Robotics - Users.on.net

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14 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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LEARNING OBJECTIVES


1.
Explain what the word robot means and its origins


2.
Discuss some of the current uses of robots in society


3.
Explain some of the key problems involved in designing and
building humanoid robots


4. Understand Asmov’s laws of robotics and discuss the issue they
raise for the future development of intelligent robot agents

Humans have long dreamed
about creating mechanical
slaves that effortlessly carry
out our daily tasks.


Imagine being able to tell a
robot to mow the lawn, or paint
the fence, or entertain you, or
drive you somewhere, or even
teach you about something.


Will this be a reality?

"A reprogrammable, multifunctional
manipulator designed to move
material, parts, tools, or specialized
devices through various
programmed motions for the
performance of a variety of tasks"

Robot Institute of America, 1979



A dictionary definition:

An automatic device that performs
functions normally ascribed to
humans
or

a machine in the form of
a human

The word 'robotics'
refers to the study and
use of robots
. The term was used by the
Russian
-
born American scientist and writer
Isaac Asimov.

What is the definition of a 'robot'?

According to Savage (1999, p. 127) a robot is a device
that is
re
-
programmable

and
multi
-
functional
.

To be a robot a device
must also have some degree of
autonomy

(the ability to carry on tasks self
-
sufficiently).

Therefore, a dishwasher which carries out a
single task

cannot be classified as a robot. Similarly, a remote controlled
vehicle has
no autonomy

so it also cannot be classed as a
robot.

Could the following be classed as robots?

TV remote control


A security system

Traffic lights




Alarm clock




NO: BECAUSE THEY ALL CARRY
OUT A SINGLE FUNCTION

The word ‘robot’ was created by Karel Capek, a Czech
play writer.

The word meant
forced labour or serf
. The use of
the word Robot was introduced into Karel Capek’s play
R.U.R.

(Rossum's Universal Robots) which opened in
Prague in January 1921.


HISTORY OF ROBOTICS

You may find it interesting to note that
the robots Karel Capek wrote about
were not mechanical in nature but were
created through chemical means. In an
essay written in 1935, Capek strongly
argued that this idea was very possible.


Industrial robots (which can be re
-
programmed)
are used extensively in factories to weld, paint,
lift and transport goods in place of humans. The
car manufacturing industry is a good example.
Robots weld and fit car components to new
vehicles.

Large organisations and companies reap many
benefits from robotic technologies because:

Robots are less expensive than paying human
workers over the long run and robots are not
prone to injure themselves.

CURRENT ROBOTIC TECHNOLGIES

However, we cannot yet state that industrial robots have any
intelligence. They just carry out repetitive mechanical actions in
place of humans

Robots are used internationally
by Police, Army, Navy and Air
force
organisations
. Robotic
technology is used to deal with
hazardous situations such as
dealing with suspicious
packages, riots and for the
collection of foreign intelligence.

CURRENT ROBOTIC TECHNOLGIES

NASA scientists use robotic
technologies (Mars Explorer)
to explore other planets.

Robots are currently used for situations where
human safety is an issue.



EMULATING HUMAN ATTRIBUTES

Scientists must overcome some persistent barriers if
they are to create competent humanoid robots.



Speech synthesis: the ability to get a robotic device to
communicate using language.


Voice recognition: the ability to get a robot to understand us.
Two seconds of speech may contain as much as 100 000 bits of
data so it is extremely challenging to create computers powerful
enough to process this amount of data.


Vision: the ability to get a robot to react as humans do to the
physical environment using sophisticated vision systems.


Movement: the ability to get a robot to move around in the
physical environment as humans can.

EMULATING HUMAN ATTRIBUTES: SPEECH SYNTHESIS

Speech

synthesis

is

the

artificial

production

of

sounds

resembling

human

speech
.



It

will

end

our

dependence

on

monitors

and

allow

computers

to

speak

to

us
.



At

present

speech

synthesis

is

being

used

to

assist

people

who

are

speech
-
impaired
.

Words

can

be

typed

into

a

computer

system

and

then

the

computer

can

be

instructed

to

say

these

words
.

Blind

people

can

use

a

special

computer

that

can

recognise

letters

in

a

book,

then

read

the

book

aloud
.

However,

more

research

and

development

is

required

to

construct

pleasant,

human
-
sounding

voices
.



Speech synthesis

EMULATING HUMAN ATTRIBUTES: VOICE RECOGNITION

Computers are able to listen, as demonstrated by Isolated Word
Recognition (IWR). With IWR each word is surrounded by a silence
gap so that word boundaries can be understood. Speakers train the
system by recording words and sentences. IWR with a 1000 word
vocabulary and 95 to 100% accuracy, running on personal computers
is not uncommon.


Interpreting continuous speech is considerably more difficult because
continuous speech is not the same as a string of isolated words.
Boundaries between words are not easily defined. Each person’s voice
is different. Background noise causes great difficulties.


Humans, when interpreting speech, are able to fill in the blanks, read
body language, eliminate background noise and appreciate the
context.

Interpretation of continuous speech requires the use of an
immense
knowledge base

and
immense comparison operations
.



Alternatives to von Neumann architecture are needed to provide the
required computer processing power.

EMULATING HUMAN ATTRIBUTES: HUMAN VISION

NEGATIVES:

Humans cannot see outside the visible spectrum below infra red or
beyond ultra violet. We cannot see forms of radiation, X
-
rays or
microwaves. We need microscopes and telescopes to increase
our visual ability.

Humans need sunglasses to protect our vision during the bright
daylight and artificial light to see in the dark.


POSITIVES:

Humans can distinguish and identify different objects around us
in the physical world in just a fraction of a second.

EMULATING HUMAN ATTRIBUTES: VISION SYSTEMS

Scientific research into vision systems has
focused on three main areas:



Image input:

Television based sensors which can distinguish between
visible or non
-
visible light break an image into rows and columns using
numbers. Each pixel element can be described. Numbers are used to define
an image’s brightness, contrast, colour, texture etc. Digital cameras are one
example of an input technology.
Computers are able to read, as
demonstrated by the use of scanners with optical character recognition
.




Image manipulations:

Correcting brightness, contrast,
gamma levels, noise reduction, colour, zooming, enhancing, rotating,
etc. This area is progressing very rapidly.



Image recognition:
Converting an image’s content into

knowledge about the world
.
A computer is able to store an image of a
scene but has difficulty interpreting the image.
This is an extremely
challenging area for artificial intelligence researchers.

Understanding the
meaning of the letters and words is a natural language processing problem
.


EMULATING HUMAN ATTRIBUTES: VISION SYSTEMS

The major problems which exist for vision systems
and i
mage recognition

are:


Interpreting what an image means using pattern
recognition technologies. The vision system must
recognise

what the pattern formed by the image is.


Determining the distance of an object (its proximity)
in the environment. Cameras fitted with stereo
technology have been used successfully to work out
distance and depth.

EMULATING HUMAN ATTRIBUTES: MOVEMENT

The major difficulty creating robots which can walk has been making
them stable and able to move in a variety of directions (motion
planning).
Various terrains require different types of mobility.

Humans have many degrees of freedom with movement.

To understand ‘degrees of freedom’ place your arm straight up in the
air and point your index finger at the roof.

DO NOT BEND YOUR ELBOW.

In how many directions can you move your arm?


This gives you ‘3 degrees of freedom’


pitch, yaw and roll.


Degrees of freedom define the number of independent
motions a robot can make

1.
You can move up and down


this is known as ‘pitch’.

2.
You can move right to left


this is known as ‘yaw’.

3.
You can roll your arm in a circular motion


this is known as ‘roll’.

Laws 1
-
3 were published in I, Robot, 1950

Law 0 was added by Asimov later.


1.

A robot may not injure a human being or, through
inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.

2. A robot must obey the orders given to it by human
beings, except where such orders would conflict with
the First Law.

3. A robot must protect its own existence as long as such
protection does not conflict with the First or Second
Laws.

0.

A robot may not injure humanity or, through inaction,
allow humanity to come to harm.


Asimov's Laws of Robotics

In your opinion will our society need to create special
laws governing robotic technologies?

The following sections
of this presentation
involve watching
several small movie
clips and visiting web
sites so the use of
headphones is advised.

EMULATING HUMAN ATTRIBUTES: MOVEMENT

FUJITSU recently unveiled HOAP
-
2, a new humanoid
robot with movement abilities similar to humans.

Review HOAP
-
2 movies.

HOAP
-
2 navigating stairs

HOAP
-
2 navigating a curve

HOAP
-
2 navigating a slope

ASIMO is another humanoid robot created by HONDA
Click here to review a brochure about ASIMO.

Click here to go to the ASIMO educational web site

Robotics in the home

Take a look at
Robosapien

Review
media coverage.


ROBOTICS

What makes Robosapien
special?

Is Robosapien actually
useful?

Is Robosapien as intelligent
as they claim?

Kismet

is a socially intelligent
robot created by MIT’s Humanoid
Robotics Group.

Their aim is to create humanoid
robots that rely on humans for
knowledge, functioning and social
interaction. Why is this important?

Go to the kismet site to read about
Kismet’s speech & vision
systems.

Hardware Movie

Emotions

Affective Intent

Expression Examples

HISTORY OF ROBOTICS

If you have time
-

go to the following site and find out
more about the history of robots.



http://www.thetech.org/exhibits/onlin
e/robotics/universal/




Artificial Intelligence
-

MIT

KISMET

http://www.ai.mit.edu/projects/humanoid
-
robotics
-
group/kismet/

Kismet movies


downloaded from

http://www.ai.mit.edu/projects/sociable/videos.html

More about kismet

http://www.inel.gov/adaptiverobotics/humanoidrobotics/anthropopathic.shtml

HOAP
-
2

http://www.automation.fujitsu.com/en/products/products09.html

ASIMO

http://asimo.honda.com/inside_asimo.asp


Speech recognition

http://www.dalmed.u
-
net.com/home7.html


Robotics & AI

http://library.thinkquest.org/18242/robotics.shtml


Links

THE END