NARS - Oklahoma State University

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20 Φεβ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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Who does research

in Developing Countries ?

AGED 4713

Spring 2003

M. Corro

2

Why is Agricultural research
important?



Help to improve development


economic growth


poverty alleviation


rural development


improve management of natural resources




Ag research is central for boosting
productivity



Better agriculture help to release labor for industrial
employment

M. Corro

3

Who does Agricultural Research in
Developing Countries



Federal Government:



Ministry of Agriculture



Agricultural Universities



Private Sector:



Non
-
governmental Organizations



All known as

National Agricultural Research System
(NARS)

M. Corro

4

What is NARS?


World Bank

defined National Agricultural
Research Systems (
NARS
)

as

any national
organization or institution which undertake
agricultural research in developing countries

M. Corro

5

Responsibility of NARS:



To conduct strategic, applied and
adaptive
research

and on
-
farm trials to
verify the effectiveness of new
technology.


To provide interactive link among
extension services, the private sector,
educational institutions, and government
ministries.

M. Corro

6

Relationship between IARC and
NARS



IARC’s strengthening national agricultural
research in developing countries



Enhancing working relationships with
colleagues in national programs


Strengthening skills in research administration
and management, and formal training
programs for research staff.

M. Corro

7

Advantages of NARS



Direct institutional /client linkages



Close proximity to farmer’s problems



Ability to collect field
-
level data relatively


inexpensively



On
-
site staff and facilities



Effective conduit for communicating
development strategy and policies to policy
makers

M. Corro

8

Types of NARS



Publicly supported (centralized)



Collaborative federal/state agricultural
research systems (decentralized )



Endowed research institutes



Agricultural Universities



Private sector research institutes



Non
-
governmental Organizations



Multinational, regional research institutes


M. Corro

9

Publicly supported (centralized)



Systems that are dependencies of , controlled by,
and receive their financial support from the
Ministry of Agriculture

or other ministry in the
federal government.


Examples
:



Brazil: Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria
(Embrapa)



Kenya: Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI)



Pakistan: Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC)

M. Corro

10

EMBRAPA: Brazilian Agricultural Research
Institute


Embrapa's mission is to provide
feasible solutions for the
sustainable development

of the
Brazilian agribusiness by
generating
,
adapting

and
transferring knowledge

and
technology

that benefits the
Brazilian Society.



http://www.embrapa.br/english
/

Agricultural, Livestock , Rural
Development, Fishing and Food
Secretariat

www.sagarpa.gob.mx

M. Corro

12

Collaborative federal/state agricultural
research systems (decentralized )



Systems that channel federal, state, private sector,
and producers (commodity associations) funding to
semi
-
autonomous state level research and extension
programs.



Programs are commodity linked with disciplinary,
cross commodity programs


Research/extension linkage: close, assembling and
adapting technology to producers’ needs.


Example:



Mexico: INIFAP

M. Corro

13

Institutions supported by SAGARPA

www.sagarpa.gob.mx

Semi
-
autonomous

Teaching

Research

Extension

M. Corro

14

I
nstituto
N
acional de
I
nvestigaciones
F
orestales,
A
grícolas y
P
ecuarias



The National Institute of Forestry,
Livestock and Agricultural Research

www.inifap.conacyt.mx

M. Corro

15



Collaborative federal/state agricultural
research systems (decentralized )



Funded by



Federal



State



Producers in every state have a foundation
(Fundacion Produce)

M. Corro

16

Objectives



To develop and strengthen National
Strategic Research


To promote
applied research

and
technology transfer


To support research for sustainable
natural resources management


M. Corro

17

Researchers by Academic Degree 2002


Academic degree

Number


%


Bachelor




229



19


Master




696



59


Doctorate




260



22


Total





1185


*


100





*
6.3% are in Graduate College

M. Corro

18

Distribution of researchers by area
2002




Area



Number

%



Forestry



140


12



Crops



760


64



Livestock


285


24



Total



1185


100


M. Corro

19

8

Regional Research Centers

(CIR)

81

Research Stations

6
National Centers



M. Corro

20

Research Programs are
commodity linked with
disciplinary programs



108 Crops


Avocado


Beans


Barley


Cacao


Corn


Citrus


Chile


Coffee


Cotton


Mango


Rice


Soybean


Wheat


Disciplinary areas


Biotechnology


Entomology



Integrated resources
Management



Plant genetics


Irrigation systems


Rain fed land management


Mechanization


Biofertilization


Corn Protein gene(opaco)



M. Corro

21


Livestock



Dairy Cattle



Dual Purpose


Sheep


Goat


Red deer


Pig


Poultry


Honey Bee


Disciplinary programs



Animal health


Epidemiology


Parasitology


Microbiology



Nutrition


Reproduction


Genetics


Biothecnology

Research Programs are
commodity linked with
disciplinary programs

M. Corro

22

INIFAP


Technology Transfer Program to
Livestock producers


GGAVATT:


M. Corro

23

Agricultural universities



Institutions of higher learning that provide
undergraduate and graduate education and
grant related degrees, conduct research, and
distribute information to agricultural sector
clientele.

M. Corro

24

Agricultural universities



Autonomous, some semi
-
autonomous



Structure: Centralized



Funding sources: Public
-
federal and state



Nature of programs: education; some research
and extension



Limited research



Limited extension linkages



Linkage with international/multinational
programs

M. Corro

25

Summary



Importance of Agricultural research



What is a NARS ?


Relationship between IARC and NARS


Types of NARS



Examples of NARS


Importance of IARC’s


Types of Agricultural research

M. Corro

26

M. Corro

27

International Ag. Research Centers


The IARC's research agenda focuses on both
strategic and applied research
.


This includes:


Problems affecting agricultural productivity
and links these problems to broader concerns


Poverty reduction,


Sustainable management of natural resources,


Protection of biodiversity


Rural development.


M. Corro

28

Types of Agricultural Research



Basic



Strategic



Applied



Adaptive/on farm level


M. Corro

29

Types of Agricultural Research


Basic Research:

is
undertaken to develop
knowledge for its own sake.
Without no predetermined
use in short term.



Example:



Gene research


M. Corro

30

Types of Agricultural Research


Strategic Research:

is aimed at solving
those problems which affect several regions
of the world or a country.

Try to response why ? And how?



Example:



Biotechnology


Identifying new varieties

M. Corro

31

Types of Agricultural Research


Applied Research:

is
aimed to answer
current problems in a
particular state, region
or county.



Example:


Response to fertilization


Tillage Practices


M. Corro

32

Types of Agricultural Research


Adaptive/Farm Level
Research:

involves the identification,
through experimentation on
farms, of the specific
combination of crop and
animal production practices
that will provide maximum
productivity on those farm



Example:

Field demonstration, comparison between new
practice and the farmer practice