working with operating systemx - kvvp

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14 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 18 μέρες)

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Chapter
-
2
working with
operating system

The icons
:
-

As know , icons are the pretty pictures representing window
elements like files , folders, shortcuts etc. icons play a very important role in
graphical user interfaces. Commonly used icons are: application icons,
shortcuts icons , document icon
s and disk drive icons: let us see what these
are


(1
) Application icons
:
-

These are the graphic rendering of the software
package’s logo see [fig .2.6]. if you double dick over this icon, the related
application gets invoked,


(2)
Shortcut icon
s

:
-

These are little graphics pointing to a particular
application, document or folder etc . by double clicking over them the
concerned application document / folder etc. becomes active .


(3
) Document icons
:
-

the active document window, which isa wind
ow within
an application window, can be minimized to a document icons. Point and
double

click on the document icon to restore the document window .


Full name of file or directory consists of path /primary name. extension.

Path :
-

path is a sequence of
directory name which give you the hierarchy to
access a particular directory or file name .



Wild Cards


Wild cards

:
-

two special character”?” (question mark ) and “*”(asterisk) are
called wild cards in windows. They are useful in searching files becau
se they
give flexibility in specifying path and file.


For example:
-

Memo?.doc



Abc.exe

For example:
-

Memo?.doc


Memo .doc


Abc.exe


T
YPES OF SOF
TWARE


C
OMPUTER SYSTEM
CONSIS
T

OF HARDWARE AND SOFT
WARE FOR ITS

PROPER FUNCTIONING
.

H
ARDWARE REPRESENTS T
HE COMPONENTS THAT C
AN BE SEEN AND TOUCH
ED INPUT DEVICE
,

OUTPUT DEVICE
,

CPU,

FLOPPY DISK
,

HARD DI
SK ETC

ARE EXAMPLES OF COM
PUTER
HARDWARE
.


System software
:
-
Software represents t
he set of programs
that given the operation
of a
computer

system and make and hardware run. Software can be class
ified
broadly into two category
.


Following section discuss system software and application software in details


System software
:
-

A

computer is were a machine that knows nothing of itself.
Rather it requires instructions for each and ever thing it performs .these
instructions are provided to it through software. The software that controls
internal computer operation
viz. reading data
form input devices,
transmitting process information to the output devices. Checking system
computer converting data/ instruction to computer understand
we form etc.)

is know as system software .

Types of Oss

There are different types of Oss available whi
ch require different types of
hardware form upon the operating systems are of mainly following types.

(1
) Single program OS
:
-

As the name suggests, this Os is single user operating

system, only one user progra
m can be supported and executed by it at p
oint of
time.


(2)


Multi program Os
:
-

Unlike

single program Os this multiuser Os it is
multiuser Os. It support multi programming
example
-

more than one user can
be supported by it therefore more than one user programs are loaded and
active in the main
store at the same time .these active programs are executed
using same techniques one by one

.


(3)
Interactive Os

:
-

There operating systems are interactive in nature. These
provide GUI interface to facilita
te move and easy interaction to the user. You
will learn more about GUI interface and a GUI operating system a little later in
this chapter.


Presentation Graphics Software

:
-

the application software that can create
professional looking Visual aid is called presentation Graphics software
.



UTILITES
:
-

utilites are those application programs that assist the computer by
performing house keeping functions live backing up
disk or
co
ming/ cleaning
viruses arranging in form etc.

Types of Service
:
-

The operating system provides certain services to programs
on to the users of the programs some common services provide by operating
system can be listed as follows:

(1) Program Execution

(2) Handling input/output operation

(3) Manipulation of file system

(4) Error detection and handling


(5) Resource allocation

(6) Accounting

(7) Information and Resource protection


Operating system’s functions
:
-

Operating system’s functions broadly fall into
three categories Essential func
tions, Mo
nitoring functions and service
functions Essential functions ensure effective utlisation of computer system
resources, Monitoring functions monitor and collect information related to
system performance and service functions en
hance facilities
provided to user

Major Os function are listed below

(1) processor management

(2) storage (memory) Management

(3) information Management


JOB SCHEDULING
:
-

Job scheduling not only assign priority to jobs but also

admits new job for processing at appropr
iate time before we start with job
scheduling techniques .