General Cognitive Ability Tests Differential Ability Scales, 2 ed. (DAS-II). Colin D. Elliott, Harcourt Assessment, 2007

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Test Descriptions 3.2
2.12




p.
1



General Cognitive Ability Tests


Differential Ability Scales, 2
nd

ed. (DAS
-
II). Colin D. El
liott, Harcourt Assessment, 2007


The DAS
-
II is an individual cognitive abilities test, developed and improved from the British
Abilities Scales and the DAS, for students of ages 2 through 17. It includes verbal, nonverbal (fluid)
reasoning, nonverbal/spatial, and special diagnostic tests
. The DAS probably measures intellectual ability
better than many competing tests because the special diagnostic tests are not included in the verbal,
nonverbal, spatial, and total scores and because it does separately measure fluid reasoning ability. Th
e
DAS
-
II was carefully normed on a stratified, random, national sample of 3,480 children. It is designed to
be interpreted by both individual subtests and clusters of subtests, not merely by the total score, which is
an important consideration for student
s with unusual patterns of strengths and weaknesses. Different
subtests are used at the lower early years, upper early years, and school
-
age levels. For children whose
ages are near the borders between levels, examiners may use either of both adjacent lev
els. The author
states on p. xiii of the
Introductory and Technical Handbook
, "As in the first edition, the DAS
-
II does not
use the terms 'intelligence' or 'IQ.' Although some researchers may (for their own purposes) refer to the
DAS
-
II as an 'IQ test,'
the fact that they have used that label does not make it so. The DAS
-
II certainly
produces a second
-
order composite score called the General Conceptual Ability score (GCA). However,
this is not a global composite score such as is found in other batteries.

It is not derived from a
heterogeneous mix of all subtests, but is derived only from either six or four subtests that are the best
measures of conceptual and reasoning abilities."

Verbal Subtests:

Verbal Comprehension
: following oral instructions to poin
t to or move pictures and toys.

Naming Vocabulary
: naming pictures.

Word Definitions
:

explaining the meaning of each word. Words are spoken by the evaluator.

Similarities
: explaining how three things or concepts go together, what they all are (e.g., house
, tent, igloo;



love, hate, fear)

Nonverbal/Spatial Subtests

Picture Similarities
: multiple
-
choice matching of pictures

on the basis of relationships, both concrete

(e.g.,
two round things among other shapes) and
abstract (e.g., map
with globe from among other
round things).

Copying
: drawing pencil copies of abstract, geometric

designs.

Recall of Designs
: drawing pencil copies of abstract,

geometric designs from memory after a 5
-
second


view of each design.

Pattern Con
struction
: copying geometric designs with tiles
(black on one side and yellow on the other)
or

pa
tterned cubes. There are time
limits and bonus points for fast work. An alternative “untimed”

procedure uses time limits, but no speed bonuses.

Nonverbal
(Fluid) Reasoning Subtests

Matrices
: solving visual puzzles by choosing the correct picture or design to complete a logical pattern.

Sequential and Quantitative Reasoning
: figuring out the mathematical relationship that relates the
numbers in each of two p
airs of numbers and applying that rule to another number to complete the
third pair.


Test Descriptions 3.2
2.12




p.
2



School Readiness Subtests

Early Number Concepts
: oral math questions with illustrations


counting, number concepts, and simple

arithmetic.

Matching Letter
-
Like Forms
: mu
ltiple
-
choice matching of shapes that are similar to letters.

Phonological Processing
: rhyming, blending, deleting, and segmenting sounds in spoken words.

Working Memory Subtests


Recall of Sequential Order
: the examinee hears a list of words and then must remember and repeat them

in a different sequence specified in advance by the examiner.

Recall of Digits Backward
: repeating in reversed sequence series of digits dictated at a rate of two digits

per seco
nd.

Processing Speed Subtests

Speed of Information Processing
: the student scans rows of figures or numbers and marks the figure with

the most parts or the greatest number in each row. The score is based on speed. Accuracy does

not count unless it is v
ery poor.

Rapid Naming
: the examinee names as quickly as possible pictures printed in rows on a page, color

swatches printed in rows on a page, and colored pictures printed in rows on a page.

Other Diagnostic Subtests

Recall of Digits Forward
: repeating
increasingly long series of digits dictated at two digits per second.

Recognition of Pictures
: seeing one, two, or three pictures for five seconds or four pictures for ten seconds

and then trying to find those pictures within a group of four to seven simi
lar pictures.

Recall of Objects
-
Immediate
: viewing a page of 20 pictures, hearing them named by the evaluator, trying

to name the pictures from memory, seeing them again, trying again to name all the pictures, and

repeating the process once more. The sc
ore is the total of all the pictures recalled on each of the

three trials, including pictures recalled two or three times.

Recall of Objects
-
Delayed
: trying to recall the pictures again on a surprise retest 15 to 20 minutes later.


W
echsler Intelligence S
cale for Children, 4th ed., Integrated (WISC
-
IV Integrated). David
Wechsler,
Edith
Kaplan, Deborah Fein, Joel Kramer, Robin Morris, Dean Delis, & Arthur
Maerlender.
The

Psychological Corporation, 2004
.


The WISC
-
IV is an individual test that does not
require reading or writing. "Verbal" subtests are
oral questions requiring oral answers. "Perceptual Reasoning" subtests are nonverbal problems, some of
which are timed and one of which allows bonus points for extra fast work. "Working Memory" subtests
require remembering data (e.g., repeating dictated digits) or remembering and mentally manipulating data
(e.g., repeating dictated digits in reversed order). "Processing Speed" subtests measure speed on fairly
simple paper
-
and
-
pencil tasks. Two supplemen
tal subtests (no more than one per scale) can be substituted
for standard subtests in total scores if absolutely necessary. Process subtests are never used for calculating
total scores. Subtest scores and total scores are based on the scores of the 2,200
children originally tested
in a very carefully designed, nationwide sample, but still must be interpreted very cautiously for any
individ
ual, especially one who may have somewhat unusual patterns of strengths and weaknesses. As
with any test, influences

such as anxiety, motivation, fatigue, rapport, and experience may invalidate test
scores.

Standard Verbal Subtests

Similarities
: explaining how two different things (e.g., horse and cow) or concepts (e.g., hope and fear)
could be alike. Scoring is 2
-
1
-
0,

according to the quality of the responses.

Vocabulary
: giving oral definitions of words. Scoring is 2
-
1
-
0, according to the quality of the responses.

C
omprehension
: oral questions of social and practical understanding. Scoring is 2
-
1
-
0, based on quality
.

Test Descriptions 3.2
2.12




p.
3



Supplemental Verbal Subtests

Information
: oral, “trivia”
-
style,

general information questions. Scoring is pass/fail.

Word Reasoning
: trying to guess a word from a series of clues.

Standard Perceptual Reasoning Subtests

Block Design
**: copy
ing small geometric designs with four or nine larger plastic
cubes. The most difficult items offer bonus points for speed.

Picture Concepts:
choosing one picture fr
om each of two or three rows so

that

the selected pictures all illustrate the same concep
t.

Matrix Reasoning
: completing logical arrangements of designs
with missing
parts; multiple
-
choice.

Supplemental Perceptual Reasoning Subtest

Picture Completion
*: identifying missing parts removed from pictures.

Perceptual
Reasoning

Process Subtest

Bloc
k Design
subtest by norms without bonuses for speed; pass/fail scoring only.

Time limits still apply.

Standard Working Memory Subtests

Digit Span
: repeating dictated series of digits (e.g., 4 1 7 9) forwards and o
ther series backwards. Series
begin with
two digits and keep increasing in length, with two trials at each length.

(Separate scores are
also provided for Digits Forward and Digits Backward.)

Letter
-
Number Sequencing
: repeating dictated series of letters and digits (
e.g., 4 3 R 9 B) in numerical,
then alphabetical order (e.g., 3 4 9 B R).

Supplemental Working Memory Subtest

Arithmetic
*: oral, verbally framed math applications problems without paper. Scoring is pass/fail.


Standard Processing Speed Subtests





1 2 3 4 5 6
7 8 9

Coding A
**: marking rows of shapes with different lines according to a



















code as quickly as possible for 2 minutes (under age 8)

C
oding

B
**: transcribing a digit
-
symbol code

as quickly as possible for

3 7 4 1 2 9 6 5 2 1 4

two minutes (eight and older).

Symbol Search
**: deciding if target symbols appear in a

row of symbols
and marki
ng
YES
or
NO
accordingly.




















YES


N0

Supplemental Processing Speed Subtest

Cancellation
:
speed of marking all the animals among pictures of many things.

(Separate scores are also
provided for the Random and
Structured tasks.)

The
Full Scale IQ
score is derived from the sum of the scaled scores on the ten Standard subtests (if
absolutely necessary, using Supplemental subtests as substitutes). The Full Scale IQ summarizes overall
performance on the abilities m
easured by the WISC
-
IV, but its usefulness diminishes as variability
increases among the component scores. Also, it obviously does not reflect abilities not measured by the
WISC
-
IV.

The
General Ability Index

(GAI) is derived from the sum of scaled scores
on the six Standard Verbal
Comprehension and Perceptual Reasoning subtests. It measures higher
-
level verbal and nonverbal
thinking abilities

without the Working Memory and Processing Speed subtests
. GAI norms are based on
the original WISC
-
IV norming sam
ple and are available from
A. Prifitera, D. H. Saklofske, & L. G.
Weiss's
WISC
-
IV Clinical Assessment and Intervention 2e

(San Diego: Academic Press, 2008, pp. 30
-
31)





Test Descriptions 3.2
2.12




p.
4



and from
http://psychcorp.pearsonassessments.com/NR/rdonlyres/1439CDFE
-
6980
-
435F
-
93DA
-
05888C7CC082/0/80720_WISCIV_Hr_r4.pdf
.

The
Cognitive Proficiency Index

(CPI) is derived from the sum of scaled scores on the fou
r Standard
Working Memory and Processing Speed subtests. It measures more automatic, less intellectual
"processing" abilities. CPI norms are based on the original WISC
-
IV norming sample and are available
from A. Prifitera, D. H. Saklofske, & L. G. Weiss'
s
WISC
-
IV Clinical Assessment and Intervention 2e

(San Diego: Academic Press, 2008, pp. 40
-
41).

WISC
-
IV Integrated Su
pplemental Subtests and Scores. David Wechsler,
Edith Kaplan, Deborah
Fein, Joel Kramer, Robin Morris,
Dean Delis, & Arthur Maerlander,
The Psychological
Corporation, 2004.



The WISC
-
IV Integrated provides additional subtests and procedures to explore further an
examinee's performance on the regular WISC
-
IV subtests. These include multiple
-
choice versions of
some of the subtests, norme
d so that an examinee would ordinarily obtain approximately the same score
on each version; separate norms for components of subtests; norms for certain categories of observations;
and additional subtests. The WISC
-
IV Integrated was normed on a smaller sa
mple of children (730) than
the rest of the WISC
-
IV (2,200).

Some

of the subtests are listed below.

Similarities Multiple
-
Choice:
the questions and four or five possible answers are read aloud to the
examinee, who can read along with the evaluator. The e
xaminee then chooses the best answer.
Scoring is 2
-
1
-
0, according to the quality of the responses.

Vocabulary
Multiple
-
Choice:
the test word and four or five possible definitions are read aloud to the
examinee, who can read along with the evaluator. The examinee then chooses the best answer.
Scoring is 2
-
1
-
0, according to the quality of the responses.

Picture Vocabulary
Multiple
-
Choice:
the test word is read aloud to the examinee, who can read along
with the evaluator. The examinee then chooses the best of four pictures to illustrate the meaning of
the word.
Scoring is 2
-
1
-
0, according to the quality of the choice.

C
omprehension
Multiple
-
Choice
: oral questions of social and practical understanding
and four or five
possible answers are read aloud to the examinee, who can read along with the evaluator. The
examinee then chooses the best answer.
Scoring is 2
-
1
-
0, according to the qu
ality of the responses.
Scoring is 2
-
1
-
0, based on the quality of the answers chosen.

Information Multiple
-
Choice
: oral, “trivia”
-
style,

general information questions
and four possible answers
are read aloud to the examinee, who can read along with the ev
aluator. The examinee then chooses
the best answer.

Scoring is pass/fail.

Block Design Multiple
-
Choice
: for each item
,

the examinee is shown a picture

of a geometric design and
four pictures of four or nine separated blocks. The examinee chooses the picture showing the blocks
that could be pushed together to match the model.

E
lithorn Mazes
:
tracing paths through increasingly complex mazes while going t
hrough precisely the
specified number of dots randomly placed in some of the intersections.

Coding Copy:

speed of copying the Coding symbols
directly underneath the symbols (rather than drawing
the symbols underneath the digits with which the symbols are a
ssociated). The examinee is given
rows of symbols above empty boxes rather than rows of digits above empty boxes.

Visual Digit Span:
repeating increasingly long series of digits presented visually (rather than dictated).

Spatial Span:
imitating the examin
er's increasingly long sequences of tapping cubes
randomly scattered
on a board and imitating other sequences in reversed order.

Letter Span
: repeating increasingly long series of dictated, random letters. Half of the series use rhyming
letters (e.g.,
d,
b, p, g
) and half do not e.g., a, m, r, s).

Test Descriptions 3.2
2.12




p.
5



Working Memory Process Subtests

Base rates (frequencies among children on whom the WISC
-
IV were normed) are provided for the longest
series of digits forward, the longest series of digits backward, and the longest series of letters and
digits recalled. The shorter the series, the higher
the base rate; shorter series are correctly recalled by
larger numbers of children.

I have also computed percentile ranks from the base
-
rate data.

Special
Process Approach
adaptations are provided for the Letter
-
Number Sequencing and Arithmetic
subtests.

Processing Speed Process Subtests

Base rates, or frequencies, are also provided for different strategies

on Cancellation

(i.e., stays organized;
begins organized, becomes disorganized; begins disorganized, becomes organized; or stays
disorganized
)
.

Base ra
tes are provided for the number of symbols completed in each 3
0
-
second interval

on Coding and
Coding Copy
.



_________________________




* time limit ** time limit and bonuses for speed


Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th ed. (WISC
-
IV). David Wechsler
.
The Psychological
Corporation, 200
3.


The WISC
-
IV is an individual test that does not require reading or writing. "Verbal" subtests are
oral questions requiring oral answers. "Perceptual Reasoning" subtests are nonverbal problems, some of
which are timed and one of which allows bonus
points for extra fast work. "Working Memory" subtests
require remembering data (e.g., repeating dictated digits) or remembering and mentally manipulating data
(e.g., repeating dictated digits in reversed order). "Processing Speed" subtests measure speed
on fairly
simple paper
-
and
-
pencil tasks. Two supplemental subtests (no more than one per scale) can be substituted
for standard subtests in total scores if absolutely necessary. Subtest scores and total scores are based on
the scores of the 2,200 childre
n originally tested in a very carefully designed, nationwide sample, but still
must be interpreted very cautiously for any individ
ual, especially one who may have somewhat unusual
patterns of strengths and weaknesses. As with any test, influences

such as

anxiety, motivation, fatigue,
rapport, and experience may invalidate test scores.

Standard Verbal Subtests

Similarities
: explaining how two different things (e.g., horse and cow) or concepts (e.g., hope and fear)
could be alike. Scoring is 2
-
1
-
0, accord
ing to the quality of the responses.

Vocabulary
: giving oral definitions of words. Scoring is 2
-
1
-
0, according to the quality of the responses.

C
omprehension
: oral questions of social and practical understanding. Scoring is 2
-
1
-
0, based on quality.

Suppl
emental Verbal Subtests

Information
: oral, “trivia”
-
st
yle,

general information questions. Scoring is pass/fail.

Word Reasoning
: trying to guess a word from a series of clues.

Standard Perceptual Reasoning Subtests

Block Design
**: copying
small geometric designs with four or nine larger plastic
cubes. The most difficult items offer bonus points for speed.

Picture Concepts:
choosing one picture from each of two or three rows so that
the selected pictures all illustrate the same concept.





Test Descriptions 3.2
2.12




p.
6



M
atrix Reasoning
: completing logical arrangements of designs
with missing parts; multiple
-
choice.

Supplemental Perceptual Reasoning Subtest

Picture Completion
*: identifying missing parts removed from pictures.

Perceptual Reasoning Process Subtest

Block De
sign
subtest by norms without bonuses for speed; pass/fail scoring only. Time limits still apply.

Standard Working Memory Subtests

Digit Span
: repeating dictated series of digits (e.g., 4 1 7 9) forwards and other series backwards. Series

begin with two

digits and keep increasing in length, with two trials at each length.

Letter
-
Number Sequencing
: repeating dictated series of letters and digits (e.g., 4 3 R 9 B) in numerical,

then alphabetical order (e.g., 3 4 9 B R).

Supplemental Working Memory Subtest

Arithmetic
*: oral, verbally framed math applications problems without paper. Scoring is pass/fail.

Working Memory Process Subtests

Digit Span

has additional scores for digits forward and backward raw scores (1 point for each series
recalled correctly) an
d also for the greatest number of digits recalled forward and the greatest number
recalled backward (e.g., 3 9 2 7 = four digits).

Standard Processing Speed Subtests





1 2 3 4 5

6 7


8 9

Coding A
**: marking rows
of shapes with different lines according to a



















code as quickly as possible for 2 minutes (under age 8)

C
oding

B
**: transcribing a digit
-
symbol code as quickly as possible for

3 7 4 1
2 9 6 5 2 1 4

two minutes (eight and older).

Symbol Search
**: deciding if target symbols appear in a

row

of symbols
and marking
YES
or
NO
accordingly.




















YES N0

Supplemental Processing Speed Subtest

Cancellation
:
speed of marking all the animals among pictures of many things.

Processing Speed Process Subtests

Cancellation
: separate scores for one page on which the pictures are scattere
d randomly and one on which
the pictures are arranged in rows.



The
Full Scale IQ
score is derived from the sum of the scaled scores on the ten Standard subtests (if
absolutely necessary, using Supplemental subtests as substitutes). The Full Scale IQ
summarizes overall
performance on the abilities measured by the WISC
-
IV, but its usefulness diminishes as variability
increases among the component scores. Also, it obviously does not reflect abilities not measured by the
WISC
-
IV.

The
General Ability Inde
x

(GAI) is derived from the sum of scaled scores on the six Standard Verbal
Comprehension and Perceptual Reasoning subtests. It measures higher
-
level verbal and nonverbal
thinking abilities. GAI norms are based on the original WISC
-
IV norming sample and
are available from
http://psychcorp.pearsonassessments.com/NR/rdonlyres/1439CDFE
-
6980
-
435F
-
93DA
-
05888C7CC082/0/80720_WISCIV_H
r_r4.pdf

and from A. Prifitera, D. H. Saklofske, & L. G. Weiss's
WISC
-
IV Clinical Assessment and Intervention 2e

(San Diego: Academic Press, 2008, pp. 30
-
31).

The
Cognitive Proficiency Index

(CPI) is derived from the sum of scaled scores on the four Standa
rd
Working Memory and Processing Speed subtests. It measures more automatic, less intellectual
"processing" abilities. CPI norms are based on the original WISC
-
IV norming sample and are available
from A. Prifitera, D. H. Saklofske, & L. G. Weiss's
WISC
-
I
V Clinical Assessment and Intervention 2e

(San Diego: Academic Press, 2008, pp. 40
-
41).

Test Descriptions 3.2
2.12




p.
7



Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 3rd. ed. (WISC
-
III). David Wechsler, The Psychological
Corporation, 1991.


The WISC
-
III is an individual test that does not r
equire reading or writing. Verbal subtests are
oral questions without time limits except for Arithmetic. Performance subtests are nonverbal problems,
all of which are timed and some of which allow bonus points for extra fast work. One criticism of the
W
ISC
-
III is that older students must earn speed bonuses to obtain better
-
than
-
average scores. Subtest
scores, IQ scores, and factor index scores are based on the scores of the 2,200 children originally tested in
a very carefully designed, nationwide sample
, but still must be interpreted very cautiously for any individ
-
ual, especially one who may have somewhat unusual patterns of strengths and weaknesses. As with any
test, influences

such as anxiety, motivation, fatigue, rapport, and experience may invalida
te test scores.

Information
: oral, “trivia”
-
style
,

general information questions. Scoring is pass/fail.

Similarities
: explaining how two different things (e.g., horse and cow) or concepts (e.g., hope and fear)

could be alike. Scoring is 2
-
1
-
0, accordin
g to the quality of the responses.

Arithmetic
*: oral, verbally framed math applications problems without paper or, for most problems, any

visual aids at all. Scoring is pass/fail.

Vocabulary
: giving oral definitions of words. Scoring is 2
-
1
-
0, according

to the quality of the responses.

C
omprehension
: oral questions of social and practical understanding. Scoring is 2
-
1
-
0, based on quality.

Digit Span
: repeating dictated series of digits (e.g., 4 1 7 9) forwards and other series backwards. Series

begin
with two digits and keep increasing in length, with two trials at each length.

Verbal IQ
is based on Information, Similarities, Arithmetic, Vocabulary, and Comprehension.

Verbal Comprehension Factor
is based on Information, Similarities, Vocabulary, and
Comprehension.

Freedom from Distractibility Factor

(a misnomer
--

attention, concentration, and working memory

describe it better) includes Arithmetic and Digit Span.





1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Picture Completion
*: identifying missing parts of pictures.





















Coding A
**: marking rows of shapes with different lines according to a



code as quickly as possible for 2 minutes (under age 8) 2 7 5 9 1 3 8 6 5 2

C
oding

B
**: transcribing a digit
-
symbol code as quickly as possible for



two minutes (eight and old
er).

Picture Arrangement
**: sequencing cartoon pictures to make sensible stories.



Block Design
**: copying small geometric designs with four or nine larger plastic cubes.

Object Assembly
**: puzzles of cut
-
apart silhouette objects with
no outline pieces.

Symbol Search
**: deciding if target symbols appear in a row of symbols and


marking
YES
or
NO
accordingly
.



Mazes
*: no pencil lifting, points off for entering blind alleys. $ #




#






&


Performance (nonverbal) IQ
is based on Picture Completion, Coding, Picture Arrangement, Block


Design, and Object Assembly.

Perceptual Organization (nonverbal) Factor
is based on Picture Completion, Picture Arrangement,
Block

Design,

and Object Assembly.

Processing Speed Factor
,

or visual
-
motor, clerical speed and accuracy, includes Coding & Symbol
Search.

Full Scale IQ
is based on the ten tests included in the Verbal and Performance (nonverbal) IQ scales.

_______________________________________

* time limit ** time limit and bonuses for speed



YES


NO

Test Descriptions 3.2
2.12




p.
8



Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 4th ed. (WAIS
-
IV). David Wechsler
.
The Psychological
Corporation, 2008.


The W
A
IS
-
IV is an individual test that does not require
reading or writing. "Verbal" subtests are
oral questions requiring oral answers. "Perceptual Reasoning" subtests are nonverbal problems, some of
which are timed and one of which allows bonus points for extra fast work. "Working Memory" subtests
require
remembering data (e.g., repeating dictated digits) or remembering and mentally manipulating data
(e.g., repeating dictated digits in reversed order). "Processing Speed" subtests measure speed on fairly
simple paper
-
and
-
pencil tasks. Two supplemental subt
ests (no more than one per scale) can be substituted
for standard subtests in total scores if absolutely necessary. Subtest scores and total scores are based on
the scores of the

2,200

adults of ages 16 through 90

originally tested in a very carefully des
igned,
nationwide sample, but still must be interpreted very cautiously for any individ
ual, especially one who
may have somewhat unusual patterns of strengths and weaknesses. As with any test, influences

such as
anxiety, motivation, fatigue, rapport, and

experience may invalidate test scores.

Standard Verbal Subtests

Similarities
: explaining how two different things (e.g., horse and cow) or concepts (e.g., hope and fear)
could be alike. Scoring is 2
-
1
-
0, according to the quality of the responses.

Vocabu
lary
: giving oral definitions of words. Scoring is 2
-
1
-
0, according to the quality of the responses.

Information
: oral, “trivia”
-
style,

general information questions. Scoring is pass/fail.

Supplemental Verbal Subtest

C
omprehension
: oral questions of
social and practical understanding. Scoring is 2
-
1
-
0, based on quality.

Standard Perceptual Reasoning Subtests

Block Design
**: copying small geometric designs with four or nine larger plastic
cubes. The most difficult items offer bonus poin
ts for speed.

Matrix Reasoning
: completing logical arrangements of designs
with missing
parts; multiple
-
choice.

Visual Puzzles
*
:
selecting the three out of six shapes that could fit together to
make the
complex shape shown above the choices.

Supplemental
Perceptual Reasoning Subtest
s

Figure Weights*
:

multiple
-
choice,

algebra
-
like problems using pictures
on a
balance scale (e.g.,



=




;


=



;


= how many

?


Picture Completion
*: identifying missing parts removed from pictures.

Perceptual Reasoning
Process Subtest

Block Design
subtest by norms without bonuses for speed; pass/fail scoring only. Time limits still apply.

Standard Working Memory Subtests

Digit Span
: repeating

dictated series of digits (e.g., 4 1 7 9

= 4 1 7 9
) forwards
, another set of

s
eries
backwards

(e.g., 4 1 7 9 = 9 7 1 4), and yet another set in numerical order (e.g., 4 1 7 9

=
1
4
7 9)
.
Each set of series
begin
s

with two digits and keep
s

increasing in length, with two trials at each length.

Supplemental Working Memory Subtest

Lett
er
-
Number Sequencing
: repeating dictated random series of letters and digits in numerical, then
alphabetical order (e.g.,

4 3 R 9 B =

3 4 9 B R).

Working Memory Process Subtests

Digit Span

has additional
scaled
scores for digits forward
, digits

backward
,
and digit sequencing

raw
scores (1 point for each series recalled correctly) and also for the greatest number of digits recalled
forward
, backward,
in sequence, and on the letter
-
number task.






Test Descriptions 3.2
2.12




p.
9



Standard Processing Speed Subtests





1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

C
oding
**: transcribing a digit
-
symbol code as quickly as possible for





















2 minutes

Symbol Search
**: deciding if either of two

target symbols appears in

3 7 4 1 2 9 6 5 2 1 4

a row and marking
the symbol
or
NO

accordingly.



Supplemental Processing Speed Subtest
























N0

Cancellation
:
speed of marking
designated pictures
among
many similar, but different
pictures
.

_____________________________________

* time limit ** time limit and bonuses for speed


The
Full Scale IQ
score is derived from the sum of the scaled scores on the ten
Standard subtests (if
absolutely necessary, using Supplemental subtests as substitutes). The Full Scale IQ summarizes overall
performance on the abilities measured by the WISC
-
IV, but its usefulness diminishes as variability
increases among the component
scores. Also, it obviously does not reflect abilities not measured by the
WISC
-
IV.

The
General Ability Index

(GAI) is derived from the sum of scaled scores on the six Standard Verbal
Comprehension and Perceptual Reasoning subtests. It measures higher
-
lev
el verbal and nonverbal
thinking abilities

without the Working Memory and Processing Speed subtests
. GAI norms are based on
the original WAIS
-
IV norming sample.

The
Cognitive

Proficiency

Index

(CP
I) is derived from the

sum of scaled scores on the four

Sta
ndard
Working Memory and Processing Speed

subtests. It measures
more automatic, less intellectual
"processing"
abilities
.

Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, 3
rd

ed. (WPPSI
-
III). David Wechsler, The
Psychological Corporation, 2002.


Th
e WPPSI
-
III is an individual test that does not require reading or writing. The Verbal subtests are
oral questions without time limits except for Arithmetic. The Performance subtests are nonverbal (both
spatial and fluid reasoning) prob
lems, several of
which are timed. The Processing Speed subtests are paper
-
and
-
pencil measures of clerical speed and accuracy. Subtest scores, IQ scores, and factor index scores are
based on the scores of the 1,700 children of ages 2
-
6 through 7
-
3 originally tested in a ve
ry carefully
designed, nationwide sample, but still must be interpreted very cautiously for any individ
ual, especially one
who may have somewhat unusual patterns of strengths and weaknesses. As with any test, influences

such
as anxiety, motivation, fatig
ue, rapport, and experience may invalidate test scores. Total scores are based
on Core subtests, but up to two Supplemental subtests (one Verbal and/or one Performance and/or Symbol
Search for Coding) may be substituted for Core subtests if necessary. [*

indicates time limits on test
items.]

Block Design
* (Core for ages 2
-
6 to 7
-
3): imitating and copying block constructions and pictures of
geometric designs with plastic cubes. Scoring is 2
-
1
-
0 for the first items, then 2
-
0 for the rest.

Matrix Reasoning
(Core for ages 4
-
0 to 7
-
3): multiple
-
choice, pictorial test of choosing the missing piece
to complete a pattern or logical relationship. Scoring is pass/fail.

Picture Concepts
(Core for ages 4
-
0 to 7
-
3): multiple
-
choice, pictorial test of choosing one pic
ture from
each of two or three rows so that the chosen pictures "go with" each other. Scoring is pass/fail.

Picture Completion*
(Supplemental for ages 2
-
6 to 7
-
3): identifying missing parts of pictures. Pass/fail.

Test Descriptions 3.2
2.12




p.
10



Object Assembly*
(Core for ages 2
-
6 to
3
-
11, Supplemental for ages 4
-
0 to 7
-
3): puzzles of cut
-
apart
objects with no outline pieces. Score is based on number of correctly connected pieces.

Information
: (Core for ages 2
-
6 to 7
-
3): oral, general information questions (e.g., "What color is the
sky?"), the first few using pointing rather than oral responses. Scoring is pass/fail.

Vocabulary

(Core for ages 4
-
0 to 7
-
3): naming pictures and giving oral definitions of words. Scoring is 2
-
1
-
0 for most items, according to the quality of the responses
.

Word Reasoning

(Core for ages 4
-
0 to 7
-
3): guessing a word from 1, 2, or 3 clues (e.g., "It has 4 legs; it
barks; and it is a pet."). Scoring is pass/fail.

C
omprehension

(Supplemental for ages 4
-
0 to 7
-
3): oral questions of social and practical understa
nding
(e.g., "Why do we need police?"). Scoring is 2
-
1
-
0 for most items, based on quality.

Similarities
(Supplemental for ages 4
-
0 to 7
-
3): The child completes sentences, e.g., "Hammers and saws
are both ___?" Scoring is 2
-
1
-
0 for most items, according
to the quality of the responses.

Symbol Search*
(Supplemental for ages 4
-
0 through 7
-
3): speed and accuracy of marking matching
symbols in rows or marking "?" if there is no match. Score: correct minus wrong in two minutes.

Coding
* (Core for ages 4
-
0 thro
ugh 7
-
3): speed and accuracy of marking shapes with different lines
according to a shape
-
symbol code printed on a page. Score: number correct in two minutes.

Receptive Vocabulary

(Core for ages 2
-
6 to 3
-
11, Optional for ages 4
-
0 to 7
-
3): Multiple
-
choice
matching
of pictures to words spoken by the evaluator. Scoring is pass/fail.

Picture Naming

(Supplemental for ages 2
-
6 to 3
-
11, Optional for ages 4
-
0 to 7
-
3): Scoring is pass/fail.

Verbal IQ
is based on Information, Vocabulary, and Word Reasoning (4
-
0 to

7
-
3) or Receptive
Vocabulary and Information (2
-
6 to 3
-
11) with one permitted substitution of a supplemental subtest.

Performance IQ
is based on Block Design, Matrix Reasoning, and Picture Concepts (4
-
0 to 7
-
3) or Block
Design and Object Assembly (2
-
6 to
3
-
11) with one permitted substitution.

Full Scale IQ
is based on the subtests included in the Verbal and Performance IQ scales (plus Coding for
ages 4
-
0 to 7
-
3).

Processing Speed Quotient

is based on Coding and Symbol Search for ages 4
-
0 to 7
-
3.

General La
nguage Composite

is based on Receptive Vocabulary and Picture Naming.


Wechsler
Nonverbal
Scale

of Ability
(W
NV
).
David Wechsler

& Jack A. Naglieri
.


The

Psychological Corporation, 2006
.


The WNV

is an individual test that does not require reading or writing.
Administration is
accomplished primarily by

pictorial

illustrations, demonstrations, and pantomime.

Subtest and
Full Scale

scores ar
e based on the scores of the 1,3
50
children,
adolescents
,

and adults
in the U.S. and 875 in
Canada, in

very carefully designed, nationwide sample
s
, but still must be interpreted very cautiously for
any individ
ual, especially one who may have somewhat unusual patterns of strengths and weaknesses. As
with any te
st, influences

such as anxiety, motivation, fatigue, rapport, and experience may invalidate test
scores.

Matrices
: completing logical arrangements of designs with missing parts; multiple
-
choice.

Coding**
: transcribing a digit
-
symbol code as



1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9


quickly as possible for 90 seconds.























Object Assembly
**: puzzles of cut
-
apart silhouette objects




2
7 5


9 1


3 8 6 5


2 4


with no model or edge pieces.







.
Recognition
:
looking briefly at a geometric design and then



selecting the same design from memory among several similar choices.



Spatial Span
: the examiner

taps cubes in a certain sequence
of 2 up to 9 cubes and the examinee taps them

in the same sequence (Forward) or, in the second part, in reversed sequence (Backward)
.

Test Descriptions 3.2
2.12




p.
11



Picture Arrangement*
: putting
jumbled
cartoon pictures into sequences to

tell logical
stories.


Full Scale Score

is based on
Matrices, Coding, Object Assembly, and Recognition for children of ages
4:0 through 7:11 and on Matrices, Coding, Spatial Span, and Picture Arrangement for examinees of ages
8:00 through 21:11.

[
* Time limits ** Tim
e limits and bonus points for speed.
]


Leiter International Performance Scale
-
Revised, Roid & Miller, 1997


The revised Leiter is an almost utterly nonverbal set of test batteries administered by pantomime
and demonstration with almost no verbal
instructions to the student and no verbal responses from the
student. The Visualization and Reasoning Battery, normed on 1,719 students uses pictures and abstract
designs to test a variety of thinking processes from simple matching of identical pictures t
o mental
visualization of two
-

and three
-
dimensional figures to complex, nonverbal analogies. The Attention and
Memory Battery, normed on 763 of the same students, uses visual materials and paper
-
and
-
pencil tests to
measure attention, concentration, and m
emory. Each subtest begins with items for teaching and practice
to avoid the need for verbal instructions. Figuring out the tasks is part of the challenge of this scale.
There are also parent, teacher, and self rating scales for typical behavior, normed

on 785, 173, and 208
students, and an examiner rating scale for the student’s behavior during the test session normed on 1,719
students.

Visualization and Reasoning Battery

Figure Ground (FG) ages 2
-

20.

The examinee is shown a picture, such as animals
in a field or a city street scene
and is given cards each containing one small detail from the picture, which must be matched to the correct place in
the picture. The details become smaller and more obscure as the test progresses.

Design Analogies (DA) ag
es 6
-

20
. The examinee is shown a matrix of abstract geometric designs that follow a
logical pattern of relationships and must choose and correctly place one or more cards to complete the logical
sequence or pattern. Three of the lat four items have tim
e limits and bonus points for speed.

Form Completion FC) ages 2
-

20
. The examinee must match cards with scattered fragments of pictures or
abstract geometric designs with the correct assembled pictures or designs.

Matching (M) ages 2
-

10
. The examinee

must match identical pictures or abstract geometric designs. The designs
become increasingly complex and begin to differ in only tiny details on the most difficult items.

Sequential Order (SO) ages 2
-

20
. The examinee must place cards with pictures or
abstract geometric designs into
logical sequences on the basis of increasingly abstract principles.

Repeated Patterns (RP) ages 2
-

20
. The examinee must place cards with pictures or abstract geometric designs to
complete increasingly complex logical sequ
ences. Later items involve multiple, simultaneous variables.

Picture Context (PC) ages 2
-

5.

The examinee must place cards with single pictures together with pictures of
scenes, environments, or social situations that are somehow related to the single p
ictures.

Classification (C) ages 2
-

5.

The examinee must place cards with pictures or abstract geometric designs with
other single pictures or designs on the basis of various relationships that the examinee must infer.

Paper Folding (PF) ages 6
-

20
. Th
e examinee must match pictures of plane or three
-
dimensional constructions
(such as a cube with different patterns on the visible faces) with pictures of them unfolded (such as a T of six
squares with different patterns on the six squares, only three of wh
ich would be visible if it were folded into a
cube). The last three items have time limits and bonus points for speed.

Figure Rotation (FR) ages 11
-

20
. The examinee must match pictures with versions that have been rotated and/or
flipped front
-
to
-
back.

The last three items have time limits and bonus points for speed.

Attention and Memory Battery

Test Descriptions 3.2
2.12




p.
12



Associated Pairs (AP) ages 2
-

20.
The examinee is shown pairs of pictures and is then shown only the first
picture of each pair, which must be matched with the correct second picture.
Delayed Pairs
is a surprise retest
near the end of the battery.

Immediate Recognition (IR) ages 4
-

10
.
The examinee is shown for 5 seconds a group of pictures, which is then
removed, and must select from a set of cards only those that were in the group.

Delayed Recognition

is a surprise
retest near the end of the battery.

Forward Memory

(FM)

ages 2
-

20
.

requires the examinee to point to one, two, three, or four pictures in an array
of four; three to five in an array of six; or four to eight pictures in an array of eight in the same sequence that was
demonstrated by the examiner.

Attention Sustained (AS) a
ges 2
-

20
. Timed tests of finding and marking target pictures or shapes on pages of
similar pictures or shapes. Score is based on total correct minus errors.



Reverse Memory

(RM)

ages 6
-

20
requires the examinee to point to three or four pictures in

an array of four; or
three to eight pictures in an array of eight in reversed sequence from that demonstrated by the examiner.

Visual Coding (VC) ages 6
-

20
. Early items require the child to match cards on the basis of a code shown on the
easel. Later
items require the examinee to follow complex. logical steps to interpret the codes.

Spatial Memory (SM) ages 6
-

20
. The examinee is shown pictures on grids with two to twelve squares. The
pictures are removed and the examinee must place cards with the s
ame pictures in the same squares where the
pictures had been shown.

Attention Divided (AD) ages 6
-

20
. A timed task on which the examinee must alternate rapidly between pointing
to target pictures on a large sheet of pictures as quickly as possible and s
orting number cards into numerical order
as quickly as possible.


Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence (CTONI
-
2
),
Donald D.
Hamm
ill, Nils Pearson, & J.
Lee Wiederholt, Pro
-
Ed, 2009
.



The CTONI is a visual, multiple
-
choice test of
intelligence with six subtests: Analogies (this goes with that
as this goes with which one?), Categories (which one of these
goes with the ones up here?), and Sequences (which one of
these would come next in t
hat series?), each with pictorial
items and abstract, geometric items. Directions to the student
may be given either orally, by pantomime, or by computer
administration. The student chooses responses by pointing (or
clicking the computer mouse). Each s
kill (completing analogies, filling in missing parts of sequences,
and finding pictures that go together) is presented in two subtests, one using abstract geometric shapes and
designs and one using line drawings of real objects. For example, a pictorial a
nalogy item might show a
big cat, a little kitten, and a big dog. The examinee would be expected to select the picture of the little
puppy from the choices offered. A geometric analogy item (shown above) might have a white circle and a
black circle follo
wed by a white square. The examinee would be expected to select the black square from
among the choices offered. Scores are based on norms established with
about 2,827
children and adults in
a nationwide sample

in 2007
-
2008
.



Test Descriptions 3.2
2.12




p.
13



Raven Progressive

Matrices, 1998/2003 Manual

(norms

are older). J. C. Raven.
Pearson Assessment
.


The Raven Progressive Matrices (Coloured set for

younger children, Standard for older children and adults,
and

very difficult
Advanced set) are nonverbal tests of reasoning

ability.
The student is shown a pattern of geometric designs

with
one part missing and must choose

from six choic
es the

correct part to complete the pattern logically.


Stanford
-
Binet Intelligence Scales 5
th

ed.

(SB5)
. Gail Roid, Riverside Publishing, 2003


This is the latest version of the oldest modern individual intelligence test. It is divided in two
ways.
There are verbal and nonverbal (really less verbal) scales, each of which includes five factors: Fluid
Reasoning, Verbal Knowledge, Quantitative Reasoning, Visual
-
Spatial Processing, and Working Memory.

The scores can be reported by the two scales and/or
the five factors. It was normed on 4,800 individuals
of ages 2 past 80, with 400 at each year of age from 2 through 16.

nonverbal fluid reasoning

verbal fluid reasoning

Fluid Reasoning Total

nonverbal knowledge

verbal knowledge

Knowledge Total

nonverbal quantitative reasoning

verbal quantitative reasoning

Quantitative Reasoning Total

nonverbal visual
-
spatial processing

verbal visual
-
spatial processing

Visual
-
Spatial Processing Total

nonverbal working memory

verbal working memory

Working Memor
y Total

Total Nonverbal Score

Total Verbal Score


FULL SCALE SCORE


Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, 2
nd

ed. (KABC
-
II). Alan S. Kaufman & Nadeen L.
Kaufman, American Guidance Service, 2004.

The KABC
-
II is a major revision of cognitive ability
test. It uses different combinations of
subtests at different ages from three through eighteen to test up to five areas of cognitive ability. The
KABC
-
II may be interpreted by Luria's theory as a measure of Sequential and Simultaneous (or
Successive) pro
cessing, Planning, and Learning for a Mental Processing

Index

(MPI)
or by Cattell
-
Horn
-
Carroll (CHC) theory as a measure of
Short
-
Term Memory (G
sm
), Visual
-
Spatial Thinking (G
v
), Fluid
Reasoning (G
f
), Long
-
Term Storage and Retrieval (G
lr
), and
Comprehension
-
Knowledge (G
c
) for a
Fluid
-
Crystallized Index (FCI). There is a
lso an optional Nonverbal Index based on tests that use little
oral language. The KABC
-
II was normed on a nationwide sample of 3,025 individuals of ages 3 through
18
.

Sequent
ial/G
sm

Scale

Number Recall
.
The examiner dictates increasingly long series of digits, which the examinee must repeat
verbatim.

This is a core subtest for ages 4

through
18 and a supplemental subtest for age 3.

Word Order
.
There is a set of pictures.

The examiner names some of them and the examinee must point
to the named pictures in the order they were named. The task is made more difficult by requiring the
examinee to name rows of colors as quickly as possible between hearing the names and pointing

to the
pictures.

Simultaneous/G
v

Scale











1 2 3 4 5 6

Test Descriptions 3.2
2.12




p.
14



Conceptual Thinking

requires the examinee to choose the one picture that does not belong logically with
the others.
The logic changes from item to item.
This is a core subtest for ages 3

through
6.

Face Recognition.
The examinee is shown one or two faces and
then
must find them from memory in a
group picture. This is a core subtest for ages 3

through
4 and a supplemental subtest for age 5.


Rover.

This is a complex maze task in which the examinee must move a toy dog through the shortest
path, avoiding blocked squares. The task has time limits. This is a core subtest for ages 6 through 18.

Triangles
. The examinee copies models or pictured desig
ns by assembling colored, plastic circles and
squares (for younger children) and triangles (for older examinees). Items have time limits. This is a
core subtest for ages 3 through 12 and a supplemental subtest for ages 13 through 18.

Gestalt Closure
.
The examinee must identify pictures
with increasingly large parts whited out.
This is a
supplementary subtest at ages 3

through
18.


Block Counting.

The examinee must count visible and hidden blocks in pictures of piles of blocks. Items
have time limits. Partial credit is given for nearly correct answers to the more difficult items. This is
a core subtest for ages 13 through 18 and a supplemental
subtest for ages 5 through 12.

Pattern Reasoning

is a multiple
-
choice, pictorial subtest in which the examinee chooses the picture or
abstract design that best completes a logical series. There are bonus points for fast work, but no time
limits. It can a
lso be scored without bonus points for speed. This is a core subtest for ages 5 through
18. .

Planning/
Gf
Scale

Story Completion
.

The exam
inee is shown a series of pictures

illustrating an event. One or more p
ictures

are missing, and the examinee mus
t select the correct one(s) to go in the empty spaces(s). There are
time limits and bonus points for speed, but the can be scored "untimed" if necessary.
This is a core
subtest for ages 7

through
18 and a supplemental subtest for age 6.


Pattern Reasoni
ng

is a multiple
-
choice, pictorial subtest in which the examinee chooses the picture or
abstract design that best completes a logical series. There are bonus points for fast work, but no time
limits. It can also be scored without bonus points for speed.

This is a core subtest for ages 5 through
18.

Learning/G
lr

Scale

Atlantis

requires the examinee to learn the nonsense names (e.g., "Forp") of
cartoon fish, plants, and
shells
. The examiner corrects errors.

Partial credit is given for wrong responses in the right category.
This is a core subtest for ages 3

through
18.


Atlantis Delayed
.

The examinee is
later
retested
without warning
on the nonsense names. This is a
supplemental subtest.

Rebus.
The exam
inee is taught rebus symbols for words [e.g., 0 = boy, x = not,


= after] and then
"reads" phrases and sentences written with the rebuses. This is a core subtest for ages 4 through 18.

Rebus Delayed.

The examinee is later retested without warning on t
he rebus symbols. This is a
supplemental subtest.

Knowledge/G
c

Scale

Expressive Vocabulary.
The examinee names pictures. This is a core subtest for ages 3 through 6 and a
supplemental subtest for ages 7 through 18.


Test Descriptions 3.2
2.12




p.
15



Verbal Knowledge.

The examinee points to one of six pictures that best illustrates a word or fact (e.g.,
Point to "scofflaw"

or Point to what Alexander Graham Bell

invented).
This is a core subtest for ages
7 through 18 and a supplemental subtest for ages 3 through 6.

Riddles
.

For the easiest items, the child points to the picture on a page of pictures that the examiner
describes. Remaining items are three
-
part riddles, e.g., "What has wheels and a motor and is used to
cut grass?"
This is a core subtest for ages 3
through 18.



Nonverbal Index

Conceptual Thinking.

Face Recognition.

Story Completion.

Triangles
.

Block Counting
.

Pattern Reasoning.

Hand Movements.
The examinee must imitate increasingly long, random sequences of three different
hand movements made by the examiner. This is a Nonverbal Index subtest for ages
4 through 18.

Kaufman Adolescent & Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT). Alan S. Kaufman & Nadeen L.

Kaufman,
American Guidance Service, 1993.


The KAIT is an individual test designed to measure intellectual ability and to compare “crystallized” with “fluid”
reasoning abilities. Fluid reasoning is the “ability to solve new problems, specifically the typ
e that are not made easier by
extended education or intensive acculturation . . . includ[ing] measures of inductive reasoning, deductive reasoning,
classification concept formation, and understanding of figural relations. Flexibility, analytic ability, an
d adaptability when
faced with novel problem
-
solving situations closely relate to . . . fluid intelligence tests.” Crystallized ability is “closely similar
to . . . fluid intelligence [but] relates closely to advanced education and acculturation either in

the basic principles underlying
the problem or in the operations needed to act on those principles.” The KAIT also includes a mental status examination and
delayed recalled subtests. The KAIT was normed from 1988 through 1991 on 2,000 adolescents and ad
ults from most of the
U.S. except the northwest and on a special sample of 110 clinical patients. Although the KAIT correlates well with other,
traditional intelligence tests, the tasks are unusual, and results should be interpreted with caution.

Crystall
ized Scale:

Definitions
: The student is shown a printed word with letters missing, is told a synonym for the word, and

is asked to identify the word, e.g., “cow”
_ o v _ n _

or “everywhere”
_ b i _ _ i _ o u s
.

Auditory Comprehension
: The student listens

to taped radio news and commentary and is asked questions

about each piece. Answers require both comprehension, memory, and inferences.

Double Meanings
: For each word, the student is given two words that are related to one meaning and two

other words
that are related to another meaning of the same word. The student must guess the

word. For example, for “cow,” the clue words might be “bovine, farm” and “frighten, intimidate.”

Famous Faces
: The student is shown one, two, or three photographs of famous persons and is asked to

name one or more of them, e.g., “Name two of these three U.S. presidents.” This is a supplemen
-

tary subtest not included in the Crystallized or total score unless su
bstituted for another subtest.

Fluid Scale:

Rebus Learning
: The student learns and “reads” rebus symbols for words, e.g.,


= “a,”

= “man,”


=

“in,”


= “after.” Each symbol is taught, but subsequent errors are not corrected (unlike most

rebus
-
learnin
g tests). The symbols are presented in phrases and sentences. Synonyms and close

approximations to the correct words are accepted.

Test Descriptions 3.2
2.12




p.
16



Logical Steps
: The student is told and shown a set of logical rules and m
ust solve problems using those
rules, e.g., Ralph

is 2 inches taller than Arnold (R 2 A) and Sally is 1
inch taller than Ralph (S 1 R)
and Ralph is 1 inch taller than Anne (R 1 A). Arnold is 68 inches tall. How tall is Anne?

The
rules
become very complicated, and there are several problems for each
se
t of rules. Each item has
a
time limit.

Mystery Codes
: The student is shown designs with two
-

or three
-
part symbol codes that indicate size,

shape, or color of various parts of the designs. The student must determine the correct code for

another design
.

Memory for Block

Designs
: The student is briefly shown a geometric design and then asked to recreate the
design from memory with colored, patterned blocks. This is a supplementary subtest not included
in the Fluid or total score unless substituted for an
other subtest.

Delayed Recall:

Rebus Learning
: The student is retested by being asked to “read” sentences “written” with the previously

learned rebus symbols.

Auditory Comprehension
: The student is tested with additional questions about the taped radio ne
ws and

commentary that were presented earlier.


Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS). Cecil R. Reynolds & Randy W. Kamphaus,
Psychological Assessment Resources, 2003.


The RIAS includes two verbal, two nonverbal, and two memory subtests. All of the subtests were
developed from well
-
known and researched formats from earlier tests, but the combination of these
subtests into these particular scales is unique. The RIAS was
normed on a nationwide, random, stratified
sample of
2,438 persons ranging in age from 3 to 94. The RIAS Manual reports high correlations with the
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC
-
III) [r = .76], Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS
-
III)
[r = .79], and Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT) [r = .69 for total achievement].

Guess What (GWH): the examinee attempts to identify an object or concept from verbal clues (e.g.,
"What is made of wood, plastic, or metal and makes graphite marks
on paper?" or "What is circular or
semi
-
circular, is marked with degrees, and is used to measure angles?" or "Who discovered the moons
of Jupiter, discovered laws of motion, and was imprisoned for one of his publications?")

Verbal Reasoning (VRZ): the exam
inee completes spoken analogies (e.g., "Stroll is to slow as sprint is
to ___ " or "Circumnavigate is to perimeter as traverse is to ___").

Odd
-
Item Out (OIO): the examinee is given 20 seconds to determine which of six objects or abstract
designs does not
belong with the others. If the examinee chooses incorrectly, there is a second, 10
-
second chance to earn partial credit.

What's Missing (WHM): the examinee is given 20 seconds to tell what part has been removed from a
drawing. If the examinee chooses inco
rrectly, there is a second, 10
-
second chance to earn partial
credit.

Verbal Memory (VRM): the examinee attempts to repeat as precisely as possible several sentences or two short stories that
have been read aloud by the examiner.

Nonverbal Memory (NVM): the

examinee is given 20 seconds to choose one of six pictures that
matches a model that was exposed for five seconds and removed.
If the examinee chooses incorrectly,
there is a second, 10
-
second chance to earn partial credit.

Woodcock
-
Johnson Tests of Cogni
tive Ability and Diagnostic Supplement (WJ III). Richard W.
Woodcock, Kevin S. McGrew & Nancy Mather, Riverside Publishing, 2001; Normative Update,
2007.

Test Descriptions 3.2
2.12




p.
17




Unlike many individual ability tests, the WJ III Cognitive Ability tests are explicitly designed to a
ssess a student’s
abilities on many specific McGrew, Flanagan, and Ortiz Integrated Cattell
-
Horn
-
Carroll Gf
-
Gc (CHC) “cognitive factors,” not
just a total score or a few factors. Each of seven tests in the Standard Battery is designed to measure one facto
r. The Extended
Battery offers 7 more tests to make two for each factor. There are 3 Standard and 3 Extended tests that contribute to additi
onal
Clinical Clusters. Tests can also be combined into a General Intellectual Ability (GIA) score of 7 or 14 tes
ts and into several
Cognitive Categories. Examiners are permitted to select the tests they need to assess abilities in which they are interested

for a
particular student. The WJ III was normed on 8,818 children and adults (4,783 in grades kindergarten th
rough 12) in a well
-
designed, national sample. The norms were revised in 2007 to reflect current U. S. Census data. The same persons also
provided norms for the WJ III tests of academic achievement, so the ability and achievement tests can be compared di
rectly,
and cognitive and achievement tests can be combined to measure CHC factors.

Comprehension
-
Knowledge (Gc)



1.

Verbal Comprehension
. Naming pictures, giving anto
-

or synonyms for spoken words, and
completing oral analogies.


11.
General Informatio
n
. Answering "where" and "what" factual questions.

Long
-
Term Retrieval (Glr)
[note
-

“long
-
term” can be as short as several minutes]




2.

Visual
-
Auditory Learning
. The student is taught rebus symbols for words and tries to “read”



sentences writ
ten with those symbols.


12.
Retrieval Fluency
. The student tries to name as many things as possible in one minute in each


of three specified categories, e.g., fruits.

Visual
-
Spatial Thinking (Gv)



3.
Spatial Relations
. The student tries to select by sight alone, from many choices, the fragments




that could be assembled into a given geometric shape.


13.
Picture Recognition
. The student is shown one or more pictures and then tries to identify it



or them on

another page that includes several similar pictures

Auditory Processing (Ga)



4.

Sound Blending
. The student tries to identify words dictated broken into separate sounds.


14.

Auditory Attention
. The student tries to recognize words dictated against
increasingly loud


background noise.

Fluid Reasoning (Gf)



5.

Concept Formation
. For each item, the student tries to figure out the rule that divides a set of




symbols into two groups.


15.
Analysis
-
Synthesis
. The student tries to solve log
ical puzzles involving color codes similar to




mathematical and scientific symbolic rules.

Processing Speed (Gs)



6.

Visual Matching
. As quickly as possible for three minutes, the student circles the two




identical numbers in each row of si
x numbers.

16.

Decision Speed
. As quickly as possible for three minutes, the student tries to find the two


pictures in each row that are most similar conceptually (e.g., sundial and stopwatch).

Short
-
Term Memory (Gsm)




7.

Numbers Reversed
. Repeating

increasingly long series of dictated digits in reversed order.


17.

Memory for Words
. The student tries to repeat dictated random series of words in order.

Additional Tests

8.

Incomplete Words
. The student attempts to recognize words dictated with some sounds
omitted. This test also measures
Ga

9.
Auditory Working Memory
. The student tries to repeat randomly dictated words and numbers
(e.g., cow 9 up run 3 5) with the words first and then
the numbers in the order they were
dictated. This test also measures
Gsm

or working memory or division of attention.



10.

Visual
-
Auditory Learning


Delayed
. The student tries again to "read" sentences written with

the rebuses learned in Visual
-
Auditory Learning. There are norms from one half
-
hour to 8
days. This is an additional measure of
Glr.


Test Descriptions 3.2
2.12




p.
18



18.

Rapid Picture Naming
. The student tries to name simple pictures as quickly as possible for



two minutes. This test measures
Gs

and naming fac
ility or Rapid Automatized Naming



(RAN).

19.
Planning
. The student tries to trace a complex, overlapping path without lifting the pencil,



retracing any part of the path, or skipping any part.
Gf
and
Gv
are involved in this test.

20.

Pair
Cancellation
. The student tries scans rows of pictures and tries, as quickly as possible for



3 minutes to circle each instance in which a certain picture is followed by a certain other





picture (e.g., each cat followed by a tree). This test also m
easures
Gs.

Diagnostic Supplement


21.

Memory for Names
. The student is taught nonsense names for cartoon space creatures and




tries to recall the names when the cartoon creatures are repeatedly presented.


22.
Visual Closure
. The student tries t
o name pictures that have been distorted or obscured.


23.
Sound Patterns


Voice
. The student listens to two spoken nonsense words and says whether




the two words are identical or different.


24.

Number series
. The student tries to determine the
missing number in each logical series.


25.

Number matrices
. The student tries to determine the missing number in each grid of numbers.


26.

Cross Out
. As quickly as possible for three minutes, the student crosses out the five of twenty


abstract
symbols in each row that are identical to the first symbol in that row.


27.

Memory for Sentences
. The student attempts to repeat dictated sentences.


28.

Block Rotation
. The student tries to match drawings of three
-
dimensional block constructions




that have been rotated in space.


29.
Sound Patterns


Music
. The student tries to tell whether two musical tone patterns are the




same or different.



30.
Memory for Names


Delayed
. The student is retested 30 minutes to 8 days later on the




pr
eviously learned names for cartoon space creatures.


31.
Bilingual Verbal Comprehension


English/Spanish
. Spanish version of Test 1


Verbal



Comprehension: Naming pictures, giving anto
-

or synonyms for spoken words, and c




completing oral analogies
.

Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (2
nd

ed.) (KBIT
-
2). Alan S. Kaufman & Nadeen L. Kaufman,
American Guidance Service, 2004.


The KBIT
-
2 is a short test of cognitive ability with two verbal subtests and one nonverbal subtest.
The Verbal Knowledge subtest
requires the student to choose one of six pictures that best answers each
question read by the examiner, e.g., "Show me tumbling" or "Which is the location of the esophagus?"
The Riddles subtest asks the student to answer questions such as, "What is thin,

is used for writing, and
needs to be sharpened?" or "What is long and strong and can be used with a fulcrum to move heavy
objects?" The nonverbal Matrices subtest requires the student to choose one of several pictures or abstract
designs to logically com
plete a pattern or matrix of pictures or designs.

Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI). Pearson Assessment, 1999.

According to the publisher, the WASI "
consists of four subtests: Vocabulary, Similarities, Block
Design, and Matrix Reasoning. The four
-
subtest form can be administered in just 30 minutes and results
in VIQ, PIQ, and FSIQ scores. The VIQ score, a measure of crystallized abilities, is provided
by two types
of measures: the Vocabulary subtest for measuring word knowledge, verbal concept formation, and fund
of knowledge, and the Similarities subtest for measuring verbal reasoning and concept formation. The PIQ
score is provided by two different ty
pes of performance measures: Matrix Reasoning for measuring visual
information processing and abstract reasoning skills, and Block Design for measuring the ability to
analyze and synthesize abstract visual stimuli, nonverbal concept formation, visual perce
ption and
organization, simultaneous processing, visual
-
motor coordination, learning, and the ability to separate
Test Descriptions 3.2
2.12




p.
19



figure and ground in visual stimuli."

The WASI was nationally normed on 2,245 persons of ages 6 to 89
years.

Similarities
: explaining how tw
o different things (e.g., horse and cow) or concepts (e.g., hope and
fear) could be alike.

Vocabulary
: giving oral definitions of words.

Block Design
**: copying small geometric designs with four or nine larger plastic cubes. The most
difficult items o
ffer bonus points for speed.

Matrix Reasoning
: completing logical arrangements of designs
with missing parts; multiple
-
choice.

Neuropsychological Tests

Benton Laboratory of Neuropsychology: Selected Tests. Arthur L. Benton, Psychological
Assessment
Resources.


According to the publisher, "These classic tests provide additional substantive data in the
evaluation of brain
-
damaged patients. Each test is designed to be quickly and easily administered,
minimizing patient fatigue and maximizing the collect
ion of reliable neuropsychological test data. The
manual,

Contributions to Neuropsychological Assessment
, contains descriptions of the tests along with
normative and validity data, and must be purchased separately.

"Temporal Orientation
This brief test as
sesses the accuracy of an individual's temporal
orientation with relation to the day of the week, day of the month, month, year, and time of day. The test
provides a standardized procedure, based on empirically established norms, for interpreting an indivi
dual's
performance.

"Right
-
Left Orientation
This 20
-
item test requires an individual to point to lateral body parts on
verbal command. Form B is a mirror image of Form A in which the commands are reversed.
Administration time is 5 minutes.

"Serial Digit

Learning
This test consists of the presentation of either eight or nine randomly
selected single digits for a varying number of trials up to a maximum of 12. Three alternate versions are
provided for each form. Administration requires 5
-
10 minutes.

"Faci
al Recognition
A three
-
part standardized measure of the ability to match unfamiliar faces.
Contains a 27
-
item short form and a 54
-
item long form.

"Judgment Of Line Orientation
This is a standardized measure of visuospatial judgment in two
alternate forms
. The spiral
-
bound booklet contains 35 stimuli, five of which are practice items.

"Visual Form Discrimination
This measure of ability to discriminate between complex visual
configurations provides comparative data on clients with brain disease. Composed
of 16 items ranging in
level of difficulty, this brief, convenient procedure has proven utility because of its sensitivity to effects of
brain disease.

"Pantomime Recognition
This test requires the client to point to drawings of objects; the
pretended us
es of the objects are shown in a series of 30 videotaped pantomimes.

"Motor Impersistence
This battery consists of eight tests requiring the maintenance of a
movement or posture: keeping eyes closed, protruding tongue (blindfolded and eyes open), fixation of
gaze in lateral visual fields, keeping mouth open, central fixation during confrontatio
n testing of visual
fields, head turning during sensory testing, and saying 'ah.'"

Delis
-
Kaplan Executive Function System (D
-
KEFS). Dean Delis, Edith Kaplan, & Joel H. Kramer,
Pearson, 2001.

Test Descriptions 3.2
2.12




p.
20




As the name suggests, the D
-
KEFS is intended to assess various

executive functions in persons of
ages 8 through 89 years. According to the publisher, "
D
-
KEFS results can be used to assess the integrity
of the frontal system of the brain to determine how deficits in abstract, creative thinking may impact on an
indivi
dual's daily life, and to plan coping strategies and rehabilitation programs tailored to each patient's
profile of executive function strengths and weaknesses. There are "two forms: Standard Record Forms
include all nine D
-
KEFS tests, while the Alternate R
ecord Forms include alternate versions of D
-
KEFS
Sorting, Verbal Fluency, and 20 Questions Tests. An alternate set of Sorting Cards is also available."



Sorting Test: problem solving, verbal and spatial concept formation, flexibility of thinking




Trail Maki
ng Test: flexibility of thinking on a visual motor task



Verbal Fluency Test: fluent productivity in the verbal domain



Design Fluency Test: fluent productivity in the spatial domain



Colour
-
word Interference Test: verbal inhibition



Tower Test: planning and reasoning, impulsivity



20 Question Test: hypothesis testing, verbal and spatial abstract thinking



Word Context Test: deductive reasoning



Proverb Test: metaphorical thinking and comprehending abstract thought

NEPSY



Second Editi
on (NEPSY
-
II)
. Marit Korkman, Ursula Kirk, & Sally Kemp. The
Psychological Corporation

(Pearson), 200
7.

NEPSY, a neuropsychological instrument, assesses the five domains of attention/executive,
language, visuospatial, sensorimotor, and memory and learni
ng abilities

with forms
for ages 3

to 4 and 5
to 16
.

Thirty
-
two subtests are used to test six domains: attention and executive functioning, language,
memory and learning, sensorimotor, social perception, and visuospatial processing.
Different batteries o
f
combinations of seven to 19 subtests are recommended for various specific purposes.
Norms are based on
a nationally representative sample of 1,
2
00 children
, plus 260 other children with clinical diagnoses
.


Dean
-
Woodcock Neuropsychological Battery. R
aymond Dean & Richard W. Woodcock, Riverside Publishing, 2003.


The Dean
-
Woodock is a standardized, comprehensive assessment battery for sensory
-
motor functioning designed for
ages four through adult, including aged adults. It includes 18 subtests of lan
guage, motor, and fine
-
, gross
-
, and sensori
-
motor
tasks, a Structured Neuropsychological Interview, and am Emotional Status Examination. Test scores are given as
W
Diff
scores, which are translated into "impairment classifications": Within Normal
Limits, Mild to Within Normal Limits, Mild,
Moderate, and Severe. Scores can be calculated for 36 tasks and for Total Sensory, Total Motor, and Total Impairment. The
Dean
-
Woodcock was normed on a nationwide sample of 1,011 individuals of ages 2 through 9
5 (although norms are limited to
ages 4 through 80).

Comprehensive Trail
-
Making Test (CTMT).
Cecil R. Reynolds, Pro
-
Ed, 2002.


The CTMT is a new version of tests that have long been in use. The basic task is to draw lines
connecting circles on a page. T
he five trails become progressively more complex, beginning with digits in
the target circles ( 1


2


3


4 . . .), then adding empty circles as distracters, and then adding circles with
lines in them as distracters. The fourth trail is more complex (1


two


3


four


5 . . .), and the final
trail is very challenging (1


A


2


B


3


C . . .). Errors are pointed out immediately to the examinee,
who must correct them before continuing. Scores are based on the time needed to complete each trail
(
including time needed for any corrections). The CTMT was normed on 1,664 persons in 19 states. Their
ages were 11 through 74 years.

Trail
-
Making Tests A & B. Reitan Neuropsychological Labo
r
atories.


Dot
-
to
-
dot tests of speed and accuracy. Form A requir
es drawing lines from 1 to 2 to 3, etc. Form
B requires constant shifting as the examinee draws lines from 1 to A to 2 to B, etc.

Test Descriptions 3.2
2.12