Iowa Youth Symposium on the United Nations October 2013

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13 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 5 μέρες)

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Iowa Youth Symposium on the United Nations

October 2013


Study Guide Concerning the Question ~


What should the United States position in the United Nations be on

the use
and regulation of
intelligence agencies in the maintenance of
international
peace &

security; and defining covert espionage? (Political Topic)




Brief Topic Background


Espionage
is
inadequately defined under international law even though both developed
and lesser
-
developed nations carry
-
out spying and eavesdropping operations against t
heir
neighboring nat
ions. Realistically,

nations must monitor the actions of one another

in order to
balance their own position of power and self
-
interests.

As a result, t
he word intelligence has
many meanings. When referring to people, intelligence appl
ies to the ability to comprehend
information. When thinking in a more abstract way, the principal definition can be described as
relevant information to policy decisions. Many definitions include the assumption that this type
of intelligence holds charac
ter of secrecy, and of protected data. These covert
espionage
operations have the desired goal of gathering of information without detection, and therefore
without any consent on the part of the infiltrated. This type of intelligence gathering is also
kn
own as espionage. In this sense, intelligence agencies are the organizations designed to act in
order to collect and analyze data and also to protect their own nation’s own information, like the
CIA
in the United States,
Ministry of State Security in Chin
a,

Mossad in Israel, Federal Security
Service in Russia or Secret Intelligence Service (MI6) in the United Kingdom
. These are large
scale intelligence agencies from developed nations but even small lesser developed nations have
formed agencies to conduct
covert operations to protect their security.

These agencies, in the modern sense, can be seen as products of the first modern nation
states which emerged from the sixteenth century. In the twentieth century, mainly due to the
Cold War, the focus of the in
telligence agencies became the defense of an ideology and the
affirmation of its supremacy. In other words, the country with the best and most widespread
network of trained espionage agents had the advantage on the world stage. This competition has
led t
o an unparalleled use of espionage. The vast quantity of cases in which officers were
recruited to pass information to the other side may illustrate this. With the security of espionage
gone, at least temporarily, many began to hold the belief that such

intelligence organizations
were more internally harmful than helpful, and therefore, outdated and useless.

However, intelligence agencies still have uses in modern society. Some estimates reveal
that over ten million phone calls and emails are recorded a
nd registered by agencies within the
United States and Great Britain.
Many nations believe that with the increase of terrorism, ethnic
and religious conflicts, illegal immigration, scarcity of resources and the trafficking of drugs and
arms, covert espion
age is necessary to insure a nation’s political security.
However, it should be
remembered that one major problem related to intelligence gathering is the consequence of using
unreliable information. Misinformation on the existence or non
-
existence of we
apons of mass
destruction in Iraq, for example, provided much of the political basis for the 2003 Iraq War.
Situations such as this have called attention to the fact the secret activities are not necessarily
reliable, bringing up even more questions about

the necessity and validity of uncontrolled
espionage on the world stage.




Questions to Consider


1.

What is the future of intelligence agencies on the world scene?


2.

What is the

purpose

of espionage activity on the world scene?


3.

How is
covert
espionage

defined?


4.

What is the role of digital espionage in international political security?


5.

How can nations test the credibility of information gathered and/or received?

6.

How should the sharing of information be coordinated



or should it be coordinated
?


7.

Are
there boundaries and/or limits to intelligence gathering
/covert espionage
?


8.

Can espionage be considered a tool to foster cooperation between nations to enhance
their security?


9.

Should the United Nations be in charge of enforcing

the

regulation
of covert es
pionage
operations
? If so, how should that be accomplished and within which agency? If not,
then who should enforce regulations?



Possible Sources


UN Sources


2007. UN General Assembly 61
st

Session. General Assembly: Fourth Committee Home.

http://www.u
n.org/ga/61/fourth/fourth.shtml.


The Charter of the United Nations. “About the United Nations. The United Nations.28.

http://www.un.org.aboutun/charter/.



Other Sources


Baker, Christopher D. “Tolerance of International Espionage: A Functional Approach.”
American University International Law Review

19, no.5 (2003): 1091
-
1113


Corn, David. “Bush’s Unreliable Intelligence.”
The Nation
. 12 Nov. 2003.

http://www.thenation.com/blogs/capitalgames?bid=3&pid=1062
.


“Digital Spies: The Alarming Rise of Electronic Espionage.”
Popular Mechanics
. 24 January
2012
http://www.popularmechanics.com/technology/how
-
to/computer
-
security/digital
-
spies
-
the
-
alarming
-
rise
-
of
-
electronic
-
espi
onage


2007. Harvard World Model UN: Special Political and Decolonization Committee.

http://www.worldmun.org/2007.


“Intelligence.” WordNet. Aug 2007. Princeton University. 28 August 2008

http://wordnet.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=intelligence
.


“Intelligence Services.” Mar. 2006. Geneva Centre for Democratic Control of Armed Forces. 1
Sept. 2008

http://www.dcaf.ch/_d
ocs/bg_intelligence_services1.pdf
.


“Internal Intelligence Agencies Hungry for Deeper Cooperation from Skype.”
RT
. 14 March
2013
http://rt.com/news/skype
-
wiretapping
-
intellige
nce
-
agencies
-
237/


“The Ten Best Spy Agencies in the World.” Global Conflict Analysis. 13 May 2013
http://globalconflictanalysis.com/2013/05/the
-
ten
-
best
-
spy
-
agencies
-
in
-
the
-
world/