2.1

Atkinson
-
Shiffrin’s multi
-
store model of

memory including maintenanc
e & elaborative
rehearsal, serial position effect and chunking

2.2

Alan Baddley and Graham Hitch’
s model of working memory: central executive, phonological
loop, visuo
-
spatial sketchpad, episodic buffer

2.3

Levels of processing as informed by Fergus Craik and Robe
rt Lockhart

2.4

Organisation of long
-
term memory including declarative and episodic memory, and semantic
network theory


3.

Strengths and Limitations of Psychological Theories of Forgetting:

3.1

Retrieval failure theory including tip
-
of
-
the
-
tongue phenomenon

3.2

Interfer
ence theory

3.3

Motivated forgetting as informed by the work of Sigmund Freud including repression and
suppression

3.4

Decay theory


4



Manipulation and Improvement of Memory:

4.1

Forgetting curve as informed by the work of Hermann Ebbinghaus

4.2

Measures of retention

including relative sensitivity of recall, recognition and relearning

4.3

Use of context dependent cues and state dependent cues

4.4

Mnemonic devices including acronyms, acrostics, peg
-
word method, narrative chaining and
method of loci

4.5

Effect of misleading question
s on eye
-
witness testimonies including the reconstructive nature
of memory informed by the work of El
izabeth Loftus


5.

Introduction
Memory
Activities

6.

Revision
Memory
Activities











3


Activities

Title
:
1.3.
Consolidation Theory

Type of Activity
: This an informal activity which could have many uses


a revision activity, homework
task, in class activity, or an informal assessment task to diagnose student learning.

Link to Dot Point
: 1.3 Mechanisms of memory formation


consolidation theory

Class

Time Required
: 15 minutes

Previous Knowledge
: Students should have basic understanding of the mechanisms of memory
formation as well as the different stores of memory.

Materials/ Resources/ Requirements
: None

Activity
:

Consolidation Theory

-

Three Predic
tions









Consolidation Theory states that memories are processed by the brain in ___________
-
_________
memory and then stored as long
-
term memories due to the production of proteins in the
___________.

Once stored, these memory traces are said to be ‘fixed
’ or ‘consolidated’ in the brain. The
________________________ seems to play an important role in the establishment of new memories
and their temporary storage. It directs the memories into the ______________
-

this is where long
-
term memories are believed

to be retrieved from.

Precautions/ Sensitivities/ Ethics
: None

Evaluation
: This task is mainly concentrated on lower order thinking skills. The boxes are good for
visual learners while the cloze section would benefit verbal learners.

References
: Adapted

from Haileybury Keysborough Senior Scho
ol Campus Psychology Department

Mental Inactivity assists
Consolidation.


Give an example:

If processing of information is
interrupted then the item will
not be stored.


Give an example:

If consolidation is prevented,
then an item can never be
recalled.


Give an example:


4


Title
:
1.5.
Amnesia

Type of Activity
: This is an informal activity and is a quick worksheet for students to complete. It can
be homework or in class end
-
of
-
lesson activity. Students fi
ll out the table and colour in the section of
the arrows which relate to either retrograde or anterograde amnesia.

Link to Dot Point
: 1.5

Mechanism of memory formation


amnesia resulting from brain trauma and
neurodegenerative diseases including dementia

and Alzheimer’s disease

Class Time Required
: 15 minutes

Previous Knowledge
: Students should have basic knowledge of mechanisms of memory formation.

Materials/ Resources/ Requirements
: None

Activity
:

Damage to

Type of Amnesia:

Anterograde?

Retrograde?

Unable to form new
memories? Or retrieve old
memories?

Hippocampus



Cerebral Cortex







__________________ Amnesia

Onset of Amnesia

__________________ Amnesia


5


Precautions/ Sensitivities/ Ethics
: This activity should not encounter any difficulties with sensitivities
or precautions.

Evaluation
: The activity is simple and quick to administer. These type of activities are great for
teachers because they are easy to administer and check student unde
rstandings after a topic has
been taught.

References
: Adapted from Haileybury Keysborough Senior School Campus Psychology Department.


Title:
Comparison of models for explaining human memory

Type of Activity:
This is an informal mind
-
map that can have man
y applications; it can be an in class
activity where students fill out the boxes upon learning a new concept, for homework, or as revision
for students to hang up at home.

Link to Dot Point:
1.3,

2.1,2,3,4, 4.2

Class Time Required:
20
-
25 minutes

Previous
Knowledge:
Area of study 2: Memory

Materials/ Resources/ Requirements:
None

Activity:

Comparison of models

for explaining human memory map.PDF

Precautions/ Sensitivities/ Ethics:
This task should not encounter any difficulties.

Evaluation:
This mind
-
map is an excellent way to recap or revise all of the components because it
places all of the information in one

accessible place for students. This is especially good for visual
-
spatial learners who prefer visual representations of information.

References:
Adapted from Haileybury Keysborough Senior School Campus Psychology Department.


Title
:
2.1.
Serial Position
Effect (SPE)

Type of Activity
: This is an informal activity which could be used in class before conducting an
experiment on SPE to demonstrate student understanding of content or after the experiment to
consolidate learning. It could also be a homework tas
k.

Link to Dot Point
: 2.1 Comparison of models for explaining human memory


Atkinson
-
Shiffrin’s
multi
-
store model of memory including maintenance and elaborative rehearsal, serial position effect
and chunking.

Class Time Required
: 20 minutes

Previous Kn
owledge
: An understanding of short
-
term or working memory and on Atkinson
-
Shiffrin’s
SPE if the task is set for homework instead of conducted in class.


6


Materials/ Resources/ Requirements
: None

Activity
:


Serial Position Effect

The Serial Position Effect (
Atkinson and Shiffrin 1971) states that material at the
_________________________ and at the __________ of a list is recalled much more frequently than
items in the __________ of the list.


When plotting the serial position effect
a typical graph would look like
:









Give an example of the Primacy Effect:



Give an
example of the Recency Effect:



What happens to the Primacy or Recency effect if we have to perform a small mental task after a list
of items is presented?




1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Serial Presentation Position

Probability of recall

1






0.5






0

Y

X


7




Carpet



Jacket



Sparrow



Hairnet



Coastline



Garden



London



Tarmac



Clouds



Poker



Computer



Picture



Tower



Seaside



Chicken



Tennis



Mother



Bottle



County



Alcohol

What happens to the Primacy or Recency effect if there is a delay between presentation and recal
l?



Precautions/ Sensitivities/ Ethics
: None

Evaluation
: This task is quite good because it asks for lower order thinking skills but students have to
apply that knowledge to fill in the graph which is also beneficial because it exposes students to data
te
chniques. The graph is also beneficial for mathematical learners while the questions are good for
verbal learners.

References
: Adapted from Haileybury Keysborough Senior School Campus Psychology Department.


Title
: 2.1. Multi
-
store Model of Memory Activit
y

Type of Activity
: This is an informal activity
-

Group Task


Experiment (interpersonal learning)

Class Time Required
: 15 minutes

Previous Knowledge:

The students would have had lessons on mechanisms of memory formation
prior to this activity. The stud
ents will need to know the rules behind conducting experiments.

Link to Dot Point:
2.1.
Atkinson
-
Shiffrin’s multi
-
store model of memory including maintenance &
elaborative rehearsal, serial position effect and chunking

Material/Resources/Requirements
(time to set up):

PowerPoint presentation which includes the
words required for this experiment and information about the mnemonic devices and how they can
be used; projector; computer

Activity
:



Get the students to memorise as many words as they
can. Let them know that the
y have 3 minutes to do this.
After they have done so, the students can write the
words down


they have as much time as they need to
do this. Show the list of words to the students again and
ask how many words each student got right and write
their results

on the white board. Discuss the methods
which the students could use to improve their results
(e.g. method of loci; story which links all the words
together meaningfully; grouping items in meaningful
way; mnemonic
device; rhyming; linking images with word
s). Repeat the
same activity but now each student has to use one of the discussed ways to help them improve their
scores.


8


Precautions/Sensitivities/Ethics
: The students should be informed that they do not have to
participate in this experiment and can wit
hdraw at any time during the experiment with no
explanation.

Evaluation/ in general/ further ideas/ alternatives/ homework/ extension activities):

This activity is a fun way to show the students how much different the mnemonic devices make in
remembering

a list of words. This is a useful activity as it will also help the students to remember the
words through meaningful linking of the words with the prior knowledge and not just memorise the
words randomly. The students should be told to prepare pen and pa
per so that they could write the
words down quickly. Informed consent forms may also be necessary in this activity for the students
who are under the age of 18. This activity should be completed during the lesson on Multi
-
store
Model of Memory.

References
:

http://www.psychexchange.co.uk/index.php


Title
: 2.1. Support for Sensory Store Activity

Type of Activity
: This is an informal activity
-

experiment (interpersonal learning)

Class Time required
: 20

minutes

Previous Knowledge
: the students would have had lessons on mechanisms of memory formation and
would be aware of the biology behind the memory formation.

Material/ Resources/ Requirements (time to set up):

In order to complete this experiment the
class
the teacher will need to display the table with letters and numbers on a PowerPoint. It is also
important that the teacher has 3 types of tones (high, mid and low pitched tones). The set up for this
activity should take no longer than 5 minutes.

Ac
tivity
:






Inform the students that they will see a series of
letters and numbers for a very limited time. Tell the
students that they will be asked to recall all

of the
items. Show the table with numbers and letters for 3
seconds. Get students to write down the answers.
Discuss what this tells us: that there is a sensory
memory store. But the information in the sensory
store does not last very long. After you have

discussed
this, tell the students that they will again see a series
of letters and numbers for a very limited time. Inform
the students that they will be asked to recall the top
of the line if they hear a high tone, middle of the line
4

9

B

S

L

F

6

5

G

7

T

3


9


if they hear a mid
-
t
one and bottom line if they hear a high tone. The students will then be shown the
table and need to write their answers down. Discuss Sperling’s findings and conclusions.

Precautions/ Sensitivities/ Ethics
: The students should be debriefed after the compl
etion of the
experiment. The students should also be allowed to withdraw from the experiment at any time with
no explanation.

Evaluation/ in general/ further ideas/ alternatives/ homework/ extension activities):

This activity could be used as an introduct
ion to Sperling’s research and sensory store model. This
could open up a great discussion about how this experiment supports the sensory store model and
the limitations and benefits of this study and how the experiment could have been improved. The
student
s will be more confident with describing this experiment after they have done it themselves.

References:
http://www.psychexchange.co.uk/index.php


Title
: 2.2. Working
Memory Song

Type of Activity
: This is an informal revision activity
(m
usical learning is tested)

Class Time required
: 10 minutes


the students should be explained that they should follow the
words on the screen just like a Karaoke.

Previous Knowledge
:
Prior to learning this working memory song, the students would have learned
about working memory model.

Link to Dot Point
: 3.1. Alan Baddley and Graham Hitch’s model of working memory: central
executive, phonological loop, visuo
-
spatial sketchpad, episodic

buffer

Material/ Resources/ Requirements (time to set up):

copy of the words to the song given to every
student, computer, projector and speakers. This activity would take 5 minutes to set up. The teacher
needs to make sure that the speakers and projector

work well.

Activity
:
Working Memory Song

(click on the link in order to play the song)


Central executive controls the slave systems not much is
known

it lasts a few seconds its modality free it has limited
storage it’s a vital part of the working model. Baddeley and
Hitch, Baddeley and Hitch they made this plan except the
episodic buffer which was added in two thousand. Baddeley
and Hitch Baddeley and
Hitch they made this plan. It’s rather
complex but easy to remember if you remember this song.
Phonological loop has 2 parts to it the articulatory loop which
does verbal rehearsal. The phonological store is the second
part to it sorts out all other acoust
ic information memory.
__________________ Amnesia


10


Baddeley and Hitch, Baddeley and Hitch they made this plan.
Except the episodic buffer which was added in two thousand.
Baddeley and Hitch, Baddeley and Hitch made this plan. It’s
rather complex but easy to remember if you learn this

song.
The visuo spatial sketchpad is in charge of visual images
spatial awareness too both these components send info to
LTM and its processes by the episodic buffer to get sorted into
chunks which we can then recover. Baddeley and Hitch
Baddeley and Hitc
h they made this plan except the episodic
buffer which was added in two thousand. Baddeley and Hitch,
Baddeley and Hitch made this plan. It’s rather complex but
easy to remember if you learn this song.

Precautions/ Sensitivities/ Ethics
: Students should be

given a choice with this activity


if they do not
feel comfortable singing in front of other students, they can choose not to sing along.

Evaluation/ in general/ further ideas/ alternatives/ homework/ extension activities):

You can get
the students to
sing this song after the lesson on working memory and in other lessons as well. This
song is fun to sing and the students can have a laugh while singing it. It tends to really get stuck in
your head and hopefully the students will be singing it in their he
ads during the end of the year
psychology exam to help them remember all the definitions and terms of the working memory. The
students should also be provided with the words to the song in case they feel more comfortable if
they have the words in front of
them. This song would appeal to the learning of students who enjoy
music and have musical talents. This activity will also challenge students who do not usually do music
learning activity.

References
:
http://www.psychexchange.co.uk/index.php


Title
: 2.3. Experiment to investigate the relationship between STM & LTM: a replication of Murdock’s
(1962) serial position effect

Type of Activity
: This is an

informal learning activity
-

replication experiment


group work
(interpersonal learning)

Class Time required
: the whole lesson (60 minutes) is required in order to complete the experiment
and write up the results of the experiment

Previous Knowledge
: in

the previous lesson the students would have looked at maintenance
rehearsal and elaborative rehearsal models of human memory

Material/ Resources/ Requirements (time to set up)
:
none





11




Activity
:

Conducting the experiment


Write a list of 10 words


make sure all the words are roughly the same length & level of difficulty.
Try not to use any words that are too unusual


as this will make them easy to remember.

Get your participants to read the list of words through once (
Tip: you need to get approx. 20
participants to gain a significant result)

Participants then have to write down as many words as they can remember


in any order.


NB: It is often a good idea to have two word lists


this way we can be sure that the findings are due
to the position of the words and not the words themselves.


The write
-

up

You must now write up your findings. Your experimental report must include t
he following:


Title: a clear and precise description of your topic (eg;
“An investigation into whether performing in
front of an audience improves our ability to solve a puzzle.”)

Introduction
-

Background Research: Find one piece of previous psychologic
al research which is
relevant to your investigation and describe it. (eg: Murdock’s (1962) serial position effect)

Introduction
-
Hypothesis: State your experimental hypothesis (either directional or non
-
directional).
Both must be operationalised and the
IV and DV must be evident.

Methodology Section : Use the following sub
-
heading to describe precisely what you did



Design: Was it a repeated measure or independent groups? Which design did you choose and why?

Sampling: How did you select your particip
ants? Give some details of who they were/ how
many/where from/ what genders/ age range etc. Include the
sampling method

you used (ie;
Random, Opportunity or volunteer)

Materials: List the materials and/or apparatus you used to carry out your experiment
.


12


Procedure: Give a clear description of exactly how you carried out your experiment


where/when/instructions and what you measured.

Results Section: You must present your data using tables, visual displays (ie graphs) and verbal
summaries. You must c
alculate measures of central tendency and dispersion of the data. You must
end this section with a conclusion of what your results mean.

Evaluation: Explain how you could make any changes/improvements to your research, and suggest
what effect these chang
es would have on the results. You may wish to consider the sample, design,
materials, procedures etc.


Precautions/ Sensitivities/ Ethics:

The participants (students) should be debriefed after the
experiment is completed. The students should also have the

right to withdraw from the experiment
at any time without an explanation.

Evaluation/ in general/ further ideas/ alternatives/
homework/ extension activities
):

This activity can be done after or during learning about Murdock’s (1962) Serial Position Eff
ect. The
experiment should be done by the teacher however the write up should be completed by every
student in the class and then handed in. This is a great introduction/revision of the Research Methods
topic which the students will be examined on at the e
nd of the year. The students work together with
the class in completion of this experiment so this activity helps them develop group work skills. An
alternative activity could be


instead of the teacher running the whole activity, the students could
perfo
rm this experiment on other students from different classes. However you would require
informed consent forms from their parents for this activity.

References
:
http://www.psychexchange.co.uk/index.php


Title
: 2.3. Craik and Lockhart Levels of Processing Theory of Memory

Type of Activity
: Short answer questions


revision/homework/extension activity
.

This activity is
informal.

Asking short answer questions tests higher order thinking than just a multiple choice test

would
.


Class Time required
: 40 minutes

Material/ Resources/ Requirements (time to set up):

none

Link to Dot Point
:
2.3. Levels of processing as informed by Fergus
Craik and Robert Lockhart

Previous Knowledge
: The students should have learned about the different levels of processing
theory of memory based on the work of Craik and Lockhart prior to this revision/ homework activity.

Activity
:


13


Craik and Lockhart Levels

of Processing Theory of Memory

1. Match the following sentences to the level of processing that they represent



The four factors which influence how deeply we process information are:

Personal Relevance

Elaboration

Effort

Distinctiveness

(it may help you to remember this if you think of ‘peed’

)

give

an example of a ‘visual’ question, then rewrite it so that it would make it of personal relevance
to someone

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………..

Craik and Tulving found that the more complex/elaborate a sentence was, the more memorable it
became


True / False

(please circle the appropriate answer)

Taking the first letter of the three levels of processing: V A S, change these i
nto a funny or
memorable phrase to help you remember the three levels

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...........................
...........................................................................................................
...............................................
.........
Visual/Structural

Auditory/Phonetic

Semantic/Meaning

It’s got four legs, udders and it
moos. Does this describe a cow?

PENCIL

Is

this written in
capital letter
s
?

Does ‘true’ rhyme with ‘clue?


14


.............................................................................................................................
......................................
...............


Which of the followi
ng is a criticism/limitation of the Levels of Processing Theory?

a) The model of too simplistic and doesn’t explain why we can recall things that we have rehearsed
but sometimes not things that we have rehearsed

b) There is no independent way to verify how

deep the processing actually is beyond whether the
information can be recalled or not

c) It suggests that there is nothing in between short
-
term and long
-
term memory. However, evidence
shows that information can reside somewhere between the extremes of ac
tive attention and long
-
term storage

5. The levels of processing approach provides a model that can be applied to improving memory.
Imagine you are giving advice to a friend on the best way to revise for their exams. Using this model
of memory give four id
eas they can use to improve their revision. N.B. the first one is done for you as
an example.

1.
Don’t worry if a topic seems difficult because the more you have to think about it to work it out, the
more likely you will be to remember it

2…………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………….........................
.............................................................................................................................
......................................
..................................
....................................................................................................................
.........
....

3…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….........................
..................................................
.................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................
..................
.......
.............

4…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….........................
.............................................................................................................................
..................................
....
.............................................................................................................................
.........................
.............

Answers:

Semantic/Meaning

Visual/Structural

Auditory/Phonetic

B) True

C
)

The rest of the

answers are up to the students to answer as the examples will vary


15



Evaluation/ in general/ further ideas/ alternatives/
homework/ extension activities
):

This is an
activity which can be used as revision/ homework or
an
extension activity of Craik and Lockhart
Levels of Processing Theory of Memory. The students should bring this work sheet back for the next
lesson and hand it in so that the teacher is aware that they have completed the activity. This work
sheet should be
handed out at the end of the lesson on Craik and Lockhart Levels of Processing
Theory of Memory. The answers should be discussed with the whole class.

References
:
http://www.psychexchange.co.uk/inde
x.php


Activity 1

3.2, 2.4

Title
:
Research Investigation (750
-
1000 words) SAC Assessed 25%

Type of Activity
: Investigating the Phenomena of the Stroop Effect.

The assessment task is designed to support the guidelines set out within the VCAA Psychology
Assessment Handbook 2011
-
2014.

Students are expected to:



undertake investigations and demonstrate scientific inquiry



select, apply and communicate relevant psychological information and understandings



have the opportunity to demonstrate the highest level
of performance.



understand the steps involved in scientific investigation


Class Time required
: it is expected this SAC would take up to 2 weeks to administer, break down their
data, submit draft copies and write up the report.

Previous Knowledge
: It is expected that students are aware of the comparison of models for
explaining human memory, including Craik and Lockhart’s theory of memory , the organisation of
long
-
term memory including declarative, episodic and semantic network theory, and are in
formed of
the interference theory of forgetting. Additionally, students link some of the above theories to their
research investigation.

Students should have some background knowledge of psychological research (year 11) , writing a
research report and unde
rstanding ethical considerations when administering research.

Background for teachers: About the Stroop effect introduction.

Interference

refers to difficulties in retrieving information from memory, caused by other material
learned either previously,
proa
ctive interference
or, subsequently,
retroactive interference
. This
theory proposes that of one set of information in the memory competes with another set of
information. Interference is likely to be most pronounced when the two sets of material are very
s
imilar the stroop effect is an effective research for students to gain greater understanding of
memory

Option 1.


16


From the earliest years of school, reading is a task that people practice every day.

We become so good at it that we read words automatically
. When we are asked to name the color
of

the word instead of reading the word, somehow the automatic reading of the word interferes with
naming the color of the word.

Option 2.

When experienced readers look at a commonly used word, they automatically remem
ber how to
pronounce it and its meaning. For experienced readers, this process has become so automatic that it
is hard for them to look at a work and not think of its name.

This is demonstrated in a well
-
known study which identified a phenomenon known as
the Stroop
effect (Stroop 1935). Current theories on the Stroop effect emphasize the
interference

that
automatic processing of words has on the more "effortful" task of just naming the colors. The
interference effect provides scientists with a measurable
means to investigate how the brain works.
By manipulating the stimuli used for the test in various ways, you can find out what types of thinking
tasks interfere with other thinking tasks.

Example
: Here's an experiment for you. Look at this word : dog. Is i
t possible for you not to read the
word "dog?" Probably not. Most of us are so well trained to read printed words that we simply
cannot ignore them, even if we try. It turns out that we can read words faster, and more
automatically, than we can name colors
. If a word is written in a color different from the colour it
actually names; for example, if the word "
red
" is written
in green we will say the word "red" more
readily than we can name the colour in which it is written, which in this case is "green." The

words
themselves have a strong influence over our ability to say the colour. The interference between the
different information (what the words say and the colour of the words) your brain receives, causes a
problem.

This research Investigation will addre
ss the following:

1.

The interference occurs because words are read faster than colours are named.

2.

The interference occurs because naming colours requires more attention than reading words.

3.

The Stroop effect demonstrates just how hard it can be to suppress a
n implicit memory when
an appropriate stimulus cue is presented.


Material/ Resources/ Requirements (time to set up):

see below.

Note: If teachers require additional information ,

this ‘you tube’ clip introduces implicit memory nicely.
It is Dr. Maryellen Hamilton discussing implicit memory and how it is measured in the laboratory. Link:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KAkkA
yX5JT8

(
Dr. Hamilton is an Associate Professor of the
Psychology Department at Saint Peter's College).


Procedure

The student is the researcher in this investigation and will conduct the investigation by administering
the ‘Stroop’ task to 5 participants.
Participant could include: other students in the class, teachers,
family members and friends.

Materials and Equipment

To do this experiment student will need:


17




Three sheets of cardstock supplied ( see appendix)

o

Two pages of colour words will be supplied fo
r use in the experiment and one page of
black and white words for a control condition. Each page has the 20 sequences of five
colour words (red, blue, green, brown, purple) printed in pseudo
-
random order.

o

Page two has colour words printed in matching colo
ur ink.

o

Page three has colour words printed in different colour ink (five examples of each
different colour).



Five envelopes per participant.



Pens



Stopwatch



Marking Sheet to record time of naming the colour.



5 Volunteers to take a simple colour
-
naming
test

Experiment Overview

Research Investigation demonstrating the Stroop Effect.

Students need to:



Do background research to gain knowledge about the terms, concepts, and questions this
study raises.



Understand what is expected for a high grade taken fro
m the rubric (appendix)



Know their ethical requirements, such as informed consent, deception, confidentiality,
withdrawal rights and deception.



Informed consent forms need to be signed by volunteers and collected

Procedure.

Students administering the test
:



Informed consent form signed by volunteer



Get volunteer data: Age, and Gender, (no names)



Do they have vision problems or reading problems or suffer colour blindness? If so find a new
participant. You want your participants to have good vision and
reading ability.



Get informed consent and confidentiality agreement signed. If participant will not sign the
informed consent please do not continue.

For each volunteer, instruct them on what they are supposed to do in the test



You will be given cards cont
aining a sequence of words printed in black and white and
then coloured ink.



The ink colours used are red, blue, green, brown, and purple.



The task is to call out the ink colour of each word as quickly as possible without making
a mistake.




Set out your test:

o

Control condition: place the black and white words of colours in front of the volunteer.

o

Start your stop watch and ask the volunteer to name all the words as quickly as they
can.

o

Repeat for condition 2 and 3.

Record on your marking shee
t:




Time how long it takes for the volunteer to name the colours of the black and white words.
This is your control condition.



Time how long it takes for the volunteer to name the colours of the non
-
matching words.


18




Time how long it takes for the volunteer

to name the colours of the matching words.



For half of the volunteers, reverse the order and have them name the colours of the matching
words first.

In class time:



Calculate the average ( mean) time to name the colours for each word list.



Calculate the time
difference

for each volunteer (i.e., non
-
matching word time minus the
matching word time). Then calculate the average difference for the group of volunteers.



Students complete descriptive statistics such as means and standard deviations

on the age of
participants.



Calculate mean and standard deviation of results of the task

o

Condition 1: black and white words

o

Condition 2: non
-
matching (non
-
congruent) ink colour to word

o

Condition 3: matching (congruent) ink colour.

o

Condition between 2 and
3.



Make bar graphs to illustrate your results.



Limitations and ethical considerations



Reference list



Draft copy to be handed in and assessed informally.

Report needs to include:

Introduction :



Reasons for your study. What other research has been done in t
his area and what have their
results been? What have other studies found for you to expect the same in your study?



Could you replicate these results?



Outline other studies on the Stroop Effect,



What theories are involved: explain what interference theory

is.



What is your hypothesis?



Independent and dependent variables

Method:



Participants


how you selected them, randomly selecting volunteers, convenient sample
etc. Note where did the participants come from: school, home etc.



Material
-

what did you use.



Procedure


how did you do it?

Results



Descriptive statistics: mean age of group (5), gender of participants



Graph depicting the times it took the participant to correctly name the colour.



Condition: 1, 2 and 3, and the difference between 2 and 3. ( 4 gra
phs in total)



The results section has no discussion of data.

Discussion



Was your hypothesis supported?



If yes, why do you think this, try and link it back to your theories.



If no, why do you think, link it to theory, limitations of the study, such as small

sample study.



Discuss your findings



Were there any limitation or extraneous variables affected the results?



Conclusion

Reference list


4 references or more.



In alphabetical order and indented to look like this:


19


Cahill & Freeman (2007).

Creating school environments that promote social and emotional
wellbeing.
School and Diversity, 2
nd

Ed.

Pp. 90
-
107. Australia: Pearson Education.



APA style

Appendix










Raw data



Stroop words

Precautions/ Sensitivities
:

Colour blind participants, vision impaired or difficulty reading.

Ethics: Students need to be diligent to have all consent forms signed and put into the appendix.
Confidentiality, coerciveness could be issues that need to be considered due to the closenes
s of the
researcher (student) with the volunteer/participant.

Evaluation

This experiment is easy to administer and not time consuming. It can provide students with an
opportunity to be the main investigator,

in the hope this results in students gaining greater
understanding of experimental methods, report write
-
ups, data analysis, limitations and ethical
considerations. This research would support the teaching of interference and implicit memory and
could be
linked to many of the key knowledge areas of study 2. Memory, psychology 3&4.

Having students hand in a draft form of the report will assist students to correct and improve their
final copy of the report.

Options include once the students have compiled th
eir data of their 5 participants, the teacher could
then group the students into 3 or 4 and combine the data of the group. The group would then
proceed to share the write up of the report, with a task responsibility sheet handed out for them to
sign. There

is an on
-
line version of the test, so students could be the participants, collect their own
data and combine with the class all results to individually write up their RI.

References
: Oxford (p. 46).,
Chudler, E. et al., 2006. "Neuroscience for Kids: Stroo
p Effect,"
Neuroscience for Kids, University of Washington, Seattle [accessed May 1, 2007]
http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/words.html
.
The criteria was adapted and modified from the
gui
delines set out within the VCAA Psychology Assessment Handbook 2011
-
2014.





20




MARK RANGE

DESCRIPTOR: typical performance in each range

25











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9



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7



6



5

8

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1

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21






Resea
rch
Invest
igatio
n

The
below
criteri
a can
be
given
to
stude
nts
for
expec
ted
outco
mes
on
this
task





psychological information and understandings.


Excellent

Very
Good

Good

Needs
Work

Unsatisfac
tory

1. Content











1.1 Title is clearly stated











1.2 introduction clearly states aims of











22






STRO
OP
EFFEC
T
ACTIV
ITY
(click
on
the
link to
acces
s the
Stroo
p
Effect
Activit
y)

Title
:
3.
Group
Oral
Prese
ntatio
n

Type of Activity
: This activity is a formal as
sessment task that should be conducted in groups with no
more than 4 students per group to decrease social loafing.

Link to Dot Point
: 3.1,2,3,4 Strengths and limitations of Psychological theories of forgetting
-

retrieval
failure theory including
tip
-
of
-
the
-
tongue phenomenon
-

interference theory


motivated forgetting
as informed by the work of Sigmund Freud including repression and suppression


decay theory.

Class Time Required
: 4 x 15 minutes for group presentations = 60 minutes as well as clas
s time for
students to research their theory. Total of 4 lessons based on 60 minutes per lesson.

Previous Knowledge
: Students should have basic knowledge of Sigmund Freud to understand
motivated forgetting as well as mechanisms of human memory formation. A
PA referencing should
research

1.3 Evidence of the application and
communication of psychological
information and understandings shown











1.4 Method has three sections and is clear
and succinct.











1.5 Independent and dependent variables
clearly stated











1.6
. Descriptive statistical have been
calculated












1.7 Data has been graphed











1.8 A coherent argument has been
developed











1.9 Reading has been completed and
integrated into the argument.











2. Presentation and
Organisation











2.1 The report is well
-
structured and
expression is clear and concise.











2.2 Each section of the report has been
covered: introduction, method, results,
discussion, reference, appendix.











2.3 Report adheres to correct punctuation,
spelling and paragraphing.











2.4 A consistent referencing style ( APA) has
been adopted in both the text and
reference list














23


also be understood in order to complete the bibliography section. Students should be aware of
research methods when explaining the positives and negatives of the theory.

Materials/ Resources/ Requirements
: It may be necessary to book

library time/ computer labs/ lap
tops/ for students to conduct research as well as provide a number of textbooks other than the
prescribed textbook.

Activity
:

Group Oral Presentation 25% of your mark




In Groups, students will present on one of the psycho
logical theories of forgetting

-

Retrieval Failure Theory

-

Interference Theory

-

Motivated Forgetting

-

Decay Theory




Students should include a brief background on their theorist(s), the theory as well as outline
the positives and negatives of the theory and add
any interestingly relevant facts.



Each group must provide one A4 summary sheet on their theory to be distributed to the other
groups.




Presentation length: 15 minutes



Group size: No more than 4



You must create a PowerPoint slide to accompany your oral pre
sentation



You must reference your information in a bibliography using correct APA format


Group Oral Presentation Rubric

Content of Presentation:

1.

Background on theorist(s) & theory

0.

Background on theorist(s) and theory is not shown

1.

You have given a backgro
und on theorist(s) and theory


2.

Positives of the theory

0.

Positives of theory are not shown

1.

You have mentioned the positives of the theory

2.

You have discussed the positives of the theory in detail


24



3.

Limitations of the theory

0.

Limitations of theory are not shown

1.

You have mentioned the limitations of the theory

2.

You have discussed the limitations of the theory in detail


4.

Interesting facts

0.

No interesting facts have been included

1.

You have interesting facts on the theory

Presentat
ion Skills:

5.

Engagement with the audience: engagement refers to body language, eye contact, presence,
clarity of voice

0.

No attempt to engage with the audience has been made

1.

Presenters have attempted to engage the audience

2.

Presenters have engaged the audien
ce

Summary Sheet:

6.

A4 summary sheet

0.

No A4 summary sheet has been provided

1.

Your group has provided an A4 summary sheet on the theory


7.

Quality of A4 summary sheet: quality refers to relevance, format and detail

0.

No evidence

1.

The summary sheet attempts at surmi
sing your presentation

2.

The summary sheet is a clear, relevant and detailed summation of your presentation

Originality:

8.

Presentation and summary sheet are original

0.

The presentation and summary sheet are copied directly from sources

1.

You have reworded your
presentation and summary sheet into your own words


References:

9.

Bibliography

0.

No bibliography has been provided

1.

Your group has provided a bibliography

2.

Bibliography is referenced correctly using APA format




25


/14



Precautions/ Sensitivities/ Ethics
: Oral p
resentations can be hard for certain students who feel less
confident standing in front of their peers so it is important to keep that in mind when setting group
work. Also it is important to observe the contribution of group members to the final product a
s it is
unfair if one member of the group is made to do all the work

Evaluation
: The assessment task gives students the opportunity to increase their oral performance
skills as well as their ability to research relevant information. By providing a summary
sheet to the
other groups all students leave with something tangible as part of their notes to refer back to.

References
: Adapted from Haileybury Keysborough Senior School Campus Psychology Department.


Title
: 3
.

Theories of Forgetting

Type of Activity
:
This is an informal r
evision activity

(v
isual
learning)

Class Time required
: 25 minutes

Previous Knowledge
: the students will need to be familiar with the theories of forgetting in order to
complete this table.

Activity
:



Theory of
Forgetting



Cue
-


dependent
forgetting


Context
-
dependent
forgetting


State
-
dependent
forgetting


Trace decay


Interference


Displacement


Psychologist and
Year


Tulving


Godden and
Baddeley
(1975)



Duka et al.
(2000)


No one
credited


No one
credited


No one
credited


26


Explanation
























Key terms





Encoding
specificity
principle

‘Tip of the
Tongue’
phenomenon


placebo

engram

retroactive
interference

proactive
interference

‘pushed out’

Evaluation













Evaluation/ in general/ further ideas/ alternatives/ homework/ extension activities):


27


This worksheet can be given to the students to be completed for homework or in class as a revision
for the topic of Theories of Forgetting.

The students need to fill in every blank box.

The teacher
should go over the worksheet with the whole class once everyone is finished. The format of this table
is very clear and the students will find it easy to fill it out. An alternative way to use this

activity is to
get students to fill the table out as the teacher explains each of the theories during the lessons. The
students can also hang this table up in their study when they are studying for the end of the year
exam.

An extension activity for this

could be a chart which will compare the theories of forgetting and list
the similarities and differences between them. This activity would take the students further to use
Bloom’s higher order thinking (analysis).
This worksheet

References
:
http://www.psychexchange.co.uk/index.php


Title:
3.
Forgetting mind
-
map

Type of Activity:
This is an informal mind
-
map that can have many applications; it can be an in class
activity where students fil
l out the boxes upon learning a new concept, for homework, or as revision
for students to hang up at home.

Link to Dot Point:
1.4,5, 3.1,2,3,4, 4.1,3,4,

Class Time Required:
20
-
25 minutes

Previous Knowledge:
Area of Study 2: Memory

Materials/ Resources/ Re
quirements:
None

Activity:

forgetting mind
-
map.PDF

Precautions/ Sensitivities/ Ethics:
This task should not encounter any difficulties.

Evaluation:
This mi
nd
-
map is an excellent way to recap or revise all of the components because it
places all of the information in one accessible place for students. This is especially good for visual
-
spatial learners who prefer visual representations of information.

Refere
nces:
Adapted from Haileybury Keysborough Senior School Campus Psychology Department.


Title
:
3.1.
Retrieval Failure Theory

Type of Activity
: This is an informal activity where students have to fill in the boxes


can be used as
an end of lesson conclusion

activity, revision or can be given as homework

Link to Dot Point
: 3.1 Strengths and limitations of Psychological theories of forgetting: retrieval
failure theory including tip
-
of
-
the
-
tongue phenomenon

Class Time Required
: 10 minutes


28


Previous Knowledge
: St
udents should have knowledge on retrieval failure and tip
-
of
-
the
-
tongue to
fill out the boxes, especially if this is a homework task

Materials/ Resources/ Requirements
: None

Activity
:


Retrieval Failure
Theory

Definition:

Strengths



Limitations


Retrieval Cues:

Internal
: mental reminders

Eg:




External
: questions or sensory
stimuli

Eg:

Tip
-
of
-
the
-
tongue
phenomenon

Definition:




Precautions/ Sensitivities/ Ethics:

This task should not encounter any difficulties due to sensitivities
or ethics

Evaluation
: The task is fairly simple and does not require higher order thinking skills but for a
homework or revision activity it is easy to follow and is not time consuming

References
: Adapted from Haileybury Keysborough Senior School Campus Psychology D
epartment.



29


Title
: 5
.

Explore Your Memory
Online Test

Type of Activity
:
This is an informal i
ntroduction
activity
(ICT Activity)

Class Time required
: 30 minutes

Previous Knowledge
: The students do not require any previous psychology knowledge for this
activity as it is just a test of memory.

Material/ Resources/ Requirements (time to set up):

laptops for all students or computer lab and
internet
.

Activity
:
Memory Online Test

Precautions/ Sensitivities/ Ethics
: Some of the students may get distressed because they may get
lower memory scores than others. To reduce this from happening, the teacher can inform
the
students prior to the administration of the task that the score is not an intelligence score and that the
score could have been affected by factors such as tiredness and distractions during completion of the
memory test. The students should also be tol
d that they do not have to participate in this test and
the teacher should provide an activity which is equally as engaging.

The students should also be informed that they do not have to take the memory tests if they do not
feel comfortable doing it. The t
eacher should prepare another activity for these students in advance.
This activity should be as engaging as the online memory test.

Evaluation/ in general/ further ideas/ alternatives/ homework/ extension activities):

This online memory testing includes s
hort term memory, long term memory, digital span test, visual
memory and other memory types which the students will look at in the memory study area. This is a
great introductory activity as it is fun and often students are interested in their own memory
f
unction. Ideally the students would get laptops for this lesson or go to a computer lab for this
activity as it has to be accessed online.

References
:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/
humanbody/mind/surveys/memory/



Title
:
6.
Who
wants

to be a Psychology
Millionaire?


Type of Activity
:
This is an informal revision activity (k
inaesthetic
l
earning
)

Class Time required
: 15 min
utes

Previous Knowledge
: The students should have covered the

topic of memory. Some of the key
concepts which students should know for this activity are information processing model, sensory
model, long
-
term memory storage, working memory, short
-
term memory, hippocampus, mnemonic
devices, context an state dependent
cues, theory of motivated forgetting and decay theory.

Material/ Resources/ Requirements (time to set up):

computer, two sets of cards (A, B, C, D),
projector and speakers. Allow 5 minutes to set up the speakers and the projector.


30


Activity
:

Psychology Millionaire
(click on the hyperlink in order to access the PowerPoint game)

Precautions/ Sensitivities/ Ethics
: It is very important to make sure that all

the equipment work prior
to this activity. The students should be encouraged not to take this game seriously and not to put
each other down if they get the answers wrongly.

Evaluation/ in general/ further ideas/ alternatives/
homework/ extension activiti
es
):

T
his Psychology Millionaire game could be used as an informal revision activity for the area of study
on Memory. This game could be used at the end of the unit just before a SAC or as a revision for the
end of the year exam. This is a really engaging

activity and the students really like to compete against
each other most of the time. You could also change the questions into anything you wanted
-

depending on what you think is suitable for your students. You could also add more slides and prizes
in ca
se you wanted the activity to go for a longer time.

The way you could use this in the classroom is to get the students into two teams and give the two
teams cards A, B, C and D. The teams should both be in a line parallel to each other. The first
members o
f the teams at the front of the line should have the four cards each and show the cards to
the teacher according to the answer they this is correct. The students also get lifelines in case they
cannot answer some of the questions. During the lifeline the s
tudents can ask one of their team
members what the answer is to a question do not know the answer for. However they only have one
chance to ask for a lifeline in this game.

The student can also ask for a 50/50 option which involves the teacher cutting out
two of the options
from A, B, C and D which leaves one correct option and one incorrect option. Again there is only one
chance to choose this lifeline.
This learning activity is designed to engage learners who are
kinaesthetic learners.

References
:
http://www.psychexchange.co.uk/index.php



2.1, 2.2, 2.3

Title
: Poster of Models for explaining memory.

Type of Activity
: Students draw a hierarchal diagram of the
comparison of models for explaining
human memory including theorist :



Atkinson
-
Shiffrin’s



Alan Baddeley & Graham Hitch’s



Fergus Craik and Robert Lockhart



Organisation of long
-
term memory


Class Time required
: Poster can be used as a review or as a learn
ing task during the topic of Memory.
It can be ongoing throughout the lesson, where students keep adding information upon learning it in
class. Posters displayed around the room.


31


Previous Knowledge
:

Students need to be aware of the required models for expl
aining memory.

Material/ Resources/ Requirements (time to set up):

Each student is giving A3 paper, coloured pens and markers. They explain and elaborate each theorist
view of memory ans compare them to each other . Students draw a hierarchal diagram of t
he
models, showing each theory, their strengths and limitations. As shown below:


Comparison of models for explaining human memory

Atkinson
-
Shiffrin’s

Alan Baddeley

Graham Hitch’s

Fergus Craik and

Robert Lockhart

Organisation of
long
-
term
memory

Multi
-
store model

Central Executive

Levels of Processing


Implicit vs.
Explicit memory

3 stages:



Sensory
memory



Short
-
term
memory



Long
-
term
memory


Phonological Loop



Shallow



Deep


Semantic vs.
Episodic
memory

Sensory memory

Iconic memory

Echoic memory

Visuo
-
spatial
sketchpad

Shallow Processing


周i猠
W慫敳eWw漠f潲浳

1.

Structural processing

2.

Phonemic processing

maintenance rehearsal

short
-
term retention of
information

Declarative vs.
procedural
memory


Episodic Buffer

Deep Processing



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Precautions/ Sensitivities/ Ethics
: none

Evaluation
:

This is a class activity. The activity is a good way to increase student’s knowledge of the explanations
on memory formation. It caters to students who are visual learners and because the posters are
displayed around the classroom, can be used as aids for
students to gain a sophisticated
understanding of the
comparison of models for explaining human memory

References
: Students use current text book and outside resources that students can source
themselves, such as pictures and graphs.


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1. 4, 1.5

Title
: My
name is Lisa.

Type of Activity
: This is a ‘youtube’ clip of a teenager’s point of view of her mother
losing

her
memory. It is quite moving and shows the human side to memory loss and how it can
affect others
.
This ‘youtube’ clip would be a nice introductio
n to memory loss topics such as memory decline over
the lifespan, amnesia, dementia, and Alzheimer’s.

Class Time required:

7 minutes

Previous Knowledge
;

Students do not require any previous knowledge of memory loss.

Teachers notes
:

The term ‘dementia‘ refe
rs to a category of illnesses and conditions that affect the human brain;
often characterized by the brain dysfunctions that they cause, dementias steadily rob their victims of
memories and even the most common skills, causing them to give up their indepen
dence and rely,
more and more, upon family and friends for even the most simple of tasks.

Defined as a progressive brain dysfunction, one of the most common symptoms of dementia is the
state of confusion, which it creates in its victims.


Even the word ’de
mentia’ means ’irrationality’ in
Latin, and this goes a long way in explaining the frustration, unpredictability and irrational behavior
that those suffering from it frequently express.


In many cases, during the earlier stages of the
disease, it will ofte
n cause the victim to become estranged from his or her family; ironic considering
that, in most cases, they will eventually become solely dependant upon those they have ostracized.

Stripping its victims of their memories, their independence, and their live
s, dementia is a cruel and
frightening disease.


There is no way to stop dementia, once it begins, and there is no known cure for
it, to date.

Alzheimer's disease is a physical disease which attacks the brain resulting in impaired memory,
thinking and beha
viour.


The disease is named for the German physician, Alois Alzheimer who, in
1907, first described it. Memory of recent events is the first to be affected, but as the disease
progresses, long
-
term memory is also lost. The disease also affects many of the

brain's other
functions and consequently, many other aspects of behaviour are disturbed.

Material/ Resources/ Requirements (time to set up):

youtube clip
: My name is Lisa,
http://w
ww.youtube.com/watch?v=ZiRHyzjb5SI&feature=related


Evaluation
:

This is a 7 minute ‘youtube’ clip, so it will not take up too much class time. It would
complement

the
teaching of mechanism of memory formation such as memory declining with age, amnesia , de
mentia
and
Alzheimer’s

disease. The ‘youtube’ clip could be used to help students understand the effects
these types of diseases have on others who care for them. This could lead to class discussion on the

33


topic of community awareness of these diseases, st
igmas to aging and the fictions surrounding age
and memory loss. Raising students emotional competency, citizenship and psychological
understandings.

References
: Test book, You tube Clip: My Name is Lisa:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZiRHyzjb5SI&feature=related





2.4, 3.1, 3.2,

Title
: Dory and Short
-
term memory

Type of Activity
: This activity is a 1 minute and 30 second clip from
‘ Finding Nemo’. It is an amusing
clip of Dory and her lack of short
-
term memory. This clip would help introduce short
-
term memory to
engage students. This activity could also introduce students to the concepts of Ebbinghaus forgetting
curve, measures of r
etention of memory, and the organization of long
-
term memory.

Class Time required
: 2 minutes plus class discussion.

Previous Knowledge
:

Students should be aware that
the
Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) model

of memory assumes there are
different types of mem
ory that are used for different tasks. In particular, these link together in an
effective sequence. Three stages of a multi
-
store memory are
Sensory memory
,
Short
-
term memory

and
Long
-
term memory
.
Sensory
me
mory

is the ability to retain impressions of sensory information
after the original stimulus has ceased. The two types of sensory memory that have been most
explored are
iconic memory

and
echoic memory
.

Short
-
term memory STM is the capacity for holding a small amount of
information

in
mind

in an
active, readily available state for a short period of time. The duration of short
-
term memory when
rehearsal or active maintenance is prevented is believed to be in the order of seconds. Es
timates of
short
-
term memory capacity are 7 plus or minus 2 units, depending upon the experimental design used
to estimate capacity. A commonly
-
cited capacity is
7±2

elements. In contrast,
long
-
term memory

indefinitely stores a seemingly unlimited amount of information.

Long
-
term memory LTM is
memory

that can last as little as a few days or as long as decades. It differs
structurally and functionally from
working memory

or
short
-
term memory
.

Much recent work has focused on the model proposed by
Alan Baddeley
, which distinguishes stores
for phonological (speech
-
sound), and visuo
-
spatial infor
mation as well as episodic material, and
proposes the existence of central executive processes, accessing these stores

Baddeley & Hitch proposed their tripartite working memory model as an alternative to the short
-
term store in
Atkinson & Shiffrin's 'multi
-
store' memory model

(1968). This model is later expanded
upon by Baddeley and other co
-
workers and has become the dominant view in the field of working
memory.


34


The levels of proce
ssing model of memory by Craik and Lockhart, (1972) was put forward partly as a
result of the criticism levelled at the multi
-
store model.

Instead of concentrating on the stores/structures involved (i.e.
short term memory

&
long term
memory
), this theory concentrates on the processes involved in memory. Unlike the multi
-
store
model it
is a non
-
structured approach. The basic idea is that memory is really just what happens as a
result of processing information.

Material/ Resources/ Requirements (time to set up):

Activity
: watching you tube clip to introduce STM topic. You could link it to

the memory models of
Atkinson and Shiffrin, Baddeley & Hitch and Craik and Lockhart.

Precautions/ Sensitivities/ Ethics
: none

Evaluation

Youtube clip of Dory and her short term memory loss. A good introduction to STM and LTM
discussion.
This activity has

versatility and flexibility, it is a fun way of introducing memory to
students and increase their interest in the topic. Using visual and auditory teaching aids, caters for
students who prefer this way of learning, visual clips also aid in memory of the t
opic. The activity
could be placed anywhere throughout the lesson, although it would be preferable as an introduction
to STM loss.

Additionally, you could use this activity to consider the differences between STM with H.M loss of
long
-
term memory.

Referen
ces
:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KuvF113uty4&feature=related

(1:31)


2.1

Title
: Concept map of the organisation of long
-
term memory including declarative and episodic
memory, and

semantic network theory.

Type of Activity
: This could be used as review activity, or as an activity during class to develop
student’s memory on the LTM topic.


Class Time required
: depends on the teacher. Students could start the concept map and add to i
t as
information comes to light, or complete the concept map for revision purposes.

Previous Knowledge
:

Students should have a good grasp of LTM and the theories regarding LTM.


Material
:

Students work on designing their concept map, once designed can tran
sfer it over to an A3 piece of
paper. Coloured pens, markers, pictures.



3
5




Precautions/ Sensitivities/ Ethics
: none

Evaluation
:

A Concept map
is a
diagram

showing the relationships among
concepts

and is used as a graphical tools
for organizing and representing
knowledge
. There is research evidence that suggests that knowledge is
stored

in the brain in the form of productions (situation
-
response conditionals) that act on
declarative
memory

content which is also referred to as chunks or propositions . Because concept maps are

constructed to reflect organization of the declarative memory system, they facilitate sense
-
making and
meaningful learning on the part of individuals who make concept maps and those who use them.

References: text book



1.1, 1.2, 2.4

Title
: Revision on LT
M.

Class Time required
: This activity could be used for revision, homework task or group work,
depending on time and teacher objectives.

Previous Knowledge
:

Students should have knowledge of the organization of LTM and declarative memory. Material:
Student
s are required to provide comprehensive and detailed answers to the following questions.


Question

Ideas for short answers

Q. How do the two subclasses of
declarative memory differ from each
other?


A: Declarative memory ( called

this
because it can be assessed directly in
tests etc) can be divided into two
subclasses


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of one’s own specific past experiences.
M敭e特

Explicit memory

(declarative,
conscious)

Episodic memory

( specific events)

Semantic memory (
facts, general
knowledge)

Implicit memory

( nondeclarative,
unconscious

Procedural memory (
motor skills, habits,
rules)

Classical conditioning
effects ( conditioned
emotional reactions)

Priming ( perceptual
and conceptual
priming)


36


Your memory of what you did and how
you felt on your fourteen
th birthday, or
of what you ate for dinner last night, or
of any other specific episodes in your life
is episodic memory.

Semantic memory, by contrast, is explicit
memory for information not tied
mentally to a particular event or episode
in one’s own life.

It includes knowledge
of word meanings, plus the myriad facts,
ideas, schemas and scripts that
constitute one’s general understanding
of the world. Your memories that
penguins are birds, that apples are red,
that candles on a birthday cake are to be
blown

out.


Q: Why are implicit memories not well
described in terms of the Atkinson
-
Shiffrin model ?


A: Implicit memories consists of all
memories that are not explicit and is
defined as the type of memory in which
previously acquired information
influences
behavior or thought without
itself entering consciousness. By
definition, then, implicit memory does
not operate through the means depicted
by the modal model, in which the short
-
term memory is equated with the
conscious mind. Because people are
unable to
report the relevant
information, implicit memory is also
called non
-
declarative memory.


Q. What are some examples of different
kinds of implicit memories?


Learning to ride a bike, hammering a nail
or weaving a rug. A pattern of behaviour
that was learn
ed through conscious
means gradually becomes automatic or
habitual with repetition; memories that
were once explicit become implicit.


Q. In what sense are implicit memories
more situation
-

dependent than
declarative memories?


A constraining characterist
ic of implicit
memories is their extreme dependence
on the immediate situation. An implicit
memory is retrieved and used to guide
behaviour only at moments when a
specific set of stimuli call it forth. Thus,
the implicit memory that I must make a
right han
d turn at a particular
intersection on my route to school is

37


automatically called forth by the
configuration of stimuli that make up
that intersection and is not called forth
at other items. Explicit memories, in
contrast, can be retrieved in context
othe
r than those in which they were
originally acquired and , therefore, can
be used not just to guide repetitive
behaviour, but also to plan future
behaviour and to modify existing
routines.


Q: How does the case of H.M. support
the idea of a sharp
distinction between
short
-
term memory and long
-
term
memory?

Q. What evidence indicates that the
hippocampus and structures near it are
involved in encoding of long
-
term
memories?



H.M. most obvious deficit is an almost
complete inability to encode new exp
licit
long
-
term memories. He can still
remember events that occurred before
the operation. He can converse, read,
solve problems, and keep new
information in mind as long as his
attention remains focused on it. But the
minute his attention is distracted, h
e
loses the information he had just been
thinking about, and he cannot recall it
later.




Evaluation
:

This activity could be used as a form of revision of LTM, or to provide class discussion on declarative
and implicit memories and the differences betwee
n them. The activity could provide effective class
discussion on each point that the question raises, thus supporting student engagement, as well as
students could have the opportunity to provide valuable input on different alternatives that could be
discu
ssed and talked through. Alternatively, H.M is a good example of LTM problems and Dory STM
problems (see youtube clip, Activity 4) and the challenges each type of disorder has on the individual.


References
: text book.



1.1, 1.2

Title
:
The role of tempora
l
-
Lobe structures in encoding declarative Long
-
term memories.


Type of Activity
:
Student blow up balloons. Students draw the four lobes of the brain and the
hippocampus onto the balloon, noting the temporal region of the brain. Student details the temporal

lobe and hippocampus and their role in memory. Attach this detail to the balloon and place around

38


the room. If balloons are too noisy or break too easily, plastic balls, paper mache` or anything that
will resemble a head could be used.

Supplementary activ
ity
: card game
: memory.

Class Time required
: Depending on Teacher preference.

Previous Knowledge
:

Students should have developed an understanding on the four lobes of the brain and the
hippocampus role in memory.

The Hippocampus sits in the middle part of
each Temporal Lobe and is a critical part of behaviour and
memory. Your Hippocampus helps you learn new information and also helps to transition new
learning to permanent storage sites in the Cortex. Your Hippocampus also helps you with spatial
processing.

Your Hippocampus has the ability to generate new brain cells (neurogenesis), a highly adaptive
process.

Example of temporal lobe disorder:

Since the time of H.M. was first studied, many other people have been studied who have a similar
disorder after stro
kes or other sources of brain damage. The disorder is called
temporal
-
lobe
amnesia
, and the areas of destruction most strongly correlated with memory loss are the
hippocampus ( the limbic
-
system structure buried within the temporal lobe), and cortical and
sub
-
cortical structures closely connected to the hippocampus in both halves of the brain.

Student draw on a balloon each area of the brain ( brain regions not shown to students), including
the hippocampus.

Student handout sheet

Four Lobes of the Brain

Your

brain has four distinct regions referred to as “lobes.” Please note that you have two lobes for
each region distributed in your left and right hemispheres. Each of the lobes is related to distinct
behaviours and regions where overlapping responsibilities
occur are referred to as “association
areas.”

Frontal Lobe
:

Temporal Lobe

Parietal Lobe

Occipital Lobe

Your frontal lobe is
the youngest and
largest region of
your brain sitting
just behind your
forehead. Your
frontal lobe is a
highly complex and
special
ized region
that helps to
Your Temporal
Lobe sits just under
each temple on the
sides of your head.
This is an
important region
of your brain that
helps with many
critical skills
including