Off-shore Aquaculture

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5 Φεβ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Can the oceans keep
up

with the
Hunt???

Copyright 2007 Habitat Media

Open Ocean Aquaculture

Laura Thurman

Josh Tobias

Will Pitt

OPEN OCEAN
AQUACULTURE

BY

LAURA THURMAN

JOSH TOBIAS

AND NONE OTHER
THAN

WILL PITT

Our Stance


It is clear that open ocean aquaculture can be
an effective option to reduce the nation's
dependence on seafood imports, provide jobs
for economically depressed coastal communities,
and
meet the growing consumer demand for
safe, healthy seafood.



What is Open Ocean



Aquaculture?



Open Ocean Aquaculture is broadly defined as the rearing of
marine organisms under controlled conditions in exposed, high
-
energy ocean environments beyond significant coastal influence.



Activities are located at a considerable distance from shore and are
open to the natural ocean elements from all sides.


Facilities consist of systems (e.g., cages, net
-
pens, longline
arrays) that can be free
-
floating, secured to a structure,
moored to the ocean bottom, or towed by a vessel.

Cage mounted autonomous feeding systems have been developed that can
operate both at the surface and submerged.


ABC Special on Open Ocean Aquaculture

MAJOR CHALLENGES

to open ocean aquaculture development


Choosing appropriate species and culture
techniques


The following must be identified


Species selection


Egg/larval production


Nutritional/dietary requirements



species and culture techniques



Halibut, haddock, cod, flounder, blue mussels, mutton, snapper, cobia,
yellowtail snapper, amberjack, corvina, mahimahi, red drum, tuna, striped
bass, and other species.






Other research topics being investigated:


Hatchery culture technologies; designs for automated feeders; culture of new
species; identification and control of diseases; development of cages and
husbandry technology through rough waters; alternative food sources; nutrition
requirements; development of environmental monitoring technology etc…

MAJOR CHALLENGES

to open ocean aquaculture development


Obtaining sufficient start
-
up capital
investment


New and developmental technology, the risk of uncertainty associated with
operating in exposed open ocean locations, lack of operational experience,
and high capital start up costs make estimating profitablity and securing
financing difficult for new OOA companies.


High maintenance costs b/c of offshore location


Proponents say that without some form of long
-
term leasing of water
surface, water column, and seabed, OOA will have significant problems in
securing capital from traditional funding sources, insurance,


(refer to National Offshore Aquaculture Act of 2007)


For development to occur one must accept that open ocean aquaculture is “big
science” along the lines of atomic/nuclear physics research


Seeking and promoting partnerships with other industries

MAJOR CHALLENGES

to open ocean aquaculture development


Remaining competitive in an international
market


Dependable air freight has allowed aquaculture
operations to market globally


81% of the seafood consumed in America is imported.


40% of those imports are farmed.


Can the U.S OOA operations produce their product at prices
competitive with foreign aquaculture?


U.S. marine aquaculture is a mere 1.5% of U.S. seafood supply.


MAJOR CHALLENGES

to open ocean aquaculture development


Designing and constructing facilities able
to withstand the open ocean marine
environment


Systems have been developed to withstand
unpredictable wave conditions such as cages that do not
deform under current and wave loads, submersible
cages, and single

point moorings.

MAJOR CHALLENGES

to open ocean aquaculture development


Evaluating social and economic impacts


Little evidence provided of economic benefits


Could hurt the local fisherman


Alaska


Could lower prices


MAJOR CHALLENGES

to open ocean aquaculture development


Addressing potential environmental
impacts


Similar but fewer problems than that of nearshore


Depends on technique, location, size/scale, species


Can the Oceans keep up with the
Hunt
?
2of3



Why why why why whY???


The

National

Oceanic

and

Atmospheric

Administration

(NOAA),

an

agency

within

the

U
.
S
.

Department

of

Commerce,

is

working

to

enhance/increase

domestic

seafood

supply

to

meet

the

growing

demand

for

all

seafood

products
.

Currently,

over

80
%

of

the

seafood

Americans

consume

is

imported,

and

at

least

half

of

those

imports

are

farmed

seafood
.

Additional

U
.
S
.

aquaculture

can

help

the

nation

reduce

its

$
8

billion

seafood

trade

deficit,

provide

additional

jobs

and

revenue

for

coastal

communities,

and

meet

the

growing

consumer

demand

for

safe,

healthy

seafood
.



Why why why why whY???


Right

now,

most

U
.
S
.

marine

aquaculture

products

come

from

shellfish,

which

are

grown

onshore

or

in

coastal

areas
.

However,

new

technology

and

equipment,

and

the

promising

results

of

open

ocean

aquaculture

demonstration

projects

in

state

waters,

are

leading

to

opportunities

for

seafood

farming

further

from

the

coast,

in

federal

waters

three

to

200

miles

off

shore
.

The

federal

waters

of

the

U
.
S
.

Exclusive

Economic

Zone

cover

3
.
4

million

square

miles

of

ocean

and

hold

promise

for

this

new

type

of

aquaculture
.




Highlighted in blue in the map above, the
U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone ~ also
known as federal waters ~ covers 3.4
million square miles of ocean. [
U.S.
Commission on Ocean Policy map
]


Why why why why whY???


While

there

are

many

potential

benefits

to

offshore

aquaculture,

there

are

also

barriers

blocking

the

expansion

of

aquaculture

into

federal

waters
.

Currently,

there

is

no

clear

authority

for

the

permitting

of

offshore

aquaculture

in

federal

waters
.

To

address

this

challenge,

the

Administration

will

propose

the

National

Offshore

Aquaculture

Act

of

2007

early

in

the

110
th

Congress
.

If

enacted,

the

Act

will

establish

the

legal

framework

regarding

permits,

enforcement,

and

monitoring

of

aquaculture

in

federal

waters
.



The National Offshore Aquaculture Act
of 2007




Specifically, the bill will:


• Authorize the Secretary of Commerce to issue offshore
aquaculture permits.


• Require the Secretary of Commerce to establish environmental
requirements.


• Require the Secretary of Commerce to work with other federal
agencies to develop and implement a streamlined and
coordinated permitting process for offshore aquaculture.


• Exempt permitted offshore aquaculture from fishing
regulations that restrict size, season and harvest methods.


• Authorize the establishment of a research and development
program for marine aquaculture.


• Authorize funding to carry out the Act and provide for
enforcement of the Act.



The National Offshore Aquaculture
Act of 2007


The

2007

proposal

includes

requirements

to

ensure

that

offshore

aquaculture

proceeds

in

an

environmentally

responsible

manner

that

is

consistent

with

stated

policy

to

protect

wild

stocks

and

the

quality

of

marine

ecosystems

and

is

compatible

with

other

uses

of

the

marine

environment
.



the

proposal

will

provide

the

necessary

regulatory

certainty

to

facilitate

expansion

of

aquaculture

in

federal

waters,

where

there

is

significant

potential

for

development

of

the

U
.
S
.

aquaculture

industry
.



RESPONSIBLE AQUACULTURE


the

most

immediate

challenge

is

to

establish

clear

rules

to

allow

this

type

of

aquaculture

and,

ultimately,

allow

the

nation

to

take

advantage

of

this

new

opportunity

for

seafood

production

in

federal

waters
.

At

the

same

time,

the

federal

government

must

ensure

that

human

health,

the

marine

environment,

and

wild

stocks

are

protected
.



THANK YOU FOR YOU TIME

Based on demand and population growth
projections in the United States, the projected
domestic seafood gap in 2025 is 2
-
4 million tons