Robots in Autism

bouncerarcheryΤεχνίτη Νοημοσύνη και Ρομποτική

14 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

70 εμφανίσεις

Robots in Autism

A sampling of

Approaches and Anecdotes


4 Dec 2008

Outline


Who’s who, and their robots


Observed Behaviors


Proto
-
therapies


Key assumptions


Trends

Who’s who


First apparent use:


Using LOGO to catalyse
communication in an autistic child.
1976.
S. Weir and R. Emmanuel,

Technical report
DAI Research Report No. 15, University of Edinburgh,



Common origins:


Rod Brooks’s
lab at MIT,1998
-
99

nexus


Dautenhahn, Scassellati, Kozima

Who’s who:

common roots
---

Rod Brooks


Kerstin Dautenhahn


U. Hertfordshire, UK


Francois Michaud


U. de Sherbrooke, Canada


Brian Scassellati


Yale, USA


Hideki Kozima


Japan


Maja Mataric


USC, USA


Who’s who, and their robots:

Dautenhahn


Kaspar

Who’s who, and their robots:

Dautenhahn, Billard


Robota

Who’s who, and their robots:

Dautenhahn


Non
-
humanoids

Who’s who and their robots:

Dautenhahn & Robins


Humans

Who’s who and their robots:

Michaud


Who’s who and their robots:

Kozima


Who’s who and their robots:

Kozima


Who’s who and their robots:

Kozima



My motivation [is] to understand
human communication, and the
developmental process behind
language, so that I can recreate
that model in machines.


Autism is a disability in verbal
and nonverbal communication
skills. By understanding autism,
we can gain knowledge of the
normal cognitive processes
behind communication.



Who’s who, and their robots:

Mataric


http://cres.usc.edu/pubdb_html/files_upload/549.pdf

What behaviors are seen:

AURORA


Triadic interactions

What behaviors are seen:

AURORA


Turn
-
taking (or lack thereof)


Exclusive dyadic interactions

What behaviors are seen:

AURORA


Imitation

What behaviors are seen:

AURORA


Reaching out

What behaviors are seen:

Kozima



Autistic children will generally
be
scared

of Keepon at first, but
they are also very curious. After
several months they will
understand that Keepon will not
harm them, and then we will see
them start to
voluntarily touch

and
make eye
-
contact

with it.


almost all autistic children come
to enjoy their interactions with
Keepon. ... Why? I think it

s
because Keepon is simple.


What behaviors are seen:

Kozima (typical children)


[http://mainline.brynmawr.edu/DevRob05/schedule/papers/kozima.pdf]

What behaviors are seen:

Kozima
(1.5yr study, two 2
-
4 year
-
old children)



Keepon's simple appearance
and predictable responses gave
the autistic children a playful and
relaxed mood




[Spontaneous engagement] in
dyadic

play with Keepon




[Expansion into] interpersonal
communication where Keepon
worked as the
pivot of triadic
play

with adults or other
children.



http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=1513802

What behaviors are seen:

Mataric


The robot in an experimental setting. The
bubble
-

blowing robot

(left) is known to be
less intimidating

than a humanoid

robot (right).

http://cres.usc.edu/pubdb_html/files_upload/589.pdf

What behaviors are seen:

Mataric


A child interacting with a


robot that responds to the
child

s behavior


will
exhibit more social behavior
than when interacting with a
[robot that responds
randomly]

http://cres.usc.edu/pubdb_html/files_upload/589.pdf

What behaviors are seen:

Mataric

Dark: contingent robot

Light: random robot

Total

speech

Robot

speech

Parent

speech

Total

Robot

Inter
-

action

Push

button

Re
-

sponse

to

robot

Di
-

rected

Inter
-

action

http://cres.usc.edu/pubdb_html/files_upload/589.pdf

What (proto) Therapies:

AURORA


Imitation

What (proto) Therapies:

AURORA


Robot as mediator for social
interaction

What (proto) Therapies:

AURORA


Shared attention

What (proto) Therapies:

AURORA


Mutual gaze

What (proto) Therapies

Dautenhahn & Francois


Play


Dyadic: child
-
robot
--

progressively better balanced
interaction


Triadic: child
-
robot
-
experimenter


Therapies:


robot
-
assisted play


automatic recognition of human
-
robot interaction styles in real time


adaptive robot responsive to
different styles

What (proto) therapies:

Kozima



If Keepon can become a
trigger

for autistic children to
experience social interaction,
then it might support their
social
development
. If a robot can
become a catalyst between the
child

s natural growth and desire
to interact, and the power of [or
a tool for]
people supporting
the child

(such as parents and
therapists), that would be great.


Key assumptions


Robots are predictable


Robots are simple … “not toys
nor a human”
--

Kozima
[http://mainline.brynmawr.edu/DevRob05/schedule/papers/kozima.pdf]


Robots engage and hold interest
for children w/ ASD


Robot autonomy and adaptation
is useful


Therapist
-
mediated activity is
useful


Children w/ ASD can play w/
robots

Trends


Use robots that are much
simpler than humans


Support basic contingency
-
based
autonomy OR


Wizard of Oz
-
based contingent
behavior


Children need to acclimate


Dyadic interaction facilitates
triadic interaction