A bit of Ch 9 and 28 Applied

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20 Φεβ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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A bit of Ch 9 and 28 Applied,
Industrial and Biotechnical
Microbiology

Microbial manufacturing

Biotechnology Defined


The Use of microorganisms, cells, or cell
components to make a product.


1/5
th

of the manufacturing Jobs in the Bay
area are Biotechnology related.

Microorganisms represent an
almost limitless supply of
enzymatic reactions



May reduce the risks and complexities of
industrial syntheses


Is less expensive


By
-
products are usually less toxic


Used in environmental cleanup (In situ)

Commercial production of
Microorganisms


Fermentation projects (Beer and Wine)


Biomass where the physical structure of
the microbe is wanted


Baking yeast


Edible forms of bacteria (spirulina)


Single
-
cell protein SCP


May concentrate toxic compounds


Nucleic acids in large numbers are toxic

Biotransformation (Bioconversion)


Transformation of a chemical added to the
medium into a commercially valuable
compound

Fermenter


Are structures designed to optimize the
growth conditions of the specific
organisms that we want


Control oxygen, ph, medium, temperature and
nutrients antifoaming


Stirred tank reactor


Air lift reaction

Fermentation Technology

Figure 28.10

Two types of ways to grow


Continuous fermentation


Batch culturing


What are the advantages and
disadvantages of each


Mixed culture fermentation

Bioconversions


Example, bioconversion of steroids


Chemical synthesis requires 37 steps


Bioconversion requires 11 steps, reduces the
cost and shortens the time of manufacturing.


How these processes work


Use of immobilized cells (cells localized in
a matrix and the chemical is converted as
it flows pas the column

Microorganism and Agriculture


Ice
-
minus bacteria


Pseudomonas syringae

promote ice formation at 2’C


Scientists have used biotechnology to remove the
gene and these ice
-
strains can be sprayed on and
colonize.


Is genetically altered


EPA has stated that these bacteria use for biological
control decrease the presence of wild type bacteria
and this must be registered as pesticides. Will greatly
increase the cost of these products


Frost Technologies corporation registered
with EPA a mixture of naturally occurring
bacteria

Microbial pesticides


Why?


Troubles with DDT


Resistance by insects


Biological magnification


Long half life banned in 1972

Microbial pesticides represent a
“biodegradable” way to control
insects



Over 100 microbial pathogens have been
identified for insets


These can be genetically altered to
increase their potentency


The genes for these toxins can be placed
in our food plants.

One such item


Bacillus thuringiensis

produces a toxin (BT
toxin) that is toxic to certain types of insect
larvae that feed on plants.


Drawback only occur in sporulating cells.


Genes were transferred to Pseudomonas
and are produced all the time.


Work is underway to increase the range of
these toxins and to stabilize the toxins.


Baculovirus

are invertebrate
specific DNA viral proteins


Has narrow host range


Organism continues to feed for a time after
it is infected.

Products from Microorganisms

Primary Metabolites

Secondary Metabolites

Amino Acids

Antibiotics

Vitamins

Pigments

Polysaccharides

Toxins

Ethanol

Alkaloids

Acetone and Butanol

Many pharmacological
compounds

Primary metabolites



Are produced during an organism’s growth
phase

Primary Fermentation

Figure 28.11a

Secondary metabolites


Are not essential to cell growth or function.

Secondary Fermentation

Figure 28.11b

Enzyme products

Enzyme

Use

Lipase

Enhances flavor in cheese making

Lactase

Lactose free milk products

Protease

Detergent additive, clear beer

Α
-
Amylase

High fructose corn syrup

Pectinase

Reduces cloudiness in wine/juice

TPA

Tissue Plasminogen Activator,
dissolves blood clots

Fuels


Hydrogen from species of Clostridium and
Chlorella


Ethanol (High cost of input, only 12%
conversion)


High temp fermenter


Use of green waste

Plastics


Use of living organism to make complex
polymers


Would all be biodegradable


Poly beta hydroxyalkanoate

Metal Extraction


Extraction of specific metals from flowing
water or oceans


Use of specific transport proteins to
remove certain chemicals

Biological Leaching of Copper
Ores

Figure 28.14a

What can microorganisms do.


Microbes can do all the things that we
currently use chemistry and energy to do,
we just do not know how to use the
microbes yet.


In the future we will use microorganism to


Convert waste into usable items like
energy and food.


Harvest metals from the oceans


Clean toxic waste


Deal with hazardous materials that
currently cannot be contained.

Summary


We are on a new verge of discovery, same
as the one we went through 5000 years
ago, how can we use microbes, just like
with animal and plant husbandry to make
our lives easier.

Preserving our Food


A public health process is preserving our food.


Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point
(HACCP) system


Safeguard food from farm to fork


Designed to prevent contamination


Identifying where contamination can occur


Requires monitoring


Temperature


For Microbes

Food Microbiology


Preserving food is synonymous with
preventing growth of microorganisms

Modern types of food preservation


Canning


Steam under pressure


Use Clostridium botulinum as a test organism


Some endospores or thermopiles can survive
commercial sterilization

Aseptic Packaging


Sterile contents are added to sterile
containers in an aseptic manner


Presterilized materials
assembled into
packages and
aseptically filled
(Aseptic packaging)


Gamma radiation kills
bacteria, insects, and
parasitic worms


High
-
energy electrons

Food Preservation

Figure 28.4

Radiation and Industrial food
preservation


Gamma radiation can be used to sterilize
food, kill insects and parasitic worms, and
prevent the sprouting of fruits and
vegetables

Discussion


The Role of the FDA?


http://www.fda.gov/

see video on anatomy
of an outbreak