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Diversity and Differentiation

in the Classroom Chapter 2

Multicultural Education

Multicultural Education




The educational strategy in which
students’ cultural backgrounds are used
to develop effective classroom
instruction and school environments. It
is designed to support and extend the
concepts of culture, diversity, equality,
social justice, and democracy in the
formal school setting.

Gollnick and Chinn

Culturally responsive teachers develop
effective strategies to use with widely
diverse groups of students
---


Exceptional students


Children with disabilities


Gifted children


Culturally and ethnically diverse
students


Gender


Social class


Language diversity

All of us belong to many different
“microcultural” groups

Ethnic Group

Region

Religion

Giftedness

Disability

Race

Social Class

Gender

The Individual

Why is Multicultural
Awareness Important?


By the year 2020 about half of the
United States population will come from
groups traditionally labeled
minority
:


African American


Asian American


Native American


Latino or Hispanic



While the proportion of diverse students
is increasing, the teaching force is
becoming more homogeneous. (Harper,
et al.)


By 2010, an estimated 95% of K
-
12
teachers will be white middle class
females.(Haberman)


Most teachers have limited experiences
working with cultures unlike their own.
(Haberman.)


Cultural and Ethnic diversity


Theories of cultural blending


“Melting Pot”


“Cultural Pluralism” or “Salad Bowl”

Cultural and Ethnic Diversity


Teaching in culturally diverse settings


“Culturally assaultive” approaches perpetuate
biases and stereotypes


Discussion of cultures only as they existed in the past


Incorrect or stereotypical versions of how people live


Emphasis on differences rather than similarities


Token representation of the group in the classroom


“Holiday” units on minority groups


Cultural and Ethnic Diversity

Culturally responsive teaching


Acknowledges the legitimacy of the cultural heritages
of different ethnic groups


Builds bridges of meaningfulness between home and
school experiences


Uses a wide variety of instructional strategies
connected to different learning styles


Teaches students to know and praise their own and
each others’ cultural heritages


Incorporates multicultural information, resources,
materials into all subjects

Cultural and Ethnic diversity


Teaching in culturally diverse settings


“Cultural connectiveness” method (infusing
multicultural education into daily learning
experiences)

suggested steps:


Know your community


Seek family support


Give equal attention to all groups


Fill your room with curriculum materials
from many cultures


Invite visitors to speak


Draw from the arts

Language Diversity


Over 200 languages now in US


Ongoing controversy between “English only” and
bilingualism


Three main terms:


ELL (English Language Learners) students who come to
school speaking a main language other than English


LEP (Limited English Proficient) students who are not yet
fluent enough in English to perform school tasks successfully


Bilingual


students who speak fluently in English at school
and a native language at home

Language Diversity


Guidelines for bilingual instruction


Environmental print


Culturally conscious literature


Literacy instruction through natural use of
reading and writing throughout the
curriculum


Language buddies


Work with the ESL teacher


Exceptionalities


Children with disabilities


Many similarities with non
-
disabled
students


Inclusion and “least restrictive
environment”


Federal Legislation PL 94
-
142 (Individuals
with Disabilities Education Act

IDEA)


Individualized Education Plan (IEP)


Where are we today with Students with
Disabilities? (Data from New Hanover Co.
Schools 1997)


25% of SWD were exempt from state tests


50% of students tested for SpEd did not
qualify


10% of students had IEPs


60% of students on special route busses
missed a day of instruction per week


40 children identified with autism


50%+ of SWD were served in sub
-
standard
classrooms

Where are we today with Students with
Disabilities? (Data from New Hanover Co.
Schools 2006)


100% SWD participate in state tests


90% students tested for SE qualify


14% students have IEPs


95% students on special route busses receive
full day of school


100% students receive instruction is
classrooms comparable to peers


234 children identified with autism (3
rd

in
state)

Some Special Education Program
Names

----
New Hanover County


Intensive Academic Support


Intensive Behavior Support


Intensive Social/Communication Support


Specially Designed Academics
-
Daily Living


Specially Designed Academics

Functional
Academics

www.nhcs.k12.nc.us/sped/


Exceptionalities
---


Teaching children with disabilities

Guidelines


Learn something about specific disabilities


Maximize interactions between children with
disabilities and nondisabled children


Individualize your program


Assess classroom environment


Choose books that help children learn about and
appreciate diversity


Seek assistance from EC teachers!

Exceptionalities
---


Gifted Children


Characteristics


1. verbal skills


2. abstractions


3. power of concentration


4. intellect


5. behavior

Exceptionalities
---


Gifted Children
-

suggestions


Faster paced instruction for skills and
content based learning


More use of inquiry and independent
research


More advanced materials (higher level
reading)


Reorganization of content to explore issues
across curricular areas


Use the Multiple Intelligences approach to
reach the tremendous variety of learners!


Verbal linguistic


Logical mathematical


Visual spatial


Naturalist


Interpersonal


Intrapersonal


Bodily kinesthetic


Musical


Word Smart


Math Smart


Art Smart


Nature Smart


People Smart


Self Smart


Body Smart


Music Smart

Howard Gardner’s Theory of
Multiple Intelligences

Bodily Kinesthetic

Intrapersonal

Interpersonal

Naturalist

Musical

Visual Spatial

Logical Mathematical

Verbal Linguistic

Intelligences

Verbal Linguistic

Logical Mathematical

Musical

Naturalist

Bodily Kinesthetic

Intrapersonal

Interpersonal

Visual Spatial

Gardner’s model suggests that


Every child has capacities in each of the
intelligences


Most people can develop each of the
intelligences to an adequate level of
proficiency


The eight intelligences work together in
highly complex ways


There are many ways to be intelligent in
each category


Instruction should help children develop all
eight intelligences

Gender


General guidelines


Avoid stereotyping masculine and feminine
roles


Use gender free language when possible


Use classroom materials which present an
honest view of males and females


Balance the contributions of men



and women in social studies




instruction

Social Class


Strong relationship between socioeconomic status
(SES) and school performance


Some explanations for lower achievement of lower
SES groups


Health, resources, family stress, discrimination


Low expectations/low self
-
esteem


Learned helplessness


Resistance cultures


Tracking


Groups to think about: Homeless, migrants, children
in poverty


The majority of children in the
South’s schools (54%) are POOR!


49% of children in NC are low income


This is a great challenge because low
income students as a group begin
school less ready, are the most likely to
drop out, perform at the lowest levels
on tests, and have the least access to
college.

Social Class

What can be done? One suggestion:


Eliminate tracking/ability grouping


(
Students should be grouped according to
the specific skills they need, and when
instruction is completed, the group should
be disbanded.)


Group children in various way, and
change the groups often.

Social Class


Key Points from

A Framework for Understanding
Poverty
by Ruby Payne

1.
Schools and businesses operate from middle class
norms and use the hidden rules of the middle
class.

2.
For students to be successful, we must
understand their hidden rules and teach them the
rules that will make them successful at school
and at work.

3.
We can neither excuse students nor scold them
for not knowing; as educators we must teach
them and provide support, insistence, and
expectations.






An interview with Ruby Payne
--




What are some common misperceptions educators may
have about children who come from a low
-
income
background, especially if they are not accustomed to
teaching low
-
income children?


Payne:

That the students from poverty are not intelligent
and that students engage in behaviors that make no
sense. To survive in poverty, you must be very non
-
verbal, reactive, and sensory
-
based. To survive in school
and work, you must be very verbal, very abstract, and
very proactive (you must plan.) Abstract means that you
can live in a representational world. For example, when a
check is written, the understanding is that it represents
money that is in the bank as opposed to cash, which is
actual money.



Interview with Ruby Payne
---


What are some strategies teachers can employ to help make
lessons more relevant and understandable for children of all
social classes?

Payne:
We recommend these interventions:


Build
relationships

of mutual respect with students.


Use
direct teach processes
. This means that you are very
specific in the steps and procedures needed to do something.
For example, a recipe has amounts of ingredients but will also
tell the steps or order that must be followed to make the item.
And in school, often the processes are not identified or written
down so they can be consistently followed.


Use
mental models.

Mental models help translate between the
sensory and the abstract worlds. Just as a blueprint translates
between the conversation about a house and the actual
finished house in the three dimensions, so a mental model
translates between abstract constructs and the sensory world.


Teach that there are
two sets of rules

--

one for school and
work, one for outside of school and work.



Eight home
-
based factors correlated with
student achievement and eight that don’t
matter


(data from late 1990s US Dept of Education Early
Childhood Longitudinal Study to measure the
academic progress of more than 20000 children from
grades K
-
5

subjects chosen from across the country
to represent an accurate cross section of American
school children.)




The child has highly educated parents.


The child’s family is intact.


The child’s parents have high socioeconomic
status.


The child’s parents recently moved into a
better neighborhood.


The child’s mother was thirty or older at the time
of her first child’s birth.


The child’s mother didn’t work between birth and
kindergarten.


The child had low birth weight.


The child attended Head Start.


The child’s parents speak English in the home.


The child’s parents regularly take him to
museums.


The child is adopted.


The child is regularly spanked.


The child’s parents are involved in the PTA.


The child frequently watches television.


The child has many books in his home.


The child’s parents read to him nearly every day.



Importance of “connectedness”


“Good teachers possess a capacity for
connectedness. They are able to weave a
complex web of connectedness among
themselves, their subjects, and their students
so that students can learn to weave a world
for themselves. The methods used by these
weavers vary widely: lectures, Socratic
dialogues, laboratory experiments,
collaborative problem solving, creative chaos.
The connections made by good teachers are
held not in their methods but in their
hearts

meaning heart in its ancient sense, as the
place where intellect and emotion and spirit
and will converge in the human self.”


From
The Courage To Teach

by
Parker J. Palmer