Perceptual Processes: Visual & Auditory Recognition

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17 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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Perceptual Processes:

Visual & Auditory Recognition

Dr. Claudia J. Stanny

EXP 4507

Memory & Cognition

Spring 2009

Perception


Distal stimulus


Proximal stimulus


Sensory memory


Iconic memory


Echoic memory

Claudia J. Stanny

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Iconic Memory


Perceptually detailed visual memory


Duration is
very short

( .5 sec
-

1 sec)


Information stored has not been analyzed yet
for meaning



Precategorical sensory information


Content can be cued effectively based on sensory
qualities, not meaning

Echoic Memory


Auditory analog to iconic memory

Precategorical auditory (sensory) information


Can cue recall of selected items based on
sensory qualities but not based on meaning


Very short duration (approximately 2 sec)


Sensory Processes & the Brain

Claudia J. Stanny

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Gestalt Psychology: Organizing Principles
in Perception

Form perception

Figure
-
ground resolution

Detection of contours (subjective contours)

Principles of organization


Proximity


Similarity


Good continuation


Closure


Common fate


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Object Recognition


Template
-
matching models


Feature analysis models


Recognition
-
by
-
components models

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Template
-
Matching Models

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Effective for pattern
recognition for small sets
of well
-
defined patterns

Template matching used
today for pattern
recognition of bank codes
on checks

Feature Analysis Models

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Selfridge (1958) Pandemonium

Feature Analysis Models

Relies on simpler features
for template matching

Includes a system of rules
for how features are
combined to create specific
patterns

Draws on single
-
unit data for
neurons responding to
sensory input (e.g., work by
Hubel & Wiesel, 1965, 1979,
2005)

Claudia J. Stanny

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Recognition
-
by
-
Components
Models

Similar to feature analysis
models

Developed for perception
of 3
-
dimensional objects

Biederman (1990)

Claudia J. Stanny

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Top
-
Down & Bottom
-
Up
Processing


Bottom
-
up processing


Emphasis on sensory input


Raw sensory input → pattern recognition


Top
-
down processing


Emphasis on concepts and expectations


Expectations and context create biases to extract
certain patterns from sensory input

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Errors in Perception


Levin & Simons (1997, 2000)


Change blindness


Inattention blindness

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Change Blindness Demonstration

Links to Videos

Magic Trick

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=voAntzB7EwE

Harvard: Participants signing up for an
experiment

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mAnKvo
-
fPs0

Original Door Study (Levin & Simon, 1997)

http://viscog.beckman.uiuc.edu/flashmovie/12.php

Recreation of Simon’s Door Experiment

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p1aEqBaK3aM


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Face Recognition

Perception of faces

Prosopagnosia

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Thatcher Illusion

Based on tendency to process faces holistically

When faces are viewed upside down, we might
not detect alterations in component parts

When faces are viewed right side up, these
changes are easily detected

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Speech Perception


Phoneme recognition


Detection of word boundaries


Constructive nature of speech perception


Context effects on speech recognition


Phonemic restoration


McGurck effect


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Theories of Speech Perception


Speech perception as a special mechanism of
the brain


Speech perception as characteristic of general
perceptual mechanisms

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