Outlook for microbiological production of biofuels in Armenia

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20 Φεβ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 5 μήνες)

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Outlook for microbiological production
of biofuels

in Armenia

A.A.Vardanyan
1
,


L.G. Antonyan

2
,
R.A. Mnatsakanyan
2
,
K.A. Darbinyan
2
,

V.B. Goginyan
2
, A.E. Harutyunyan

2
, E.G.Afrikian
2

1

Viasphere Technopark CJSC, Yerevan

2

Center of Microbiology and Microbial Depository, NAS of Armenia


Accumulation and take off electricity (Electric ray: 15
-
20 KV)


Methane, anaerobic fermentation (
Biogas
)


Bioconversion of CO, CO
2

and H
2

to methane


Bioethanol from lignocellulosics
(Program Topinambur)


Biohydrogen production from water


Microbial biosynthesis of biodiesel and hydrocarbones

Microbiological potential for production of biofuels


Electric ray (flattened cartilaginous fish)

Main stages of anaerobic (methane) fermentation

Biogas plants of
German “Agrogas” AG
company in Denmark

Bioconversion of exhaust gases to methane

Conversion up to 60%


Methanogenesis:
methanobacteria, clostridia (anaerobics)


Bioreactor:
immobilized cells, replacement 6
-
12 months


Requirments: Mass transfer, non
-
corrosive reactor, 40
-
55
°

Bioconversion of lignocelluloses to alcohol


Cellulose



Hemicellulose



Cellobiose



Glucose



Ethanol


Pre
-
treatment of raw material




Objects
:

entomophilic

bacteria
(
termites
,

bark beetles, etc)


producers of
cellulases

and
ligninases




Technology
:

aerobic and anaerobic fermentations




х

Self
-
cost of alcohol


20
cents/liter


Types of alcohol fermentation




Yeast growth


EtOH

~50
%

+CO
2
+
biomass




Glucose






Immobilized cells


no growth


EtOH

~
8
0%

+CO
2


Yield

of

tubers

~

40

tons

/

hectare

Inulin

content~

20
%

Fructose

yield

~

7

tons

/

hectare



Ethanol

yield

~

4

tons

/

hectare

Integrated scheme for wasteless treatment of topinambur tubers

Biodiesel potential of plants and microalgae


(
Yusuf Chisti, 2007)

Crop

Oil yield (L/ha)

Corn

172

Soybean

446

Canola

1190

Jatropha

1892

Coconut

2689

Oil palm

5950

Microalgae
a

136,900

Microalgae
b

58,700

a

70% oil (by wt) in biomass

b
30% oil (by wt) in biomass.

Characteristics of some algae for biodiesel

(S. Mayfield, San Diego, USA; Yu. Chisti, Massey U
-
ty, New Zealand)


Microalgae

Oil
content

(% dry wt)

Nuclear
Genome

Chloroplast
Genome

Botryococcus braunii

25

75

minimal

minimal

Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorella
sp.)

28

32

in progress

complete

Dunaliella salina (D. primolecta)

23

minimal

partial

Isochrysis galbana (Isochrysis
sp.)

25

33

none

none

Nannochloris oculata (Nannochloris
sp.)

20

35

minimal

minimal

Nannochloropsis
sp.

31

68

minimal

minimal

Neochloris oleoabundans

35

70

none

none

Phaeodactylum tricornutum

20

30

minimal

complete

Tetraselmis

chuil (
T
.
sueica
)

15

23

minimal

minimal

SUN

h


CO
2

algae

POND

glycerol

+ fatty acids

CH
3
OH

BIODIESEL

catalyst

C
O
2
+
H
2
O
h

C
n
H
2
n
+
1
C
O
O
-
C
H
2
C
H
C
H
2
C
n
H
2
n
C
O
O
C
n
H
2
n
-
1
C
O
O
Biodiesel production from microalgae

Costs for algae pond and production of biodiesel

(Ararat valley, Armenia)

Surface area 1 km
2

& productivity 3

000 000 gallons / km
2

year


in USD


Construction costs for algae ponds


80

000 000


Full operating costs


1

200 000


Full operating costs for 20 years 1

200

000 x 20 = 24 000

000


Total expenses for 20 years 80

000

000 + 24 000

000 = 104

000

000



Total biodiesel for 20 years 3

000

000 g x 20 = 60

000

000 gallons


_______________________________________________________________

First cost of biodiesel $104

000

000/ 60

000

000 gallons = $ 1.73/gallon


Today price of oil diesel in Armenia is = $ 3.00/gallon


We used US building price list


in Armenia it should be incomparably cheaper

The Center is located in
Abovyan

city, the vicinity of Yerevan, the capital of Armenia.


The

campus

occupies

17

acres,

including

administrative,

research

and

technological

buildings

with

working

space

of

about

15000

sqm
.


The

priority

areas
:

general,

applied

microbiology

and

biotechnology
.


The

MDC

maintains

the

vast

National

Culture

Collection

of

microorganisms

with

databases

of

scientific

and

industrial

importance
.


The

pilot
-
scale

and

technological

installations

are

available

for

process
-
engineering

and

production

of

microbial

preparations

and

products
.

Center of Microbiology and Microbial Depository, NAS of Armenia

(Dept:
Microbial Depository Center, MDC
)


Thanks for attention