Introduction to Nanotechnology

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20 Φεβ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 3 μήνες)

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Introduction to
Nanotechnology

Alberto Qui
ñ
onez, Ph.D.


Professor

Electronics and Advanced Technologies

Austin Community College



1

Objective

The purpose of this module is to introduce the emerging
nanotechnology field to novices of nanotechnology.

2

Topics


Nanotechnology Terms and Definitions


History of Nanotechnology


Current and Future Trends, Research and Applications

3

Where does your imagination take you?

Figure 1.1:

Preface

Is nanotechnology the gateway to the

future for human beings on Earth?

4

Figure 1.3:

Arnold Schwarzenegger’s character mentions
nanotechnology in “The Terminator 3” movie.

“…its arsenal includes
nanotechnological
transjectors…It can
control other machines.”

Figure 1.2:

A nanocar made from a single molecule.

Emergence

5

Nanotechnology Language


Nanobio


Nanodots


Nanowires


Nanoelectronics


Nanobots


Nanomaterials


Nanochondria

Yow!

Figure 1.4:

Searching for nanotechnology.

6

Definition


Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at
dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 nanometers, where unique
phenomena enable novel applications.”




Encompassing nanoscale science, engineering and technology,
nanotechnology involves imaging, measuring, modeling, and
manipulating matter at this length scale.”


National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2007


7

Figure 1.5:

National Nanotechnology Initiative.

Scale of Things

Nanometers

8

Internships

Figure 1.6:

Sematech nanoscholar interns of Texas.

9

Brief History

Figure 1.7:

Stained glass windows.


Figure 1.8:

Picture of gold nano particles
.

10

The concepts of nanotechnology are not new to nature or to
mankind. An early example of a manmade nanoprocess is stained
glass.

Brief History, Continued

Figure 1.9:

Tokyo Science University.

Birth of Nanotechnology



Professor Taniguchi of Tokyo Science
University used the word “nanotechnology”
to describe the science and technology of
processing or building parts with nanometric
tolerances.


A nanometer is a unit of length in the metric
system, equal to one billionth of a meter.


Figure 1.10:

Equivalent Units

11

Brief History, Continued

Dr. Richard P. Feynman



“Why cannot we write the entire 24
volumes of the Encyclopedia
Britannica on the head of a pin?”



Dr. Richard Feynman, one of
America’s most notable physicists,
1918
-
1988.

Figure 1.11:

Richard Feynman.

12

Brief History Continued,

Dr. Feynman, Continued



“The problems of chemistry and
biology can be greatly helped if our
ability to see what we are doing, and
to do things on an atomic level, is
ultimately developed


a
development which I think cannot be
avoided.”




Figure 1.12:

Collection of reminiscences by


Nobel Prize
-
winning physicist.

Surely You’re
Joking

Mr. Feynman!

Adventures of a Curious
Character



By Richard Feynman

13

Brief History, Continued

Atomic Scale




A computer image of the nano
ice double helix.




In the nano ice image, oxygen
atoms are blue in the inner
helix, purple in the outer helix.
Hydrogen atoms are white.

Figure 1.13:

A nanotechnology self
-
assembly process.


14

More History

Figure 1.15:

DNA damage.


Figure 1.14:

Drexler’s book.

Engines of Creation


The Coming Era

of Nanotechnology


By K. Eric Drexler

Eric Drexler



Coined the term “Grey Goo”…the
potential problem of self
-
replicating and
autonomous artificial intelligence
machines.

15

More History, Continued

Eric Drexler, Continued

Cell Repair Machines



“By working along molecule by
molecule and structure by
structure, repair machines will be
able to repair whole cells. By
working along cell by cell and
tissue by tissue, they…will be
able to repair whole organs…they
will restore health.”

-

Drexler, 1986

Figure 1.16:

Stylized example of
targeted cell repair.

16

X

More History, Continued

Figure 1.17:

Scanning probe microscope
systems from nanoscience instruments.



Figure 1.18:

Scanning tunneling microscope
image.

17

Metrology



Measurement of equipment is the cornerstone of
nanotechnology.

More History, Continued

Figure 1.19:

Carbon
-
60 buckyball is

shaped like a soccer ball.

Buckyballs



Three gentlemen

Harold Kroto from the
University of Sussex, Robert Curl and
Richard Smalley from Rice University

were
awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in
1996 for their discovery of a new composition
of carbon, Carbon 60.

Figure 1.20:

Example of Nobel prize
diploma.


18

More History, Continued

Figure 1.22:

Dome over biosphere in Montreal.


Figure 1.21:

A “Buckyball.”


19

Fullerenes



Carbon 60 was named after Richard Buckminster Fuller, who
went by the nickname “Bucky.”

More History, Continued

Figure 1.23:

Moore’s Law.

Figure 1.24:

Photolithography.

20

Top
-
Down Approach



Two approaches used in producing nanotechnology systems.
Top
-
down method is used by computer chip manufacturers.

More History, Continued

Figure 1.25:

An example of a molecular self assembly through hydrogen bonds.

21

Bottom
-
Up Approach


Bottom
-
up approach to manufacturing is analogous to the way
biological systems are made.

Welcome to
NanoWorld!

Figure 1.26:

Robot image.


Summary

22

Nanotechnology is ubiquitous and pervasive. It is an emerging
field in all areas of science, engineering and technology.

References

23



American Ceramic Society (2006, March). Overview of Safety, Risks.
American Ceramic Society Bulletin. Vol. 85 Issue 3, p6, 1/6 p.



Booker, Richard & Boysen, Earl (2005). Nanotechnology for Dummies. NJ:
Wiley Publishing Inc.



Diott, D.D. (2006, April). Thinking big (and small) about energetic materials.
Material Science and Technology. Vol. 22 Issue 4. p. 463, 11p.



Drexler, K. Eric (1986). Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of
Nanotechnology. New York: Anchor Books.



Henderson, Donald (2006). Bioterrorism: Interview with Donald Henderson.
Asia Pacific Biotech News. Vol. 10, Issue 1, p.18, 9p.



Intel (2007). Moore’s Law. Retrieved 7/02/2007 from
http://www.intel.com/technology/mooreslaw/index.htm

References, Continued

24



Lane, Neal & Kalil, Thomas (2005). The National Nanotechnology Initiative:
Present at the creation. Issues in Science & Technology; Summer 2005. Vol
21, p49, 6p.



Lieberman, Marya (2007). Self
-
assembled monolayers and multilayers of
phthalocyanines. University of Notre Dame: Department of Chemistry and
Biochemistry. Retrieved 7/02/2007 from http://www.nd.edu/~mlieberm/



Mandal, Deendayal; Bolander, Mark E.; Mukhopadhyay, Debrabrata;
Sarkar, Gobinda;



Mukherjee, Priyabrata (2006, January). The use of Microorganisms for the
formation of metal nanoparticles and their application. Applied Microbiology
and Biotechnology. Vol. 69 Issue 5, p. 485, 8p.



Mostow, Jonathan (Director). (2003). Terminator 3: Rise Of The Machines
[Motion Picture]. United States: Warner Bros. Pictures.

References, Continued

25



Murday, James F. (2005). Nanotechnology: Hype and Hope in Aerospace
Applications. Advanced Materials and Processes. Vol. 163, Issue 12, P. 21,
2p.



Nanotechnology at UT Austin (2007). Graduate Portfolio Program.
Retrieved 6/27/2007 from http://www.cnm.utexas.edu/graduateportfolio.html



Nanotechnology Now (2006, March). Nanotechnology documentary to be
filmed at nanoTX'06. Retrieved 7/02/2007 from http://www.nanotech
-
now.com/news.cgi?story_id=14281



National Nanotechnology Initiative
-

NNI (2007). What is Nanotechnology?
Retrieved 6/25/2007 from http://www.nano.gov/html/facts/whatIsNano.html



Rappaport, Tatiana Gabriela (2006). Semiconductors: Nanostructures and
applications in spintronics and quantum computation. Vol. 809 issue 1, p.326,
17p.

References, Continued

26



Ratner, Mark & Ratner, Daniel (2003). Nanotechnology: A Gentle
Introduction to the Next Big Idea. New Jersey: Prentice Hall PTR.



Rouekes, M. L., Fritz, S., Stix, G., Whiteside, G.M., Love, J.C., Alivisatos,
A.P. et al. (2002). Understanding Nanotechnology: Scientific American. New
York: Warner Books.



Terra, Richard P. (2000, March). National Nanotechnology Initiative in
FY2001 Budget: Clinton Administration Requests $497 million for NT
-
Related
R&D Funding. Foresight Nanotech Institute. Retrieved 4/02/2007 from
http://www.foresight.org/Updates/Update40/Update40.1.html



UNL News Releases (2006, December). Self
-
assembling nano
-
ice
discovered at UNL; structure resembles DNA. Retrieved 6/28/2007 from
http://ucommxsrv1.unl.edu/unlnews/public/fmpro?
-
db=unlnews.fp5&
-
format=newsrelease.shtml&
-
lay=unlnews&
-
recid=33994&
-
find=

References, Continued

27



Wikipedia (2007). Moore’s Law. Retrieved 7/02/2007 from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moore%27s_law



Wikipedia (2007). Nature. Retrieved 7/05/2007 from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Nature



Wong, H.S. Philip (2006, March). Nanoelectronics


Opportunities and
Challenges. International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems.
Vol. 16, Issue 1, p. 83, 12p.



Yamaguchi, Tomohiko; Epstein, Irving; Shimomura, Masatsugu; &
Kunitake, Toyoki (2005, December). Vol. 15, Issue 4, p. N, 3 p.



Zyvex: Nanotechnology Website: There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom.
Retrieved 6/27/2007 from http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/feynman.html.