The New Nanofrontier

bouncerarcheryΤεχνίτη Νοημοσύνη και Ρομποτική

14 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

61 εμφανίσεις

The New Nanofrontier

Kristin Leutwyler


-

Presented by


Ananthanarayanan Venkatachalam


Overview


Thoughts of current generation


Nanotechnology’s threat to world


-
Bill Joy, co
-
founder of Sun Microsystems.


Foresight Institute


Reports to show its promise


Conclusion


Thoughts of current generation


“It is staggeringly a small world below”



-

Dr. Richard Feynman



“In the year 2000,when they look back at this age, they will
wonder why it was not until the year 1960, that any body
began to move seriously in this direction.”



Inspire greater wonder in 40 years!!



Concern about the pace at which the Nanotechnology



-

plenty of reports


Nanotechnology’s threat to the
world


Nanotechnology ,the end of human species


-

Bill Joy,
Wired





Nanotechnology
-

humans an endangered species




Ray Kurzweil




Rate of technological improvement





Near

term possibility that humans = robots.

Nanotechnology’s threat to the
world (cont’d)


The new Luddite challenge





Intelligent machines better than human beings.




High organized machines


no human effort




machines permitted


own decisions

Nanotechnology’s threat to the
world (cont’d)


The new Luddite challenge (cont’d)




Impossible to guess how such machines work.




Fate of human race = mercy of the machines




Human race “drifts” dependence on machines


Nanotechnology’s threat to the
world (cont’d)


The new Luddite challenge (cont’d)





Society and problems that face it





Machines


more and more intelligent




Machine


made decisions will bring better results


than man made ones.


Nanotechnology’s threat to the
world (cont’d)


The new Luddite challenge (cont’d)





Decisions necessary to keep the system running



complex.



human beings incapable of making them


intelligently.



Machines will have effective control over humans.



Turning off the machine = suicide
.





Nanotechnology’s threat to the
world (cont’d)


‘Nanotechnology introduces the risk that we
might destroy the biosphere’





Today’s solar cells could out

compete real plants.




Omnivorous ‘bacteria’ could out
-
compete real


bacteria
-

reduces biosphere to dust in days.




Dangerous replicators.



Nanotechnology’s threat to the
world (cont’d)


‘Nanotechnology introduces the risk that we
might destroy the biosphere’




Nanotechnology threat


“gray goo” problem,


Dr. Eric Drexler.





Goo
-

consists of legions of miniature assemblers.




The gray goo threat makes one thing perfectly
clear: cannot afford replicating assemblers

Foresight Institute’s guidelines



Foresight institute’s goal



Policy



Foresight efforts



-

Development of guidelines for R & D


Foresight Institute’s guidelines


Principles




Artificial replicators


capable of replication



Evolution within the context of self
-
replicating system


is discouraged



Replicated information should be error free



MNT device designs


proliferation



Provide traceability of any replicating systems


Foresight Institute’s guidelines


Principles (Cont’d)




Developers should consider systematically the
environmental consequences




Industry self
-
regulation should be designed in
whenever possible




Distribution of molecular manufacturing
development

capability should be restricted

Foresight Institute’s guidelines



Policy




Promoting understanding of nanotechnology and


its effects.



Informing the public and decision makers.



Organizational base for addressing nanotechnology


related issues.



actively pursuing beneficial outcomes of
nanotechnology
.

Reports to show its promises!!


Galen Stucky


University of California, Santa Barbara.



Glassy materials with nanoscale pores, cages and channels.



Harry Dorn


Virginia Tech Chemist



New breed of metal containing fullerenes




nanoscale building blocks
.

Reports to show its promises!!


Fullerenes




Before 1985


six pure crystalline forms of
carbon




In 1985, new form of carbon


buckyballs




60 or 70 carbons could cluster together




cage


like molecules


Reports to show its promises!!


Fullerenes




molecular structure


soccer ball or the geodesic


designs of Buckminster Fuller.




endohedral metallofullerenes replacement for


Silicon in IC’s




Doping carbon with metal or metal oxides




small quantities of buckyballs, encapsulates 1
-
4
metal atoms.

Reports to show its promises!!

Fullerenes


How do we make


them?

Reports to show its promises!!


Twirling motors




Cornell nanobiotechnology center


power virus sized
motors using ATP




Science


Carlo Montemagno


tested the first
bimolecular motors, marrying inorganic nickel propellers
to ATPase enzymes




“We have shown that hybrid nanodevices can be
assembled, maintained and repaired using the physiology
of life”

Reports to show its promises!!


Twirling motors (cont’d)


Nickel propellers measuring
750 nm long and 150 nm
wide



Propellers self assembled
with molecules of ATPase



Motor
-
propeller combination
is mounted on 200 nm high,
80 nm wide nickel posts

Reports to show its promises!!


Twirling motors (cont’d)




ATPase broke atomic bonds in the ATP molecules




cranked rotor
-
like protein inside ATPase




CCD


propellers spun at a rate of 8 rev/sec in some
cases continuing for 2.5 hours

Reports to show its promises!!


Twirling motors (cont’d)




400 assembled units


5 worked




Later batches


lost propellers others their test
pedestals




Friendlier to use among delicate organic molecules and
living cells

Reports to show its promises!!


Twirling motors (cont’d)




Remove harsh chemicals from final product




+ computational and sensing functions




Replace ATP with light energy to fuel the bimolecular
motors

Reports to show its promises!!


Microrobots



Jager


robotic arm,
bilayer of gold and
polypyrrole, particularly
stable conjucated polymer



670 micrometers long, an
elbow, wrist and hand, with
2


4 fingers



electrochemical oxidation
and reduction


pick 100
micrometer glass bead

Reports to show its promises!!


Dancing tin nanomotors




Tin dancing on copper




Camphor particles shimmy across the surface of
water




finding ways to harness and choreograph the tin
crystals’ movements


nanoshapes

Reports to show its promises!!


Dancing tin nanomotors (cont’d)




Schmid’s team


tin and copper morph into bronze




STM to obtain topographical map of the material’s
surface




LEEM to watch the movements of tin on that surface

Reports to show its promises!!


Dancing tin nanomotors (cont’d)




Tin deposited on copper


two dimensional crystalline
islands




Surf over copper’s surface, tin


copper



islands


bronze crystals, eject the copper atoms




bronze clumps cover the surface and tin islands
dissolve

Reports to show its promises!!


Dancing tin nanomotors (cont’d)




naturally
-

occuring motor is very efficient




car


0.1 hp/kg of its weight whereas tin


0.3 hp/kg




“the challenge is to devise nanomotors whose motion
can be controlled externally and can be refueled

Conclusion

References


www.sciam.com/explorations/2000


www.foresight.org


www.globalideasbank.org


www.chemistry.vt.edu/chem
-
dept/dorn/buckyballs