Probabilistic Control of Human Robot Interaction:

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14 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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Probabilistic Control of Human Robot Interaction:


Experiments with a Robotic Assistant for Nursing Homes

Joelle Pineau

Michael Montemerlo

Martha Pollack
*

Nicholas Roy

Sebastian Thrun


Carnegie Mellon University

*
University of Michigan

Joelle Pineau

The Nursebot Project






Introducing Pearl



A mobile robotic assistant for elderly people and nurses

cameras

sonars

handle bars

mobile base

carrying tray

LCD mouth

touchscreen

microphone

& speakers

laser


ROLE:

















Moving things

around

Management

support of ADLs

Providing

physical assistance

Remote

health services

Supporting

communication

Calling for help

in emergencies

Monitoring Rx

adherence & safety

Providing info

(TV, weather)

Reminding to eat,

drink, take meds

Linking caregiver

and resources

Joelle Pineau

The Nursebot Project

The Nursebot project in its early days

Joelle Pineau

The Nursebot Project

Architecture



Cognitive support

Navigation

Communication

High
-
level controller

Joelle Pineau

The Nursebot Project



Localization and map building




(Burgard et al., 1999)




People detection and tracking




(Montemerlo et al., 2002)

Architecture



Cognitive support

Navigation

Communication

High
-
level controller

Joelle Pineau

The Nursebot Project



Autominder

system


(Pollack et al., 2002)

Architecture



Cognitive support

Navigation

Communication

High
-
level controller

Joelle Pineau

The Nursebot Project



Speech recognition:
Sphinx

system





(Ravishankar, 1996)




Speech synthesis:
Festival
system





(Black et al., 1999)

Architecture



Cognitive support

Navigation

Communication

High
-
level controller

Joelle Pineau

The Nursebot Project

The role of the top
-
level controller



















Établir les priorités parmi les objectifs des différents modules


Négocier entre plusieurs objectifs ayant des coûts/gains variés


Négocier entre l’acquisition d’information et la rencontre des objectifs


Passer d’une tâche à l’autre en partageant l’information sensorielle


Planifier malgré la présence d’incertitude





Cognitive support

Navigation

Communication

ACTION SELECTION

-

based on the trade
-
off between:

-

goals from different modules;

-

goals with varying costs / rewards;

-

reducing uncertainty versus accomplishing goals.

High
-
level controller

Joelle Pineau

The Nursebot Project

Speech recognition with
Sphinx


Joelle Pineau

The Nursebot Project

Robot control under uncertainty

Belief State

P(s
t
=
weather
-
today
)=0.5

P(s
t
=
appointment
-
today

)=0.5

USER

Action={

say
-
weather,


update
-
appointment,


clarify
-
query}

Speech=“today”

State

weather
-
today

Joelle Pineau

The Nursebot Project

Robot control using
Partially Observable Markov


Decision Processes

(POMDPs)


Belief state




USER + ENVIRONMENT + WORLD

Actions

Observations

Costs / Rewards

State


Problem
:
Which action allows the robot to maximize its reward?

P(s
1
)

P(s
2
)

Joelle Pineau

The Nursebot Project

Methods to solve POMDPs

Objective: Find a policy,

(b)
,

which maximizes reward.




Complexity

Performance

QMDP

MDP

FIB

UMDP

AMDP

O
(S
2
A)

O
(S
2
A
T
)

O
(S
2
A
O
)

O
(
S
2
AO)

O
(S
2
AB)

T

POMDP

New methods?

Joelle Pineau

The Nursebot Project

New approach: A hierarchy of POMDPs


Idea
: Exploit domain knowledge to divide one POMDP into many smaller ones.


Motivation
: Complexit
y of

POMDP solving grows exponentially with # of actions.


Assumption
: We are given POMDP
M = {S,A,

Ɫⱔⱏⱒ
}

and hierarchy
H


Act

ExamineHealth

Navigate

Move

VerifyPulse

ClarifyGoal

North

South

East

West

VerifyMeds

subtask

abstract action

primitive action

Joelle Pineau

The Nursebot Project

PolCA
: Planning with a hierarchy of POMDPs

Step 1: Select the action set



Navigate

Move

ClarifyGoal

South

East

West

North

A
Move
= {N,S,E,W}




ACTIONS

North

South

East

West

ClarifyGoal

VerifyPulse

VerifyMeds

Joelle Pineau

The Nursebot Project

PolCA
: Planning with a hierarchy of POMDPs

Step 1: Select the action set


Step 2: Minimize the state set



STATE FEATURES

X
-
position

Y
-
position

X
-
goal

Y
-
goal

HealthStatus

Navigate

Move

ClarifyGoal

South

East

West

North

A
Move
= {N,S,E,W}



S
Move
= {X,Y}

ACTIONS

North

South

East

West

ClarifyGoal

VerifyPulse

VerifyMeds

Joelle Pineau

The Nursebot Project

PolCA
: Planning with a hierarchy of POMDPs

Step 1: Select the action set


Step 2: Minimize the state set


Step 3: Choose parameters



STATE FEATURES

X
-
position

Y
-
position

X
-
goal

Y
-
goal

HealthStatus

Navigate

Move

ClarifyGoal

South

East

West

North

A
Move
= {N,S,E,W}



S
Move
= {X,Y}

ACTIONS

North

South

East

West

ClarifyGoal

VerifyPulse

VerifyMeds

PARAMETERS


{b
h
,T
h
,O
h
,R
h
}


Joelle Pineau

The Nursebot Project

PolCA
: Planning with a hierarchy of POMDPs

Step 1: Select the action set


Step 2: Minimize the state set


Step 3: Choose parameters


Step 4: Plan task
h



STATE FEATURES

X
-
position

Y
-
position

X
-
goal

Y
-
goal

HealthStatus

Navigate

Move

ClarifyGoal

South

East

West

North

A
Move
= {N,S,E,W}



S
Move
= {X,Y}

ACTIONS

North

South

East

West

ClarifyGoal

VerifyPulse

VerifyMeds

PLAN


h

PARAMETERS


{b
h
,T
h
,O
h
,R
h
}


Joelle Pineau

The Nursebot Project

PolCA in the Nursebot domain


Goal
: A robot is deployed in a nursing home, where it provides
reminders to elderly users and accompanies them to
appointments.


Domain
: |S|=512, |A|=20, |O|=19



Hierarchy:











Joelle Pineau

The Nursebot Project

Sample scenario

Joelle Pineau

The Nursebot Project

Results for dialogue system

0.1

0.1

0.18


POMDP policy


MDP policy


Joelle Pineau

The Nursebot Project

Summary


We have developed a first prototype robot able to serve as a
mobile nursing assistant for elderly people.



The top
-
level controller uses a hierarchical variant of POMDPs
to select actions.



This allows it to acquire necessary information and successfully
complete assigned tasks.



Probabilistic techniques have been found to be very useful to
flexibly model and track individuals.

Joelle Pineau

The Nursebot Project

For more details: www.cs.cmu.edu/~nursebot

The Nursebot team

CMU
-

Robotics
:

Greg Armstrong

Michael Montemerlo

Joelle Pineau

Nicholas Roy

Jamie Schulte

Sebastian Thrun


CMU
-

HCI/Design
:

Francine Gemperle

Jennifer Goetz

Sarah Kiesler

Aaron Powers


U. of Pittsburgh
-

Nursing
:

Jacqueline Dunbar
-
Jacobs

Sandra Engberg

Judith Matthews


U. of Pittsburgh
-

CS
:

Don Chiarulli

Colleen McCarthy


U. of Freiburg
-

CS
:

Maren Bennewitz

Wolfram Burgard

Dirk Schulz

U. of Michigan
-

CS
:

Laura Brown

Dirk Colbry

Cheryl Orosz

Bart Peintner

Martha Pollack

Sailesh Ramakrishnan


Standard Robotics
:

Greg Baltus