ENG0308 Session 6 - English Department

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5 Φεβ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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Professional Development Course on Catering for Diversity
in English Language Teaching

ENG5316


Assessing Diversity in English Language Learning

Session 6

Assessing progress, learning plans and
statements

Prepared by YANG, Chi Cheung Ruby,
Department of English, HKIEd

Assessment

2


“Assessment is more than merely testing students. Rather,
it involves collecting data to form a holistic picture of a
student so that the teacher can plan instruction and
promote student progress” (Meese, 2001, p. 130).


In combination, the various forms of assessment give
teachers the needed documentation by which to make
informed educational decisions to promote student
achievement.


Steps in the Assessment Process

3

Identification and Referral

Program Implementation and
Evaluation

Program Planning

4

Identification and Referral


Identification of students with possible disabilities


Involve the largest number of students


Not necessarily result in referral


When a disability is suspected, the assessment process
involves a
multidimentional

evaluation.

5

Screening and Teacher Identification



Complete checklists or rating forms to identify students
with potential problems


Conferences with students and parents


Review of school records


Changes in instruction

Checklists and Rating Scales

6


Checklists are sequential lists of skills that the teacher
completes for a particular student.


Rating scales are instruments by which the teacher
judges a student’s performance or behavior.


The rating is often completed using a Likert scale
measure.

7

Program Planning


Design of the Individualized Education Program (IEP)

8

Design of the IEP


Developed before the student begins to receive special
services


A meeting must be held to examine the appropriateness
of the IEP and revise it, if necessary

9

Program Implementation and Evaluation


To determine whether the educational program is
effective or not


Modify the program, if necessary

10

What should be included in the IEP
?


Student’s present levels of educational performance


A statement of measurable annual goals & short
-
term
objectives


Needed special education, supplementary aids, & program
modifications and supports


The projected date for the beginning of the services and
modifications, and the anticipated frequency, location, and
duration of those services and modifications


A statement of how the student’s progress toward the annual
goals will be measured

11

Ongoing Monitoring of Progress


Analysis of work samples


Criterion
-
referenced test


Observation


Informal Assessment in the
Classroom

12


Informal assessment procedures make use of any data the
teacher collects to monitor the progress of students and
make instructional decisions.


Informal assessment methods often employ the specific
curricular materials used when teaching students.

Curriculum
-
Based Assessment

13


When assessment involves the actual curricular
materials that students are using, the procedure is called
curriculum
-
based assessment.


Frequent and direct assessment, when used to evaluate
student objectives, helps teachers determine the
effectiveness of instruction.

Curriculum
-
Based Assessment

14


APPLY

as a framework


A

= ____________

the curriculum


Determine the foundational skills, important competencies and ultimate
outcomes for students.


P

= __________ items to meet curriculum objectives


P

= __________ frequently


Give the CBA several times across the days in order to make decisions
about student learning.


L

= __________ data on a graph


Use a graph to plot daily performance data.


Y

= __________ to results


Make decisions regarding student progress and revise instruction
accordingly.

Authentic Assessment & Performance
-
Based Assessment

15


Authentic assessment and performance assessment are
two terms often used interchangeably to refer to testing
a student’s ability to produce an answer or product that
demonstrates his or her knowledge or skills.


Results on students’ class assignments, anecdotal records,
writing samples, and observational data on behavior are
all examples of authentic assessments (Bryant, et al.,
2008).

Portfolios

16


Portfolios are a form of performance assessment.


With teacher guidance, students select various items to place
in their portfolio to document their learning and progress
across curricular areas.


A portfolio can serve as a vehicle for measuring a child’s
current level of functioning and his or her progress toward
annual goals and objectives on the IEP.


It is an excellent tool to facilitate communication between
parents and teachers about student progress.

Criterion
-
Referenced Assessment

17


How will the teacher determine that a student has
mastered an objective?


A criterion
-
referenced test compares a student’s
performance to a preset criterion.


The criterion is often an objective that states that a
student can perform a particular task to a specified level.

Observation

18


Another common method used for informal assessment
of both academic and behavioral performance is direct
observation.


Procedures: anecdotal recording, event recording,
duration recording, or time
-
sampling

19

Review of the IEP


Evaluate the student’s progress toward the IEP goals


Evaluate the effectiveness of services or supports

20

Task 1


Form in groups of 3
-
4.


Identify a student who is suspected to have learning
difficulties.


Try to design an individualized education program (IEP)
for that student.

Assessment of SEN in Hong Kong

21

Special Educational Needs

Professional Assessment

Specific Learning Difficulties
(dyslexia)

To be confirmed by educational psychologists (EP) or clinical
psychologists (CP)

Intellectual Disability

To be confirmed by EPs, CPs, or Child Assessment Service of the
Department of Health/Hospital Authority

Autism Spectrum Disorders

To be confirmed by psychiatrists or Child Assessment Service of the
Department of Health/Hospital Authority

Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity
Disorders

To be confirmed by psychiatrists

Physical Disability

To be confirmed by medical doctors as having significant disability

Visual Impairment

To be confirmed by ophthalmologists, or General Eye and Low Vision
Centre of the Hong Kong Society for the Blind

Hearing Impairment

To be confirmed by audiologists

Speech and Language Impairment

To be confirmed by speech therapist as having moderate to severe
speech and language difficulty or having fluency disorder of any severity

Principles and Strategies for
Assessment

22


Flexible assessment arrangements can be made according
to students’ special learning needs (Education and
Manpower Bureau, 2004).


special design for the format of examination papers and
answer sheets,


arrangement for appropriate examination venues,


adaptation of examination time, etc.

Principles and Strategies for
Assessment

23


Taking into account students’ learning difficulties, they
should be assessed according to their situations
(Education and Manpower Bureau, 2004). For instance,


Students with serious and profound hearing impairment
can be exempted from listening examinations


Dictation marks of the students with dyslexia are not
counted in the calculation of the total scores in language
subject examinations

Some Special Arrangements for
SEN Students

24


Large print examination papers


Extra 5
-
15 minutes can be given to mildly visually impaired
students for each hour of examination time


A 5
-
10 minutes break can be arranged halfway during the
examination when necessary


Assessment instructions must be simple, direct and clear
with concrete examples


Leave enough space for answers


Avoid the use of separate answer sheets

Some Special Arrangements for
SEN Students

25


Flexibly reduce the use of copying for answering questions, e.g.,
circle or underline the correct answers in the passage for
reading comprehension


An additional time allowance of up to 25% for finishing test or
examination papers


Allow using computers as a tool for writing for students who
demonstrate extreme writing difficulties


Reduce the amount required for dictation


Teachers may consider using “fill in the blanks” instead of
dictating the whole paragraph


Schools may adopt the system of giving marks for the right
answers instead of deducting marks for errors

Case Study: Support for SEN Students in
XXX Secondary School

26


Whole
-
school Approach to Catering for Student Diversity


Write up an Individual Education Profile (IEPro) for each
student with special educational needs (SEN).


Conduct diagnostic tests of Chinese, English and Mathematics.


Conduct Chinese and English handwriting tests to assess students’
writing speed.


Set up Chinese, English and Mathematics resource classes for
SEN students and have an Individual Education Plan (IEP)
written for each student in the classes by the subject teachers.


Implement Differentiated Instruction.


Implement the One Student One Mentor Scheme.

Differentiated Instruction

27


Graded teaching materials and exam papers


Low level / SEN students


Copying

sentences


Answering
factual

questions


Main points are
highlighted


Keywords are
bolded

/ represented with pictures


Greater line spacing


Simpler and clearer layout


Middle level


Copying

and
constructing

sentences


Answering
factual

and
inferential

questions


High level


Constructing

sentences


Answering
inferential

and
reflective

questions

Task 2


Based on the short story provided, see if you can set
some
factual
,
inferential
, and
reflective

questions for
students of low, middle, and high levels.

Prepared by YANG, Chi Cheung Ruby,
Department of English, HKIEd

28

Support for SEN Students

29


Is there any special support for SEN students at your
teaching school? If yes, share with other participants.

Evaluation

30


To conduct self
-
evaluation on SEN support.


To develop an annual plan for the following school year.

Self
-
Evaluation Process

31


Planning


SWOT

analysis


Implementation


Evaluation


Year
-
end Evaluation Form for Individual Student


Year
-
end Evaluation Form at School Level

Whole School Approach

32


Think about the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities,
and threats at your teaching school that may affect its
implementation of the Whole School Approach to
Integrated Education.

References

33


Bryant, D. P., Smith, D. D., & Bryant, B. R. (2009).
Teaching students with special
needs in inclusive classrooms
. Boston, Mass.: Allyn & Bacon.


Education and Manpower Bureau. (2004).
Whole school approach: Principles and
strategies for assessment
. Retrieved May 14, 2009, from Education Bureau Website:
http://www.edb.gov.hk/FileManager/EN/Content_3296/assessment_e1.pdf



Meese, R. L. (2001).
Teaching learners with mild disabilities: Integrating research and
practice

(2
nd

ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.


Spinelli, C. G. (2006).
Classroom assessment for students in special and general
education

(2
nd

ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Pearson/Merrill/Prentice Hall.