Methodologies in HRI - LASA - EPFL

bouncerarcheryΤεχνίτη Νοημοσύνη και Ρομποτική

14 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

81 εμφανίσεις

http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007


Doctoral School


Robotics Program

Autonomous Robots Class

Spring 2007


Human
-
Robot Interaction

Methodologies in HRI


Aude G Billard


Learning Algorithms and Systems Laboratory
-

LASA

EPFL, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

Lausanne, Switzerland


aude.billard@epfl.ch


http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007

Overview of the Class

1.
Interfaces and interaction modalities (~45 min)


2.
User
-
centered design of social robots (~45 min) +
Contest (~15 min)



3.
Social learning and skill acquisition via teaching and
imitation (~1.15 min)


4.
Robots in education, therapy and rehabilitation (~45 min)


5.
Evaluation methods and methodologies for

HRI research
(~30 min)


6.
Ethical issues in human
-
robot interaction research (~15
min) + DISCUSSION (~30 min)


http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007

HRI is a new field (about 15 years)


Most studies cannot yet be reproduced
(too different hardware)

Methodologies in HRI

http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007


Like

in

Psychology,

it

is

difficult

to

agree

on

a

methodology

on

how

to

carry

out

research
.


Should

one



apply

quantitative,

statistical

methods

requiring

large
-
scale

experiments
,

i
.
e
.

involving

large

sample

sizes

of

participants,




or

pursue

a

qualitative

approach

focusing

on

case

studies

and

in
-
depth

analysis
.


Methodologies in HRI

http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007

Wizard

of

Oz


The

WOZ

method

involves

a

human

who

is

(unknown

to

the

test

subjects)

controlling

the

behaviour

of

the

system,

ranging

from

full

teleoperation

to

partial

control

of

‘higher

level’

decision

making

processes
.

Methodologies in HRI

In

(Dahlback

et

al

93
)

a

Wizard
-
of
-
Oz

study

was

first

conducted

to

explore

how

people

would

relate

to

a

service

robot,

while

the

design

of

the

robot’s

dialogue

capabilities

was

still

ongoing
.



A

general

conclusion

from

the

study

was

that

users

need

explicit

feedback

at

several

levels

to

understand

the

state

of

the

robot
;

in

particular,

to

what

degree

it

has

perceived

the

instructions

given,

and

where

it

is

headed

when

moving

around
.


N
.

Dahlbäck,

A
.

Jönsson

and

L
.

Ahrenberg

,

Wizard

of

Oz

studies

why

and

how
.

Knowledge
-
based

Systems

6

4

(
1993
),

pp
.

256

258
.


http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007


The

Theatrical

Robot

consists

of

a

human

instructed

to

behave

and/or

appear

like

a

robot
.




The

human

is

a

professional

such

as

a

mime

or

person

trained

to

perform

pre
-
scripted

behaviours
,

as

needed

for

experimental

protocols,

reliably

and

with

high

precision
.

Robins,

B
.
,

Dautenhahn,

K
.

&

Dubowski,

J
.

(
2006
),

Does

appearance

matter

in

the

interaction

of

children

with

autism

with

a

humanoid

robot?,

Interaction

Studies

7
(
3
),

509

542

In

Robins

et

al

2006
),

the

mime/theatrical

robot

mimicks

the

behavior

of

the

doll

robot,

Robota,

to

test

children

with

autism’s

reaction

prior

to

conducting

the

experiments


Methodologies in HRI

The

response

of

children

with

autism

towards

the

plain/robotic

theatrical

robot

was

notably

more

social

and

pro
-
active
.

The

ordinary
-
human

appearance

resulted

in

avoidance

behaviour

or

‘aloofness
’,

a

typical

behaviour

that

autistic

children

show

towards

strangers
.

http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007

Sketch of a typical development time line of HRI robots.



In

an

initial

phase

of

planning

and

specification
,

mock
-
up

models

might

be

used

before

hardware

and

software

development

commences
.





Once

a

system’s

main

components

have

been

implemented,

a

WoZ

study

is

applicable,

and/or

video

based

methods

can

be

applied
.





As

soon

as

working

prototypes

exist

that

also

conform

with

safety

requirements,

interaction

studies

can

be

conducted
.





The

Theatrical

Robot

paradigm

allows

one

to

conduct

interaction

studies

even

from

the

early

phase

of

planning

and

specification

onwards

throughout

the

whole

development

of

the

robot
.

K
.

Dautenhahn,

Methodology

&

Themes

of

Human
-
Robot

Interaction
:

A

Growing

Research

Field,

International

Journal

of

Advanced

Robotic

Systems,

Vol
.

4
,

No
.

1

(
2007
),

pp
.

103
-
108
.

Methodologies in HRI

http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007

From the standpoint of human
-
robot interaction, how do we
measure success?

BENCHMARKS FOR HRI


Kahn,

P
.

H
.
,

Jr
.
,

Ishiguro,

H
.
,

Friedman,

B
.
,

&

T
.

Kanda


(
2006
)
.


What

is

a

human?

-

Toward

psychological

benchmarks

in

the

field

of

human
-
robot

interaction
.

Proceedings

of

the

15
th

International

Symposium

on

Robot

and

Human

Interactive

Communication

(RO
-
MAN

'
06
)
.

Hatfield,

UK
:


Develop
psychological benchmarks




Kahn

et

al

2006

have

offered

nine

contenders
:

autonomy,

imitation,

intrinsic

moral

value,

moral

accountability,

privacy,

reciprocity,

conventionality,

creativity,

and

authenticity

of

relation
.





But,

one

may

also

consider

benchmarks

for

emotion,

attachment,

cognition,

and

memory
.





One

could

also

try

to

establish

benchmarks

on

the

level

of

group

interaction
,

as

opposed

to

individual

human
-
robot

interaction
.


Methodologies in HRI

http://lasa.epfl.ch

A.G. Billard, Autonomous Robots Class Spring 2007

Robots are not people!


It is a misconception that results from human
-
human
interactions can be directly applied to human
-
robot interaction.


Methodologies in HRI

K
.

Dautenhahn,

Methodology

&

Themes

of

Human
-
Robot

Interaction
:

A

Growing

Research

Field,

International

Journal

of

Advanced

Robotic

Systems,

Vol
.

4
,

No
.

1

(
2007
),

pp
.

103
-
108
.

Even if it has been shown that people behave towards artifacts,
i.e. computers, in many ways socially, e.g. attribute personality
to them, reciprocate favours etc.,…




as

long

as

robots

and

humans

are

distinguishable,

and

this

will

still

be

the

case

for

many

years

to

come,

people

are

likely

to

not

treat

them

identically

to

human

beings
.