Water

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5 Φεβ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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Water

Jonathan Casimini

Devon Banning

Where Our Drinking Water Comes From

In Naples



The Water in Naples comes from groundwater pumped through three well fields in the
Golden Gate Estates.




Ground water is found in natural rock formations.


These formations, called aquifers, are a
vital natural resource with many uses.

.


In Florida


Ninety percent of Florida’s population relies on ground water resources for their drinking
water.


Additionally, over 50% of all other water needs including agricultural, industry, mining, and
electric power generation are supplied by ground water resources.


Ground water also serves as the source for Florida’s many springs and provides a
significant input to many of Florida’s lakes and rivers.


Nationally, 53% of the population relies on ground water as a source of drinking water.


In
rural areas this figure is even higher


Our Drinking Water Supply

The six billion people of Planet Earth use nearly 30% of the world’s total
accessible renewal supply of water.


By 2025, that value may reach
70%.


Yet billions of people lack basic water services, and millions die
each year from water
-
related diseases.


Global


In 2000, about 57% of the world's freshwater withdrawal, and 70% of
its consumption, took place in Asia, where the world's major
irrigated lands are located.


During the 1990’s the greatest reduction in per capita water supply
was in Africa by 2.8 times and Latin America by 1.7 times

Florida


Lake Okeechobee serves as the liquid heart of south Florida and the
Everglades. As the second largest freshwater lake located wholly
within the continental United States, and as the largest lake in
Florida.


It is the primary source of water supply for the expansive Everglades
Agricultural Area, is a critical supplemental water supply for the
Everglades, and is the back
-
up water supply for millions of people
along the Lower East Coast

Our Drinking Water Supply

By 2025


Experts estimate that by 2025 over three quarters of
the people in the world will face some degree of
water scarcity.


2 types of scarcity
-
physical


a situation in which
water use is approaching or exceeding sustainable
limits.


-
economic


occurs when human, institutional,
infrastructural, or financial limitations prevent people
from gaining access to water even though there is
enough available.



Shortages from water stem from growing economics,
rising populations, and changing lifestyles. This result
is the ever increasing demand and competition for
water


Water Use

Residential Use VS. Agricultural Use

Residential Use


Residential water use only makes up about 10% of the total usage of water


Each person uses about 80
-
100 gallons of water per day. The largest use of household water
is to flush the toilet (6
-
7 gallons every time) , and after that, to take showers and baths. That
is why, in these days of water conservation, we are starting to see toilets and showers that
use less water than before.


Many local governments now have laws that specify that water faucets, toilets, and showers
only allow a certain amount of water flow per minute. In fact, if you look real close at the
head of a faucet, you might see something like "1.5 gpm,", which means that the faucet head
will allow water to flow at a maximum of 1.5 gallons per minute.



Water Use

Residential Use VS. Agricultural Use

Agricultural Use.


In the United States, agriculture accounts for some 49% of the total freshwater use, with 80%
of this volume being used for irrigation.


In Africa and Asia, an estimated 85
-
90% of all the freshwater used is for agriculture.


According to estimates for the year 2000, agriculture accounted for 67% of the world's total
freshwater withdrawal, and 86% of its consumption.


By 2025, agriculture is expected to increase its water requirements by 1.2 times, industry by
1.5 times, and domestic consumption by 1.8 times.


By the year 2000, an estimated 15% of the world's cultivated lands were irrigated for food
crops, accounting for almost half of the value of global crop production.

How much water do we use in comparison to other
locales in the country and the world?



Global


Regarding consumptive water use in the United States of America. (2000)


Industrial use
---
291.0 billion cubic meters of water.


Domestic use
----
35.8 billion cubic meters of water.


Agricultural use
-
120.9 billion cubic meters of water.


One cubic meter of water is equivalent to 264.17 gallons


Americans used 408 billion gallons of water per day


On average, 42% of total water abstraction in Europe is used for agriculture, 23% for industry,
18 % for urban use and 18% for energy production.


Australia the agriculture sector was the largest consumer of water representing 70% of total
water consumption. Household water consumption representing 8% of total water
consumption.


The average individual daily consumption of water is 159 gallons, while more than half the
world's population lives on 25 gallons.



How much water do we use in comparison to
other locales in the country and the world?

STATE/ U.S.



Every day, over four billion gallons of groundwater are consumed to satisfy the
demands of agriculture, industry, power plants, development, and municipal and
public water supplies.



Floridians use more water per capita than residents of any other state except
California.



There are 16 million people living in Florida. In 2000, we used 7.7 billion gallons of
freshwater a day: that's 481 gallons per person per day! Our projected population
for the year 2020 is 21 million and our demand for fresh water is projected to
increase to approximately 9.1 billion gallons per day.!




About one
-
third of the freshwater we use in Florida is for municipal use, half of
which is used to water lawns. Another 7% is extracted by private domestic wells.
The largest use, at 52% of the freshwater that Floridians use, is for agriculture

How much water do we use in comparison to
other locales in the country and the world?

LOCAL



Collier County water departments systems generate about 40 million gallons per day.


South Florida Water Management District relaxed the one
-
day
-
a
-
week restrictions, people
began to water more.


250,000
-
plus customers Lee Utilities serves


April 18 through May 17: 807.4 million gallons


March 18 through April 17: 813.5 million


Difference: minus 6.1 million



Fort Myers
-

60,000 customers


April 18 through May 17: 200.2 million gallons


March 18 through April 17: 194.2 million


Difference: plus 6 million

Regulations in place or proposed surrounding use and
protection of water and ground water?

Global


Outside the US almost every country has some prevention
plan or law about the regulations surrounding ground water
and protection. Most are similar to ours or less
comprehensive.


European Parliament Environment Committee


China’s
Water Pollution Prevention and Control Law


Most countries that have a sustainable economy have
environmental protection plans and agencies that watch and
regulate the protection of ground water.


-
Australia has the Council of Australian Governments (COAG)
Water Reform Framework, National Land and Water
Resources Audit, National River Health Program


Regulations in place or proposed surrounding use and
protection of water and ground water?

United States


Activities to protect drinking water are carried out through a number of programs and
partnerships at the federal and state level. These listed below include state and EPA programs
involved in source water protection, including watershed
-
based, wellhead, ground water, and
tribal water protection programs.


The Clean Water Act

(CWA) establishes the basic structure for regulating discharges of
pollutants into the waters of the United States and regulating quality standards for surface
waters.


Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)

passed by Congress in 1974 to protect public health by
regulating the nation’s public drinking water supply.



Alt. & Strategies that are in place or being proposed to
improve our water supply quality and quantity


Lee County's Proposed Landscape & Fertilizer
-

Best Management Practices Ordinance


-
Lee County in Southwest Florida is working to pass an ordinance that focuses on licensing for
professional landscapers who apply fertilizers so as to cut down on over use and use of
harmful chemicals


Florida Environmental Quality Incentive Program (EQIP) is a voluntary conservation program
for farmers and ranchers. The program's goal is to promote agricultural production while
maintaining good environmental quality. EQIP offers financial and technical assistance to
eligible parties to implement structural and management practice to achieve the program's
goal.


In the health care industry water is used for almost every process. Health care facilities with
steam sterilizers, autoclaves, x
-
ray equipment, and in
-
house laundries or kitchens can be
significant water consumers, using as much as 30,000 gallons of water a day. Approximately
35 percent of the total water use at health care facilities goes to domestic purposes,
plumbing fixtures and appliances. X
-
ray equipment uses water in the processing of prints.


Interesting Facts about Water

Over the last century water usage increased six fold, twice the rate of population growth.

Water consumption for different objects

burger = 1 gallon tire = 2,072 gallons 1lb of cotton = 101 gallons car = 39,090 1 ton of
steel=62,600 1 single day of U.S. news print = 300,000,000

Interesting Facts About Water


The first municipal water filtration works opened in Paisley, Scotland in 1832.


More than 79,000 tons of chlorine is used per year in the United States and Canada to treat
water.


Of all the earth's water, 97% is salt water found in oceans and seas.


Only 1% of the earth's water is available for drinking water. Two percent is currently frozen.


About two thirds of the human body is water. Some parts of the body contain more water
than others. For example, 70% of your skin is water.


There are more than 56,000 community water systems providing water to the public in the
United States.


Public water suppliers process 38 billion gallons of water per day for domestic and public use.




Interesting Facts about Water


Approximately 1 million miles of pipelines and aqueducts carry water in the United States
and Canada. That's enough to circle the earth 40 times.


About 800,000 water wells are drilled each year in the United States for domestic, farming,
commercial, and water testing purposes.


Typically, households consume at least 50% of their water by lawn watering. Inside, toilets
use the most water, with an average of 27 gallons per person per day.


More than 13 million households get their water from their own private wells and are
responsible for treating and pumping the water themselves.


Industries released 197 million pounds of toxic chemicals into waterways in 1990.


The average daily requirement for fresh water in the United States is about 40 billion gallons
a day, with about 300 billion gallons used untreated for agriculture and commercial purposes.


You can survive about a month without food, but only 5 to 7 days without water.


The average five
-
minute shower takes between 15 to 25 gallons of water.


You can refill an 8 oz glass of water approximately 15,000 times for the same cost as a six
-
pack of soda.