Figueroa's framework – the institutional level

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FOCUS AREA C

SPORT, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND
EXERCISE IN THE CONTEXT OF
AUSTRALIAN SOCIETY

Lesson 1: A contemporary framework
for examining sociocultural factors in
sport and society

Cambridge University Press




© Kiss
,
Kleoudis
,
Rasi
,
Stewart and Johnston 2010


Homework


Choose the interpersonal level of
Figueroa’s framework and use it to
examine your participation rate in
basketball. In 200 words, explain
whether, at the selected level, your
access to this particular sport was
enhanced for you or diminished for you
given your personal circumstances.


Cambridge University Press




© Kiss
,
Kleoudis
,
Rasi
,
Stewart and Johnston 2010


Although closely related, these terms have a subtle difference that is
important to understand.


Equality



a social situation where individuals and groups have the same
status, rights, access and opportunities.


Equality versus equity

Cambridge University Press




© Kiss
,
Kleoudis
,
Rasi
,
Stewart and Johnston 2010

Equity



when social justice and fairness prevail in decision making.
Principles that underpin equity allow for an unequal distribution of resources
so that a degree of fairness can prevail. Figueroa’s framework is utilised in
this text to explore issues of equity and access for individuals and groups
within society.

Equality versus equity (cont.)

Cambridge University Press




© Kiss
,
Kleoudis
,
Rasi
,
Stewart and Johnston 2010


Explanation 1.


Basketball in the hall at lunchtimes




Explanation 2


Read pg 306 of textbook




Explanation 3


Weekend sporting teams (Cost$$$)



Cambridge University Press




© Kiss
,
Kleoudis
,
Rasi
,
Stewart and Johnston 2010

Figueroa’s Framework


This term is all about looking at access to
opportunity in sport and physical activity
and how it can vary for different people.



In the 1990’s, Professor Peter Figueroa
produced a rationale to try and explain
this.


It is called
Figueroa’s Framework (1993)


Copy the diagram on pg 313

Cambridge University Press




© Kiss
,
Kleoudis
,
Rasi
,
Stewart and Johnston 2010

Cultural

Structural

Institutional

Interpersonal

Individual

(Amezdroz et.al., 2010)

Cambridge University Press




© Kiss
,
Kleoudis
,
Rasi
,
Stewart and Johnston 2010


This level recognises the contribution of personal attributes of individuals in
determining their access to sport and physical activity. These attributes
include:




beliefs




values




psychological preferences




psychological needs.

Figueroa’s framework


the individual level

Cambridge University Press




© Kiss
,
Kleoudis
,
Rasi
,
Stewart and Johnston 2010


This level recognises that the personal access of individuals is affected by
the interaction that they have with peripheral or significant others. Personal
access includes:




interaction with parents




interaction with peers




interaction with coaches




interaction with teachers.

Figueroa’s framework


the interpersonal level

Cambridge University Press




© Kiss
,
Kleoudis
,
Rasi
,
Stewart and Johnston 2010


This level recognises that there are many institutions in society that
create implicit (covert) and explicit (overt) rules and regulations that
impact upon the access of individuals and groups to sport and physical
activity. These institutions include:




the family institution




schools as institutions




sporting clubs as institutions




religious institutions




politics as an institution.

Figueroa’s framework


the institutional level

Cambridge University Press




© Kiss
,
Kleoudis
,
Rasi
,
Stewart and Johnston 2010


This level recognises that individual and group access to sport and
physical activity is influenced by the distribution of human, physical and
financial resources. These resources include:




government influence on the distribution of resources and rewards




media influence on the distribution of resources and rewards




the impact of inequitable distribution of resources and rewards on access
to sport and physical activity.

Figueroa’s framework


the structural level

Cambridge University Press




© Kiss
,
Kleoudis
,
Rasi
,
Stewart and Johnston 2010

This level recognises that society socialises individuals and groups to
shape beliefs, values and culture and that these in turn, affect equity and
access to sport and physical activity. Some of these beliefs include:




sport as a microcosm of society




cultural influences on body image




the social construction of gender.

Figueroa’s framework


the cultural level

Cambridge University Press




© Kiss
,
Kleoudis
,
Rasi
,
Stewart and Johnston 2010


How do I know you understand???






Checking for understanding questions pg
314

Cambridge University Press




© Kiss
,
Kleoudis
,
Rasi
,
Stewart and Johnston 2010


Q1 Textbook Answer


In the past, football (soccer) was strictly a sport played
by males, while females were expected to assume their
role as spectators in the grandstand. During this time
there was therefore
no equal opportunity

available for
females to participate in football due to society’s
perception that such a physical sport could only be
accessed by males. Eventually, societal changes in
cultural attitudes and changes to club policies at the
institutional level gave females access to participate in
football, thus granting them
equality

to participate in
football just like their male counterparts.


Cambridge University Press




© Kiss
,
Kleoudis
,
Rasi
,
Stewart and Johnston 2010


Females, however, continued to experience barriers by
being treated
unfairly

when accessing
equity

in other
forms of resources. Unlike their male counterparts,
females were not provided with the same resources such
as suitable playing fields, attire, time scheduling and
media exposure. Furthermore, they received less
experienced coaches with the more quality coaches
designated to male teams. In addition to this, special
development programs gave the opportunity for some of
these male players to progress to higher leagues in
football.


Cambridge University Press




© Kiss
,
Kleoudis
,
Rasi
,
Stewart and Johnston 2010


This experience has shown that females were eventually
granted equality by being permitted to play football but
were at the same time denied fair and equal treatment to
access resources and rewards like the males receive.
Only recently have we been experiencing progress of a
much fairer system where females are accessing more
resources and opportunities like their male counterparts.


Does this sound familiar?????

Cambridge University Press




© Kiss
,
Kleoudis
,
Rasi
,
Stewart and Johnston 2010


Q2 Textbook Answer


At the
individual level
, we possess beliefs and values
that affect our own participation in sport and physical
activity. It is here where our choices will determine our
access and level of participation in physical activity, but
at the same time, at the
interpersonal level
, our attitudes
and actions can affect the access of those we interact
with in either a positive or negative manner.


Cambridge University Press




© Kiss
,
Kleoudis
,
Rasi
,
Stewart and Johnston 2010


Q3 Textbook Answer


Top ten sports covered by television and newspaper:


1. Rugby League


2. Australian Rules football


3. Cricket


4. Football


5. Motor racing


6. Ruby union


7. Tennis**


8. Golf


9. Netball**


10. Athletics & swimming**


Cambridge University Press




© Kiss
,
Kleoudis
,
Rasi
,
Stewart and Johnston 2010


According to the top ten media
-
exposed sports, females
only feature in the bottom rung of the list. Some of the
primary reasons explaining this are the media’s
obsession of featuring action sports that attract a higher
viewer rating and therefore sponsorship dollars that
attracts millions in revenue. These masculine sports are
very large part of the Australian culture, with many
Australians participating in most of these sports.


Cambridge University Press




© Kiss
,
Kleoudis
,
Rasi
,
Stewart and Johnston 2010


Why might this change this month??

Cambridge University Press




© Kiss
,
Kleoudis
,
Rasi
,
Stewart and Johnston 2010


Cambridge University Press




© Kiss
,
Kleoudis
,
Rasi
,
Stewart and Johnston 2010


What is the big ticket item at the Olympic
games?






WHY?


Cambridge University Press




© Kiss
,
Kleoudis
,
Rasi
,
Stewart and Johnston 2010



Cambridge University Press




© Kiss
,
Kleoudis
,
Rasi
,
Stewart and Johnston 2010


Uniform controversy




http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beach_volleyb
all#Uniform_controversy



Cambridge University Press




© Kiss
,
Kleoudis
,
Rasi
,
Stewart and Johnston 2010


Homework


Choose the
interpersonal

level of
Figueroa’s framework and use it to
examine your participation rate in
basketball. In 200 words, explain
whether, at the selected level, your
access to this particular sport was
enhanced for you or diminished for you
given your personal circumstances.


Cambridge University Press




© Kiss
,
Kleoudis
,
Rasi
,
Stewart and Johnston 2010


Effective response strategy


Basketball at the interpersonal level


1. Create an
evaluative

statement
regarding your performance or
participation in the physical activity
you are studying
(Evaluation).
This
could be by expressing:


Cambridge University Press




© Kiss
,
Kleoudis
,
Rasi
,
Stewart and Johnston 2010


Make a decision as to the interpersonal factors that will
be explored in your response. The factors selected
should have had a significant influence over your
attitudes, beliefs and values regarding your participation
in basketball.


interaction with parents



interaction with peers



interaction with coaches



interaction with teachers.


Cambridge University Press




© Kiss
,
Kleoudis
,
Rasi
,
Stewart and Johnston 2010


Evaluate

how your personal experiences
during your upbringing have influenced
your opportunities to accessing physical
activities in general and how this may
relate, if applicable, to your opportunities
to participating in basketball.


This may be, for example, due to your
interaction or incidents with certain people
in your life such as your parents, siblings,
peers, teachers’ coaches and the media.