US Army AMRDEC Fragment Scanning System

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1

UNIVERSITY OF LOUISV
ILLE

US Army AMRDEC

Fragment Scanning System

System Design Specification


Adam Anderson, Will Barrett, and Asato Tashiro

4/
1
8
/201
3

Revision
2



This is the System
Design

Specification for the
Fragment Scanning System to be develop
ed for the US Army
AMRDEC.



2

0.2
Table

of Contents

1.0

System Description

................................
................................
................................
...........................

3

1.1 System Interfaces

................................
................................
................................
................................

3

1.1.1 X
-
Ray Source

................................
................................
................................
................................

3

1.1.2 Sample

................................
................................
................................
................................
..........

4

1.1.3 Detector

................................
................................
................................
................................
.......

4

1.1.4 Image Processor

................................
................................
................................
...........................

4

1.2 Major Components

................................
................................
................................
.............................

4

1.2.1 X
-
Ray Source

................................
................................
................................
................................

4

1.2.2 Sample

................................
................................
................................
................................
..........

4

1.2.3 Detector

................................
................................
................................
................................
.......

4

1.2.4 Image Processor

................................
................................
................................
...........................

4

2.0 Detailed Design

................................
................................
................................
................................
.......

5

2.1 X
-
Ray Source

................................
................................
................................
................................
.......

5

2.1.1 Flat Panel Detector

................................
................................
................................
......................

5

2.1.2 Image Processing Unit

................................
................................
................................
..................

5

2.1.3 X
-
Ray Tube Support

................................
................................
................................
.....................

5

2.1.4 Variable Aperture

................................
................................
................................
.........................

5

2.1.5 X
-
Ray High
-
Voltage Generator

................................
................................
................................
.....

5

2.1.6 X
-
Ray Tube Unit
................................
................................
................................
............................

5

2.2 Sample

................................
................................
................................
................................
.................

6

2.3 Detector

................................
................................
................................
................................
..............

6

2.4 Image Processor

................................
................................
................................
................................
..

7

3.0 Principles of Operation

................................
................................
................................
...........................

8

3.1 X
-
Ray Source

................................
................................
................................
................................
.......

8

3.2 Sample

................................
................................
................................
................................
.................

8

3.3 Detector

................................
................................
................................
................................
..............

8

3.4 Image Processor

................................
................................
................................
................................
..

9

3.4.1 X
-
Ray Image Processing

................................
................................
................................
...............

9

3.4.2 Post Image Processing

................................
................................
................................
.................

9

4.0 Test Procedures

................................
................................
................................
................................
......

9



3

4.1 Ground Penetrating Radar

................................
................................
................................
..................

9

4.2 Radiography

................................
................................
................................
................................
......

10

5.0 Requirements Traceability

................................
................................
................................
....................

10

6.0 List of References

................................
................................
................................
................................
..

11


1.0

System Description


X
-
Ray
Source
Sample
Detector
Image
Processor

Figure
1
: System Block Diagram

The
system is
a combination of an industrial radiography scanning system that will be operated via
a PC, and image analysis software.
The user will expose the panels with the X
-
ray source.

These
high
-
energy radiation photons will penetrate the panel and
land onto the
digital detector
. This
detector

will create a
2d
image

of the different materials located in the panel.
The images will be
uploaded to the computer for image analysis.
First t
he grayscale
images are
converted to a two
color binary image and then inverted to obtain the negative
. The negative image is then analyzed
using image processing software that locates the X/Y coordinates
, the area and perimeter
of each
fragment
.

1.1
Syste
m Interfaces

1.1.1

X
-
Ray
Source


The
X
-
Ray source will be used to expose the samples in order to “see” what is located inside.
This source will be able to pick up all types of metals including those that are nonferrous.



4

1.1.2 Sample


The sample is placed
on top of the flat panel detector where it is exposed to the X
-
Ray
source.

1.1.3 Detector


A digital X
-
Ray detector
is

used to create a 2D grayscale image of the panels.

This detector
could capture an image at the size of 15” x 22”.

1.1.4 Image Processor


The images will be enhanced with software before being analyzed for location and size of
fragments imbedded into the panels.

1.2
Major Components


The system is composed
of
four
major components:
X
-
Ray source
,
samples
,
detector
,
and image
processor
.


1.2.
1
X
-
Ray Source


The X
-
ray source consists of a high energy electron source and X
-
ray target. This system emits
X
-
rays through excitation and collapse of the target’s atoms.


1.2.2 Sample


The samples are a medium
-
density fiber panel (similar to ceiling til
es) called Celotex. These
panels are 0.5” thick with the dimensions of 4’ x 8’. The reason that Celotex panels have
been chosen is because of their relatively low cost, availability at local hardware stores, and
fragment stopping power.

1.2.3 Detector

Th
e detector captures the X
-
rays that have passed through the panel and the shadows
created by the shrapnel which blocks the X
-
rays.

1.2.4 Image Processor


The image process is divided into two parts. The first part of this process is the conversion of
the

X
-
Rays into a digital image by the radiography software. The second is the image
processing programs that enhance and tabulate the fragment information.



5

2.0
Detailed Design

2.1
X
-
Ray Source


The
X
-
Ray source
are COTS devices that can be purchased from an
y radiography medical
supplier.
We used the Shimadzu RADspeed
which has a X
-
Ray high
-
voltage generator that has a
rated output of 80kW and tube voltage from 40kV to 150kV.

2.1.1
Flat Panel Detector


Direct
-
conversion FPD, 16
-
bit grayscale (65,536 shades),

2880 x 2880 effective pixels, 432 mm x
432 mm effective field of view, and 150 μm pixel pitch.

2.1.2

Image Processing Unit


Radiographic image display: approx. 3 seconds after exposure Monitor: 15
-
inch color LCD touch
panel Functions: Auto density correct
ion, grayscale processing, multi
-
frequency processing,
noise reduction DICOM 3.0 Compatibility: Print, Storage, MWM, and MPPS

2.1.3

X
-
Ray Tube Support


Vertical stroke: 160 cm
c
ontrol panel: 9
-
inch color LCD
l
inkage with X
-
ray tube vertical
m
ovement and r
otation
a
uto
-
positioning
.

2.1.4 Variable Aperture

Auto collimator (auto/manual switchable)

2.1.5 X
-
Ray High
-
Voltage Generator

Rated output: 80 kW Tube voltage: 40 kV to 150 kV

2.1.6 X
-
Ray Tube Unit

0.6/1.2 mm focal point, 400 kHU, 12
-
degree target angle,
1
-
second startup time






6


Figure
2
:

Shimadzu RAD


X
-
Ray Source


2.2
Sample

The
sample is a 4 x 8 foot Celotex fiber panel, impregnated by fragments with fragments from
warhead testing. The fragments may be ferrous and nonferrous.


Figure 3
:

Celotex fi
ber panel

2.
3

Detector

The detector is a
Direct
-
conversion FPD, 16
-
bit grayscale (65,536 shades), 2880 x 2880 effective
pixels, 432 mm x 432 mm effective field of view, and 150 μm pixel pitch.



7


Figure 4:
Flat Pan
el Detector



2.
4

Image Process
ing



The images produced by the X
-
Ray
system need to be

recombined using

software such as
Microsoft’s Paint, Photoshop, or Matlab. The recombined image is then processed in MatLab converting
the grayscale image to a binary

image. Matlab is again utilized to create a negative of the image
rendering the fragments black and the background white. The complimented image is then processed by
the Pixcavator 6.0 program, which locates each fragment
using its respective centroid. Ea
ch fragment is
then numbered, and its position, size, height, and width are determined based upon the number of
pixels that are shaded black. The information is automatically output to an excel file for further analysis.



8


Figure 5:
Pixcavator
Image Analys
is Software


3.0
Principles of Operation

3.1
X
-
Ray Source


The X
-
Ray source is operated by the user via
a remote computer terminal.
The user will position
the X
-
Ray source over the sample using the target light.
The
sample will then be exposed to the
radia
tion and a digital image will be created within 3 seconds. Subsequent images will be
produced in the same manner until the panel has been fully scanned.

3.2
Sample


The sample is a 4 x 8 Celotex fiber panel that has been used to catch fragments from warh
ead
and munitions testing. The panels are bundled together and encircled around the warhead at
differing radii. Once detonation takes place, the fragments embed them
selves within the
bundles. The

bundles are carefully
analyzed to locate the fragments X/Y p
osition, size, and
weight.

3.3
Detector


The flat panel



9

The
main purpose of the
control board
is to pro
vide a central interfacing hub

for all

the
major
components involved

in the system
. It

interfaces
to

the
moisture and
temperature sensors
via

the
analog

to digital

converters on

the
microcontroller unit
, to

the
s
olenoid s
prinkler valves via
the on
-
board relays, and to the
display and data management system

via the integrated RS
-
232
.


3.4
Image Processor

3.4.1
X
-
Ray

Image Processing


The power transformer
and rectifier circuit power both the solenoid

sprinkler

valves and the
control board.
It supplies the necessary voltage and also supplies an optional 5 volts if desired
for expandability.


3.4.2 Post Image Processing


The circuit operates by using a power
transformer to convert the wall power to 26.8 VAC. This is
distributed to the relays as necessary and also to the rectifier circuit. The rectifier circuit then
converts the 26.8 VAC to 20 VDC, which powers the control board.

4.0 Test
Procedures

4.1
Ground

Penetrating Radar


The ground penetrating radar used a 2000MHz antenna/receiver to view the subsurface, it did
so by pulsing thousands of frequencies in the RF/UF range.
The antenna/receiver is dragged
across the surface of the fiber panel while pulsing t
hrough its frequency range. The razor thin
slices produce an image of the subsurface, showing objects as a distinct hyperbolic signature.
The slices are combined to recreate a 2D image of the area being scanned.

The panels were placed on a flat surface, a
nd the 2000MHz antenna/receiver head was dragged
across the surface at intervals of a quarter of an inch. This interval was chosen because of the
resolution requirements of the project.
The characteristics of the reflected signal yield
information on X/Y l
ocation, material composition, and size. That information is uploaded to an
excel file for analysis.

The ground penetrating radar proved to unsuccessful in testing. The resolution required in the
project requirements resulted in the need for an ultra
-
high

frequency antenna. With the
frequencies pushed to the maximum, the depth penetration of the antenna was drastically
affected. Also, with the frequency set at such a high level, the receiver picked up the
imperfections in the fiber board, which appeared as

fragments. Another reason for failure was
the method in which the system worked. At scanning intervals of a quarter of an inch, the
process was able to “overlook” fragments between the scan intervals. In order to get a complete


10

picture inside the panel, t
he

scan intervals would be extremely small, increasing the analysis
time to unacceptable levels.



4.2
Radiography


The software has a built in calibration algorithm that will calibrate the temperature sensors
based on two measure values and two actual va
lues. The actual values will be gathered by an
infrared heat gun.
The software will then be adjusted so that the measured temperature values
match the correct temperature.

The software dialog used to c
alibrate the sensors is show in
Figure 34


For more det
ails in the calibration algorithm see
Appendix
D
.

5.0
Requirements Traceability


Requiremen
t
Number

Requirements

Test

Pass/Fail

R1

Moisture sensors must be able to measure the
moisture content of soil.

T1, T2

Passed

R2

The system must be able to read the

moisture
sensor output.

T2

Passed

R3

The system must be able to interpret the
moisture sensor output.

T2

Passed

R4

The system must be able to compare the
moisture sensor output against the thresholds

T7, T3

Passed

R5

There must be a minimum of 8 moistu
re
thresholds.

T3

Passed

R6

There must be a minimum of 2 temperature
sensors.

T3

Passed

R7

The temperature sensors must output the
correct values.

T5, T6

Passed

R8

The system should log the moisture level of the
benches.

T7, T3

Passed

R9

The system sho
uld log the temperature
readings.

T7, T3

Passed

R10

The system should log when the benches were
watered.

T7, T3

Passed

R11

The system should log how long the benches
were watered.

T7, T3

Passed

R12

There must be a quick adjust feature to
simultaneously
adjust all the watering times.

T3

Passed



11

R13

The system must use the sprinkler valves.

T4, T2

Passed

R14

The system should run after a power outage.

T8, T3

Passed

R15

The control board must support 10 sensors.

T4

Passed

R16

The control board must have
8 relays.

T4

Passed

R17

The control board must be able to
communicate with a PC via a serial cable.

T4

Passed

R18

There must be a weather
-
proof box to protect
the componants from dust, moisture, etc.

T3

Passed

R19

No more than two valves can be on at on
e
time.

T9

Passed









Test Number

Tests

Requirement
Fulfilled



T1

Preparing pots with optimal amounts of water.

R1



T2

Use digital multimeter to verify readouts.

R1, R2, R3, R13



T3

User test (the user will visually or electrically
verify the

requirement).

R4, R5, R6, R8,
R9, R10, R11,
R12, R14, R18



T4

Datasheet.

R13, R15, R16,
R17



T5

Use infrared heat gun.

R7



T6

Use software calibration software.

R7



T7

Use hardware simulator.

R4, R8, R9, R10,
R11



T8

Unplugging the PC.

R14



T9

Junit testing.

R19




6.0 List of References


[1] Mikroelektronica. Installing USB
D
rivers
. [Online]. Available:
http://www.mikroe.com/eng/downloads/get/8/
installing_usb_drivers_v101.pdf

[2] Mikroelektronica. MikroICD User Manual. [Online]. Available:
http://www.mikroe.com/eng/downloads/get/9/mikroicd_manual_v102.pdf

[3] Microc
hip. PIC18F2420/2520/4420/4520 Data Sheet. [Online]. Available:
http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/DeviceDoc/39631a.pdf

[4] Mikroelektronica. PIC
-
PLC8A Dimensions. [Online]. Availa
ble:
http://www.mikroe.com/pdf/picplc8a_dimensions_v103.pdf



12

[5] N. Matic and Mikroelektronika
.
PIC
-
PLC8A Manual. [Online]. Available:
http://www.mikroe.com/pdf/picplc8a_manual_v101.pdf

[6] RainBird. CP
-
100
-
SS Installation Instructions. [Online]. Available:
http://www.rainbird.com/documents/diy/man_CP.pdf

[7] RainB
ird. Tips on Installing and Maintaining Rain Bird Residential Valves. [Online]. Available:
http://www.rainbird.com/documents/diy/ValveInstallTips.pdf

[8] Vishay Semiconductors. Glass
Passivated Single
-
Phase Bridge Rectifier. [Online]. Available:
http://www.vishay.com/docs/88609/gbl005.pdf

[9] National Semiconductors. LM117/LM317A/LM317 3
-
Terminal Adjustable Regulator. [Online].
Available:
http://www.national.com/ds/LM/LM117.pdf

[10] Fairchild Semiconductors. LM78XX/LM78XXA 3
-
Terminal 1A Positive Voltage Regulator.
[Online]. Available:
http://www.fairchildsemi.com/ds/LM%2FLM7805.pdf

[11] Fairchild Semiconductors. MJE3055T NPN Silicon Transistor. [Online]. Available:
http://hep.fi.infn.it/PAMELA/pdf/MJE3055.pdf

[12] Texas Instruments. TLC274, TLC274A, TLC274B, TLC274Y, TLC279 LinCMOSE PRECISION QUAD
OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS. [Online]. Available:
http://www.hep.upenn.edu/SNO/daq/parts/tlc274.pdf

[13] m
uRata. NTC Thermistors for Temperature Sensor Lead Insulation Type. [Online]. Available:
http://pdf.eicom.ru/datasheets/murata_pdfs/ntsd1_spec/ntsd1_spec.pdf

[14] Vegetronix
. VH400 Soil Moisture Sensor Probes. [Online]. Available:
http://pdf.eicom.ru/datasheets/murata_pdfs/ntsd1_spec/ntsd1_spec.pdf

[15]
FORWARD INDUSTRIAL COMPANY. FRM18 RELAY. [Online]. Available:
http://www.ficrelay.com.hk/details/FRM18.pdf